2,444 Works

Fingerprinting Marine Macrophytes in Blue Carbon Habitats

Alejandra Ortega
Seagrass, mangrove, saltmarshes and macroalgae - the coastal vegetated habitats, offer a promising nature-based solution to climate change mitigation, as they sequester carbon in their living biomass and in marine sediments. Estimation of the macrophyte organic carbon contribution to coastal sediments is key for understanding the sources of blue carbon sequestration, and for establishing adequate conservation strategies. Nevertheless,identification of marine macrophytes has been challenging and current estimations are uncertain. In this dissertation, time- and cost-efficient...

Predictive Micro- and Meso-Mechanics Damage Models for Continuous Fiber-Reinforced Thermoplastic Composites

Ditho Ardiansyah Pulungan
Environmental issues enforce transportation sectors to limit their carbon dioxide emissions in various ways. Automotive manufacturers attempt to reduce carbon dioxide emission by seeking various strategies, e.g., increasing aerodynamic efficiency, using more fuel-efficient engines, reducing friction and wear of transmission systems, and, most importantly, by using lightweight materials and structures. This dissertation is a contribution toward a lightweight design of structures by proposing numerical models suitable for damage prediction of thermoplastic composite materials. In this...

Carbon Dioxide Conversion to Value-Added Products using Microbial Electrosynthesis Cell

Manal Faisal AlQahtani
Microbial electrosynthesis (MES) is an emerging biotechnology platform for the conversion of CO2 feedstocks into value-added chemical commodities. In MES, microbial catalysts use the cathode (electrons/ H2) as a sole source of energy for the reduction of CO2. Integrating MES technology with renewable energy sources, such as solar power, to convert CO2 to storable chemicals is an example of a perfect circular economy and a sustainable climate change mitigation strategy. However, many knowledge gaps need...

A Study of Fairness and Information Heterogeneity in Recommendation Systems

Basmah Altaf
Recommender systems are an integral and successful application of machine learning in e-commerce industry and in everyday lives of online users. Recommendation algorithms are used extensively for news, musics, books, point of interests, or travel recommendation as well as in many other domains. Although much focus has been paid on improving recommendation quality, however, some real-world aspects are not considered: How to ensure that top-n recommendations are fair and not biased due to any popularity...

Antibody-Functionalized Nanowires for Active Targeting and Combination Therapy

Nouf Alsharif
The innovation of multifunctional efficient, and safer treatments is a major challenge in nanomedicine. For example, the combination of magneto-mechanical and the photothermal strategies into one single therapeutic stage is one of the promising developments in cancer treatment. Without specificity, however, these therapies would target and harm both cancer and healthy cells. Therefore, the goal of precision medicine is to focus on delivering therapies to specific cells and minimize the side effects on healthy. Therefore,...

Development of Graphene Oxide Based Membranes for Liquid Separations

Dinesh Mahalingam
Several attempts have been made to combine the unique characteristics of graphene oxide (GO) and commercial polymers for successfully designing and fabricating next-generation membranes in filtration and separation technologies. The first part of the work develops a high flux polyethersulfone ultrafiltration membranes, by embedding GO sheets, starting from the polymer/GO solutions in ionic liquid and N, N dimethylformamide as co-solvents and promoting the pore formation via non-solvent induced phase separation. In the second part of...

Study of puffing and micro-explosion during the evaporation of Arabian light oil droplets

Juan Restrepo-Cano
Although the suspended droplet evaporation and combustion have been studied for decades, fundamental research pertaining to the stochastic phenomena of complex multicomponent mixtures is extremely rare. In this work, an experimental suspended droplet study of Arabian light oil was held to study the frequency of puffing and micro-explosion phenomena during the evaporation/pyrolysis process. The experiments were conducted at three different evaporation temperatures (350 C, 440 C, and 570 C), chosen in accordance with the TGA...

Comparative Study of Memory Associated Genes and Lactate Mediated Neural Plasticity Genes

Amal A. Bajaffer
Memory is one of the highest cognitive functions that differentiates higher organisms from others because of its fundamental function to all learning and studying process. Recently, it was suggested that lactate works as a signaling molecule in neuronal plasticity system in long-term memory (LTM). These functions are reported only at mice so far, but it would be a universal phenomenon among various higher organisms. Because lactate is organic acid that is involved with energy production,...

