20 Works

ORCHIDEE-LEAK revision 5919

Ronny Lauerwald
Exports of terrestrial carbon (C) through the river network of the Amazon basin are non-negligible for its C budget, but have to date been ignored in land surface models used for future projections. Here, we utilize a new land surface model that simulates the coupled evolution of the terrestrial C balance and river C fluxes from 1860 to 2100. The terrestrial net-uptake of atmospheric CO2, the terrestrial C storage, but also the leakage of terrestrial...

ORCHIDEE_CN_CAN revision 5698

Sebastiaan Luyssaert
The search for a long-term benchmark for land-surface models (LSM) has brought tree-ring data to the attention of the land-surface community because they recorded growth well before human-induced environmental changes became important. The most comprehensive archive of publicly shared tree-ring data is the International Tree-ring Data Bank (ITRDB). Records in the ITRDB have, however, been collected almost exclusively to reconstruct past climate and hydrological variability, which may limit its use as a data source for...


Daniel S. GOLL
This version of ORCHIDEE has been used in publication : "Low phosphorus availability decreases susceptibility of tropical primary productivity to droughts" by Daniel S. GOLL, Emilie JOETZJER, Mengtian HUANG, and Philippe CIAIS in Geophysical Research Letters as manuscript 2018GL077736

ORCHIDEE-MUSLE revision 6129

Global water erosion strongly affect the terrestrial carbon (C) balance. However, this process is currently ignored by most global land surface models (LSMs) that are used to project the responses of terrestrial C storage to climate and land use changes. One of the main obstacles of implementing erosion process in LSMs is the high spatial resolution needed to accurately represent the effect of topography on soil erosion and sediment delivery to rivers. In this study,...


Aerosol and cloud-induced changes in diffuse light have important impacts on the global land carbon cycle by changing light distribution and photosynthesis in vegetation canopies. However, this effect remains poorly represented in current land surface models. Here we add a light partitioning module and a new canopy light transmission module to the ORCHIDEE land surface model (trunk version, v5453) and use the revised model, ORCHIDEE_DF, to estimate the fraction of diffuse light and its effect...

The CHIMERE chemistry-transport model v2020

Laurent Menut & Laurent Menut
CHIMERE is an open source multi-scale chemistry-transport model designed to produce (i) accurate analysis of pollution episodes, (ii) daily forecasts of ozone, aerosols and other pollutants, (iii) long-term simulations (entire seasons or years) for emission control scenarios. CHIMERE runs over a range of spatial scale, from the hemispheric to the urban scale with resolutions from 1km to several degrees. CHIMERE has many different options for simulations which make it also a powerful research tool for...

ORCHIDEE-ROUTING: A new river routing scheme using a high resolution hydrological database

This study presents a revised river routing scheme (RRS) for the Organising Carbon and Hydrology in Dynamic Ecosystems (ORCHIDEE) land surface model. The revision is carried out to benefit from the high resolution topography provided the Hydrological data and maps based on SHuttle Elevation Derivatives at multiple Scales (HydroSHEDS), processed to a resolution of approximately 1 kilometer. The RRS scheme of the ORCHIDEE uses a unit-to-unit routing concept which allows to preserve as much of...

ORCHIDEE_CAN revision 2290

Sebastiaan Luyssaert
Since 70% of global forests are managed and forests impact the global carbon cycle and the energy exchange with the overlying atmosphere, forest management has the potential to mitigate climate change. Yet, none of the land-surface models used in Earth system models, and therefore none of today’s predictions of future climate, accounts for the interactions between climate and forest management. We addressed this gap in modelling capability by developing and parametrising a version of the...

ORCHIDEE_CAN revision 3069

Sebastiaan Luyssaert
The Paris Agreement contains the implicit assumption that enhancing the forest sector carbon sink through sustainable forest management and biomass usage will result in climate benefits. Here, we use simulation experiments to search for portfolios of sustainable forest management that, by the turn of the 21st-century, comply with the Paris Agreement, i.e., reduce the growth rate of atmospheric CO2, reduce the radiative imbalance at the top of the atmosphere, and neither increase the near-surface air...

A generic pixel-to-point comparison for simulated large-scale ecosystem properties and ground-based observations: an example from the Amazon region

Comparing model output and observed data is an important step for assessing model performance and quality of simulation results. However, such comparisons are often hampered by differences in spatial scales between local point observations and large-scale simulations of grid-cells or pixels. In this study, we propose a generic approach for a pixel-to-point comparison that accounts for the uncertainty resulting from landscape variability and measurement errors in ecosystem variables, and provide statistical measures. The basic concept...

