225 Works

Planetary Health for the Arabian Peninsula: The Environmental Limits of Human Population.

Philip M. Mitchell
Human society can be thought of as a heat engine that is powered by fossil fuel and sunlight. The free energy that fossil fuels provide has enabled the development of our modern global human civilization and has artificially raised the human carrying capacity of the planet. Here, I discuss the roots of human population theory in the context of environmental limits, and argue that examining this issue is an essential matter of public health. The...

Design and topological optimization of nanophotonic devices

Ronghui Lin
A central topic in the research of nanophotonics is the geometrical optimization of the nanostructures since the geometries are deeply related to the Mie resonances and the localized surface plasmon resonances in dielectric and metallic nanomaterials. When many nanostructures are assembled to form a metamaterial, the tuning of the geometrical parameters can bring even more profound effects, such as bound states in the continuum (BIC) with infinite quality factors (Q factors). Moreover, with the development...

n-Type Conjugated Polymers for Organic Bioelectronics and Point-of-Care Applications

David Ohayon
Quick and early detection of abnormalities in the body's metabolism is of paramount importance to monitor, control, and prevent the associated diseases and pathologies. Biosensors technology is rapidly advancing, from the first electronic biosensor reported by Clark and Lyons in 1962 for blood glucose monitoring to today’s devices that can detect multiple metabolites in bodily fluids continuously and simultaneously within seconds. This rapid growth in point-of-care devices promises for the development of novel devices with...

A Closer Look at Neighborhoods in Graph Based Point Cloud Scene Semantic Segmentation Networks

Hani Itani
Large scale semantic segmentation is considered as one of the fundamental tasks in 3D scene understanding. Point clouds provide a basic and rich geometric representation of scenes and tangible objects. Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) have demonstrated an impressive success in processing regular discrete data such as 2D images and 1D audio. However, CNNs do not directly generalize to point cloud processing due to their irregular and un-ordered nature. One way to extend CNNs to point...

Carbon Dioxide Valorization through Microbial Electrosynthesis in the Context of Circular Bioeconomy

Bin Bian
Microbial electrosynthesis (MES) has recently emerged as a novel biotechnology platform for value-added product generation from waste CO2 stream. Integrating MES technology with renewable energy sources for both CO2 valorization and renewable energy storage is regarded as one type of artificial photosynthesis and a perfect example of circular bioeconomy. However, several challenges remain to be addressed to scale-up MES as a feasible process for chemical production, which include enhanced production rate, reduced energy consumption and...

Metabarcoding and Metagenomic Characterizations of the Red Sea Sector of the Global Dust Belt’s Microbiome

Nojood Aalismail
Atmospheric aerosols have been studied in great depth in regards to its metrological and chemical characterizations. Covering about 33% of the planet, the Global Dust Belt is the major source of wind-blown dust. Airborne aerosols play important roles in the Earth systems, impacting the marine and terrestrial ecosystems, human and organismal health. Aerosolized dust can carry a diverse range of microorganisms that may be transported across large distances. If surviving the transport, influence, as vectors...

Seasonal and diel variability of autotrophic and heterotrophic picoplankton in the central Red Sea: Effects of nutrients and temperature

Najwa Aziz Al-Otaibi
Picoplankton, cells between 0.2 - 2 μm, play a vital role in the carbon flow and nutrient cycling in marine food webs. Auto- and heterotrophic picoplankton dominate the biomass of oligotrophic tropical and subtropical oceans. However, little is known about their vertical distribution, changes in space and time and their relationships with environmental variables in the central Red Sea. The goal of this Ph.D. dissertation is to obtain baseline knowledge about their abundance, cellular characteristics...

Wafer-scale growth method of single-crystalline 2D MoS2 film for high-performance optoelectronics

Xiangming Xu
2D semiconductors are one of the most promising materials for next-generation electronics. Realizing continuous 2D monolayer semiconductors with single-crystalline structure at the wafer scale is still a challenge. We developed an epitaxial phase conversion (EPC) process to meet these requirements. The EPC process is a two-step process, where the sulfurization process was carried out on pre-deposited Mo-containing films. Traditionally, two-step processes for 2D MoS2 and other chalcogenides have suffered low-quality film and non-discontinuity at monolayer...