Development of a Pipeline for Single Cell Microfluidics Screening of Metagenomic Library for Finding Novel Lipolytic Enzymes

Amani Alma'abadi
The demand for novel and robust microbial biocatalysts for industrial and pharmaceutical applications continue to grow at a fast pace.This warrants a continuous need for advanced tools and technologies to exploit the vast metabolic potential of microorganisms in different environments. Unlike culture-based studies that can only reveal the metabolic potential of cultivable microorganisms, functional metagenomics charts the enzymatic potential of the entire microbial communities in a given environment. This method has substantially contributed to the...

The Role of the FAT Domain in Controlling Localization and Activation of the Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK)

Rayan Mohammad Mahmoud Naser
Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) controls the assembly of focal adhesion sites and transduces signals from several membrane receptors. Controlled activation and localization of FAK functionally links cell adhesion, migration and survival. FAK is overexpressed in many cancer types, promoting tumor invasiveness and metastasis. The molecular mechanisms allowing FAK to fulfil numerous different functions and act as versatile ‘nanomachines’ are poorly understood. We have previously revealed that ligand-induced dimerization along with intramolecular interactions control FAK activation...

Volcanic Impacts on El Niño / Southern Oscillation

Evgeniya Predybaylo
El Niño / Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is arguably the most influential climate driver on Earth, so there is immense value for accurately forecasting it. The strong explosive volcanic eruptions provide a valuable opportunity to study the ENSO response to external forcing. Such volcanic eruptions can inject millions of tons of SO2 into the stratosphere, where they can convert into sulfate aerosols. For equatorial volcanoes, these aerosols can spread globally, scattering and absorbing incoming sunlight, and...

Genome assembly and annotation datasets of the plant growth promoting bacterium Cronobacter mutyjensii JZ38 isolated from the root endosphere of a pioneer desert plant in Jizan, Saudi Arabia

Abdul Aziz Eida, Salim Bougouffa, Intikhab Alam, Maged Saad & Heribert Hirt
The files associated with this dataset are the Genbank, GFF and protein coding-sequence (CDSs) files of a plant growth promoting bacteria isolated from the root endosphere of a pioneer desert plant in Jizan, Saudi Arabia. Genome annotation was carried out using the Automatic Annotation of Microbial Genomes (AAMG) which is an integrated module in the in-house INDIGO-Desert v1.1 pipeline (Alam et al., 2013).

High-resolution Reservoir Characterization Using Deep-learning Aided Elastic Full-waveform Inversion

Zhendong Zhang
Full-waveform inversion (FWI) based on an elastic approximation of the Earth's physical behavior is a powerful tool for high-resolution model building. The elastic wave equation based wavefield extrapolation relaxes some of the limitations we face using ray-based methods. Still, it also introduces more challenges to the inversion. The high computation cost is becoming more tolerable with the development of modern computers, while the cycle-skipping and crosstalk between different parameters are still hampering our efforts to...

Knowledge Graph Representation Learning: Approaches and Applications in Biomedicine

Mona AlShahrani
Bio-ontologies and Linked Data have become integral part of biological and biomedical knowledge bases with over 500 of them and millions of triples. Such knowledge bases are primarily developed for information retrieval, query processing, data integration, standardization, and provision. Developing machine learning methods which can exploit the background knowledge in such resources for predictive analysis and novel discovery in the biomedical domain has become essential. In this dissertation, we present novel approaches which utilize the...

Design of an Optimized Supervisor Module for Tomographic Adaptive Optics Systems of Extremely Large Telescopes

Nicolas Doucet
The recent advent of next generation ground-based telescopes, code-named Extremely Large Telescopes (ELT), highlights the beginning of a forced march toward an era of deploying instruments capable of exploiting starlight captured by mirrors at an unprecedented scale. This confronts the astronomy community with both a daunting challenge and a unique opportunity. The challenge arises from the mismatch between the complexity of current instruments and their expected scaling with the square of the future telescope diameters,...

Hierarchical and View-invariant Light Field Segmentation by Maximizing Entropy Rate on 4D Ray Graphs (Supplement)

Rui Li & Wolfgang Heidrich
The supplementary material for paper "Rui Li, Wolfgang Heidrich, Hierarchical and View-invariant Light Field Segmentation by Maximizing Entropy Rate on 4D Ray Graphs. In SIGGRAPH Asia, 2019"

Hybrid Local/Nonlocal Continuum Mechanics Modeling and Simulation for Material Failure

Yongwei Wang
The classical continuum mechanics, which studies the mechanical behavior of structures based on partial differential equations, shows its deficiencies when it encounters a discontinuity. Peridynamics based on integral equations can simulate fracture but suffers from high computational costs. A hybrid local/nonlocal model combining the advantages of peridynamics with those of classical continuum mechanics can simulate fracture and reduce the computational cost. Under the framework of the hybrid local/nonlocal model, this research developed an approach and...