The use of radiocarbon 14C to constrain carbon dynamics in the soil module of the land surface model ORCHIDEE (SVN r5165)

Bertrand Guenet
Despite the importance of soil as a large component of the terrestrial ecosystems, the soil compartments are not well represented in the Land Surface Models (LSMs). Indeed, soils in current LSMs are generally represented based on a very simplified schema that can induce a misrepresentation of the deep dynamics of soil carbon. Here, we present a new version of the Institut Pierre Simon Laplace (IPSL) Land Surface Model called ORCHIDEE-SOM (ORganizing Carbon and Hydrology in...

High-Tune Explorer software

Frédéric Hourdin, Fleur Couvreux & Laurent Fairhead
High-Tune Explorer is a suite of programs developed in the frame of the High-Tune project, supported by the ANR french research agency. The version of the codes associated with this DOI corresponds to the versions used in a 2-part paper published in Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems in 2020 : Process-based climate model development harnessing machine learning I) a calibration tool for parameterization improvement; II) model calibration from single column to global. The...

ORCHIDEE_MICT-LEAK revision 5459

Simon Bowring
Here, the production, transport and atmospheric release of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from high-latitude permafrost soils into inland waters and the ocean is explicitly represented for the first time in the land surface component (ORCHIDEE) of a CMIP6 global climate model (IPSL). The model presented here mechanistically represents vegetation and soil physical processes for (a) high latitude snow, ice and soil phenomena, and (b) DOC production and lateral transport and atmospheric evasion as CO2 through...


Nitrogen is an essential element controlling ecosystem carbon (C) productivity and its response to climate change and atmospheric [CO2] increase. This study presents the evaluation – focussing on gross primary production (GPP) – of a new version of the ORCHIDEE model that gathers the representation of the nitrogen cycle and of its interactions with the carbon cycle from the OCN model and the most recent developments from the ORCHIDEE trunk version. We quantify the model...

The Energy for CLimate Integrated Model

Alexis Tantet
e4clim is an open-source Python software developed to integrate multiscale flexibility needs associated with Variable Renewable Energy (VRE) in the development and evaluation of regional energy mix scenarios. The software is designed to provide a flexible and extensible tool to the research and engineering community, and for educational and outreach missions. It aims at (i) evaluating and optimizing energy deployment strategies with high shares of VRE; (ii) assessing the impact of new technologies and of...


ORCHIDEE is a process-based ecosystem model developed for simulating carbon, water and energy fluxes in ecosystems, from site level to global scale. ORCHIDEE-GM is a version specifically developed to integrate the management of grassland. The equations describing management in ORCHIDEE are derived from PaSim? model. Accounting for the management practices such as mowing, livestock grazing and fertilizer application on a daily basis, ORCHIDEE-GM proves capable of simulating the dynamics of leaf area index, biomass, and...


The importance of northern peatlands in the global carbon cycle has been recognized, especially for long-term changes. Yet, the complex interactions between climate and peatland hydrology, carbon storage and area dynamics make it challenging to represent these systems in land surface models. This study describes how peatland are included as an independent sub-grid hydrological soil unit (HSU) into the ORCHIDEE-MICT land surface model. The peatland soil column in this tile is characterized by multi-layered vertical...

APIFLAMEv2 biomass burning emissions model

Solène Turquety
The APIFLAMEv2 software allows the calculation of emissions of trace gases and aerosols from biomass burning. It is based on the fire detection and vegetation type observations by the MODIS Terra and Aqua satellites. For each fire and associated vegetation type, the consumed fuel is calculated and the corresponding emissions of trace gases and aerosols are derived using a list of emission factors.


Daniel S. Goll
Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) constraints on carbon (C) and energy exchanges between terrestrial biosphere and atmosphere are a major source of uncertainty regarding the drivers of the land C sink. In this study, we evaluated the performance of the global version of the land surface model ORCHIDEE-CNP (v1.2) which explicitly simulates N and P cycles on land, based on a compilation of data from remote-sensing, ground-based measurement networks and ecological databases. The sensitivity of...

CHIMERE v2017r4 directory associated to [Lachatre et al., 2020] publication

Mathieu Lachatre & Sylvain Mailler
CHIMERE CTM version used to test new strategies for vertical transport in chemistry-transport modelling.

Registration Year

  • 2020
  • 2019
  • 2018

Resource Types

  • Software


  • Centre national de la recherche scientifique
  • École Polytechnique