Increasing the Top Brine Temperature of Multi-Effects Distillation-MED to Boost Its Performance through Controlling the Formation of Scale by Nanofilteration and Antiscalants

Khalid Alharthi
Thermal desalination technology especially, multi-effect distillation MED is of great importance to oil producing countries such as those in the gulf region owing to its efficacy in processing seawater with the minimum pre-treatment of the feed and cheap energy input available from waste heat. One of the main drawback of the current MED processes is the susceptibility of scaling when operate above 70 ºC. This limitation deprives the technology to be energy efficient and reduce...

Shales: Comprehensive Laboratory Characterization

Eduardo Gramajo
Unconventional formations have become an increasingly important source of energy resources. Proper rock mechanic characterization is needed not only to identify the most promising areas for stimulation, but to increase our understanding of the sealing capabilities of cap-rock formations for carbon geological storage. However, shale assessment is challenging with current standard techniques. This research explores the index and rock mechanic properties of different shale specimens considered as source rocks for oil and gas (Eagle Ford,...

The equations of polyconvex thermoelasticity

Myrto Maria Galanopoulou
In my Dissertation, I consider the system of thermoelasticity endowed with poly- convex energy. I will present the equations in their mathematical and physical con- text, and I will explain the relevant research in the area and the contributions of my work. First, I embed the equations of polyconvex thermoviscoelasticity into an aug- mented, symmetrizable, hyperbolic system which possesses a convex entropy. Using the relative entropy method in the extended variables, I show convergence from...

On Using D2D Collaboration and a DF-CF Relaying Scheme to Mitigate Channel Interference

Osama Hassan
Given the exponentially increasing number of connected devices to the network which will lead to a larger number of installed celluar towers and base stations that are in closer proximity to one another when compared to the current cellular network setup, and the increasing demand of higher data rates by end users, it becomes essential to investigate new methods that will more effectively mitigate the larger interference introduced by the more packed celluar grid and...

The effect of aging on the spatial distribution of glycogen in layer I of the somatosensory cortex in mice

Maria Fernanda Veloz Castillo
Astrocytes are the most abundant type of glial cell in the brain, required to ensure optimal neuronal functioning, neurogenesis, and brain vascular tone. Moreover, they play a crucial role in support of neuronal metabolism. The human brain utilizes around 20% of the energy consumed to ensure its proper function. Glucose, an important energy source for the brain, access the neuropil across the blood-brain barrier (BBB), and then is transported into astrocytes through their perivascular end-feet,...

Molecular Modeling of Interfacial, Sorptive, and Diffusive Properties of Systems for Carbon Capture and Storage Applications

Yafan Yang
Carbon capture and storage has been considered as a promising way to mitigate global warming by reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Understanding of the interfacial, sorptive, and diffusive properties of related systems are of significant importance. For example, interfacial tension controls the capillary forces in the caprock, which act to avoid upward migration of the stored fluid and play an important role in related enhanced oil recovery processes. The optimal design of many carbon capture and...

Applications of Graph Convolutional Networks and DeepGCNs in Point Cloud Part Segmentation and Upsampling

Abdulellah Abualshour
Graph convolutional networks (GCNs) showed promising results in learning from point cloud data. Applications of GCNs include point cloud classification, point cloud segmentation, point cloud upsampling, and more. Recently, the introduction of Deep Graph Convolutional Networks (DeepGCNs) allowed GCNs to go deeper, and thus resulted in better graph learning while avoiding the vanishing gradient problem in GCNs. By adapting impactful methods from convolutional neural networks (CNNs) such as residual connections, dense connections, and dilated convolutions,...

An Experimental Investigation on the Dynamics of Lean Premixed Swirl Flames

Francesco Di Sabatino
Gas turbine engines are an efficient and flexible way of power generation and aircraft propulsion. Even though different combustion systems can be implemented in these engines, more stringent regulations on pollutant emissions have been imposed throughout the years, especially in regard to nitrogen oxides (NOx). A very promising technology to reduce NOx emissions is lean premixed combustion (LPC), however, it is plagued by intense flame dynamics. Thermoacoustic instabilities, lean blow-off and lean instabilities are examples...