Development of High-Mobility Low-Temperature Solution-Processed Metal-Oxide Thin Film Transistors Grown by Spray Pyrolysis

Fahad K. Alsalem
In today’s electronics, transistors are the main building blocks of the vast majority of electronic devices and integrated circuits. Types of transistors vary depending on the device structure and operation principle. Metal-oxide-based thin film transistors (MO TFTs), in particular, are an emerging technology that has a promising future in many applications, such as large-area display and wearable electronics. It exhibits unique features that make it superior to the existing Si-based technology, such as optical transparency...

The Potential for CO2 Disposal in Western Saudi Arabia: The Jizan Group Basalts

Jose Eduardo Abreu Torres
This thesis evaluates the technical feasibility of carbon mineralization of industrial CO2 emissions into Oligocene volcanic rocks of the Jizan Group under the Red Sea coastal plain in southwest Saudi Arabia. This area contains several industrial sources of CO2 emissions such as power plants and refineries. The Jizan Group are a thick sequence of basaltic lavas and fragmental rocks which are intruded by coeval subvolcanic basalt dikes, layered gabbros, and granite in the southern part...

Fluid Transport in Fractured Carbonate Rocks

Alejandro Cardona
Carbonate rocks store half of the world’s proven oil reserves. Whereas the rock matrix controls storativity, natural and induced fractures control the overall flow in fractured carbonate reservoirs and lead to complex hydromechanical processes. This thesis combines novel experimental devices, test protocols, and numerical methods to advance the understanding of flow-related phenomena in a variety of geological materials. Genesis and postdepositional diagenetic processes define the porous network topology and the matrix permeability. The underlying predictor...

Nanoscopic Characterization of Selectin-Ligand Interactions During the Initial Step of The Hematopoietic Stem Cell Homing Using Microfluidics-Based 3D Super-Resolution Fluorescence Imaging

Ioana Andreea Ciocanaru
Nanoscopic spatial reorganization of selectin ligands, CD44 and PSGL-1, during the initial step of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell (HSPC) homing, tethering and rolling of migrating cells over E-selectins, has been recently reported. However, the exact spatial distribution of these ligands and their spatial reorganization during the cell rolling on E-selectins are still an open question. The spatiotemporal characterization at the nanoscale level requires high resolution imaging methods. In this study, I quantitatively characterize nanoscopic spatiotemporal behavior...

A Numerical Investigation of Pre-chamber Combustion Engines

Mickael Messias Silva
This work aims to enhance fundamental and practical understanding of pre-chamber (PC) combustion engines, using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations conducted with the software CONVERGE employing the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes turbulence closure and the well-stirred reactor combustion model for methane oxidation. First, to help the design of the KAUST pre-chamber, the simulations were conducted to assess the impact of design parameters such as throat and nozzle diameters, and nozzle length in a passively operated pre-chamber at...

Spin Current Detection and Current Induced Magnetic Moment Switching in Magnetic Multilayers

Yan Wen
In the past two decades, the interest in materials with strong spin-orbit coupling has attracted substantial attention because of the novel physical mechanisms they display and their potential for applications. The interface displaying large spin-orbit coupling has been recognized as a powerful platform to investigate the spin transport in ferromagnetic, antiferromagnetic, and non-magnetic materials, as well as their interfaces. Besides its rich physics, the related applications are also worth studying. The current-induced spin-orbit-torque arising from...

Development of Iron-based Catalyst for Isobutane Dehydrogenation to Isobutylene

Faisal Alahmadi
Abstract: Isobutylene is a high demand chemical that contributes to the production of fuel, plastic, and rubbers. It is produced industrially by different processes, as a byproduct of steam cracking of naphtha or a fluidized catalytic cracking or by isobutane dehydrogenation. Catalytic dehydrogenation of isobutane is in increasing importance because of the growing demand for isobutylene and the better economic advantage compared to other isobutylene production processes. Isobutane dehydrogenation is an endothermic reaction and to...

Nonlinear Wave Motion in Viscoelasticity and Free Surface Flows

Nail Ussembayev
This dissertation revolves around various mathematical aspects of nonlinear wave motion in viscoelasticity and free surface flows. The introduction is devoted to the physical derivation of the stress-strain constitutive relations from the first principles of Newtonian mechanics and is accessible to a broad audience. This derivation is not necessary for the analysis carried out in the rest of the thesis, however, is very useful to connect the different-looking partial differential equations (PDEs) investigated in each...

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  • King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Thuwal, Saudi Arabia