Distribution, diversity, and anemonefish associations of host sea anemones (Actiniaria) in the eastern Red Sea

Morgan Bennett-Smith
The relationship between clownfish and sea anemones is a beloved and iconic example of marine symbiosis. However, ecological information in the eastern Red Sea about the endemic Red Sea clownfish, Amphiprion bicinctus, and its host sea anemones remains relatively incomplete. For example, previous studies report that A. bicinctus forms mutualistic relationships with three to five host anemone species in the Red Sea. But the reported number and combination of host anemone species varies substantially among...

Evaluating the Application of Allele Frequency in the Saudi Population Variant Detection

Sakhaa Alsaedi
Human Mendelian disease in Saudi Arabia is both significant and challenging. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has resulted in important discoveries of the genetic variants responsible for inherited disease. However, the success of clinical genomics using NGS requires accurate and consistent identification of rare genome variants. Rarity is one very important criterion for pathogenicity. Here we describe a model to detect variants by analyzing allele frequencies of a Saudi population. This work will enhance the opportunity to...

Fabrication and Characterization of GaN-Based Superluminescent Diode for Solid-State Lighting and Visible Light Communication

Abdullah Alatawi
To date, group-III-nitride has undergone continuous improvements to provide a broader range of industrial applications, such as solid-state lighting (SSL), visible light communications (VLC), and light projection. Recently, VLC has attained substantial attention in the field of wireless communication because it offers ~ 370 THz of bandwidth of unregulated visible spectrum, which makes it a critical factor in the evolution of the 5G networks and beyond. GaN-based light-emitting diode (LED) and laser diode (LD) have...

Exploring the Role of Glutamate Signaling in the Regulation of the Aiptasia-Symbiodiniaceae Symbiosis

Migle Konciute
The symbiotic relationship between cnidarians and their photosynthetic dinoflagellate symbionts underpins the success of coral reef communities in oligotrophic, tropical seas. Despite several decades of study, the cellular and molecular mechanisms that regulate the symbiotic relationship between the dinoflagellate algae and the coral hosts are still not clear. One of the hypotheses on the metabolic interactions between the host and the symbiont suggests that ammonium assimilation by the host can be the underlying mechanism of...


Jefferson Riera
I would like to express my sincerest gratitude to Professor Omar M. Knio for his guidance and support over the past two years. Thank you for providing me important feedback when developing our models and writing the thesis. Many thanks to Dr. Ricardo M. Lima for his advice and constant encouragement. His expertise in the technical and mathematical aspects of this work proved vital. Working together was truly an enriching experience. I appreciate the support...

Energy-Efficient AF Relay Assisted OFDM with Index Modulation

Jiusi Zhou
To broaden the application scenario and reduce energy consumption, we propose an energy-efficient fixed-gain (FG) amplify-and-forward (AF) relay assisted orthog- onal frequency-division multiplexing with index modulation (OFDM-IM) scheme in this thesis. The proposed system needs neither instantaneous channel state informa- tion (CSI) nor performing complicated processing at the relay node. It operates based on a new design of power allocation that minimizes the sum of transmit power at both source and relay node, given an...


Sebastian Celis Sierra

Optimal Control Strategies for the Alignment Problem of Optical Communication Systems

Wenqi Cai
In this work, we propose three control strategies from different perspectives to solve the alignment problem for different optical wireless communication (OWC) systems. • Experimental modeling based strategy: we model and analyze the vibration effects on the stationary OWC system (e.g. urban free-space optical (FSO) communication system in our case). The proposed Bifurcated-Gaussian (B-G) distribution model of the receiver optical power is derived under different vibra- tion levels and link distances using the nonlinear iteration...

Crosstalk Cancellation in Structured Light Free Space Optical Communication

Dmitrii Briantcev
Free-space optics (FSO) is an unlicensed communication technology that uses the free space as a propagation medium to connect two communicating terminal wire- lessly [1]. It is an attractive solution to the last-mile connectivity problems in commu- nication networks, mainly when installing optical fibers is expensive or unavailable. A possible idea to increase the throughput of wireless optical links in free space is to use spatial multiplexing (SMM) [2]. Optical beam distortion due to propagation...

Registration Year

  • 2020

Resource Types

  • Dissertation
  • Dataset
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  • King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Thuwal, Saudi Arabia