427 Works

experimental study of the indoor climate with the micro-environment systems

Weixin Zhao, Risto Kosonen, Simo Kilpeläinen & Sami Lestinen
One of the major challenges in modern buildings is to guarantee healthy indoor air quality and excellent thermal comfort in an energy efficient manner. In this study, the performance of two micro-environment systems combined radiant panel and convective flow was designed. In one of micro-environment system of personalized ventilation and radiant panel (PVRP), two local personal air terminal devices supplied clean air directly to occupants. In the other micro-environment system, low velocity unit was installed...

Investigation of PECS on the basis of a virtual building controller

Katharina Boudier & Sabine Hoffmann
Thermal comfort is one of the key parameters for occupant satisfaction and, accordingly, for the energy performance of buildings. In recent years, decentralized heating and cooling systems, so called personal environmental comfort systems (PECS) are gaining more interest for research and the market. PECS include, for example, office chairs with heating and cooling functions, thermoelectric heating and cooling walls, or even desk fans. Studies have shown that these systems can reduce the heating and cooling...

Performance of a mixed-use ground source heat pump system in Stockholm

Jeffrey D. Spitler & Signhild E. A Gehlin
The 6300 m2 two-story Studenthuset building at Stockholm University in Stockholm, completed in 2013, was thoroughly instrumented. Space heating and hot water are provided by a ground source heat pump (GSHP) system consisting of five 40 kW off-the-shelf water-to-water heat pumps connected to 20 boreholes of 200 m depth in hard rock. Space cooling is provided by direct cooling from the boreholes. This system has now been monitored for five years. This paper presents the...

Individual control of the frequency of intermittent personalized ventilation and its effect on cross-contamination in an office space

Elvire Katramiz, Nesreen Ghaddar & Kamel Ghali
The transmission of respiratory diseases is influenced to a great extent by the ventilationin the space, mainly localized ventilation near the infection source (i.e. the infected person): One of the strategies that has been proven efficient in providing occupants with protection indoor are source control strategies. Personalized Ventilation (PV) is such strategy that delivers conditioned clean air towards the breathing zone of the user, thus providing protection while procuring acceptable levels of thermal comfort. In...

TEWI and energy assessment of integrated CO2 refrigeration, heating and cooling technology

Nishant Karve, Kris Van De Velde & Stefan Vandaele
In order to meet with the regulations proposed by the Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Change to control emissions from fluorinated gases, an EU funded project (LIFE) has been engaged in. Through this project, the reduction of CO2 emissions by using an integrated refrigeration, heating and cooling system, in real shops across Europe and the impact of the raw materials used will be investigated. In a theoretical evaluation, the Seasonal Energy Performance Ratio and Total Equivalent...

Effects of airing behaviours on bedroom air pollutants during sleep

Chenxi Liao, Xiaojun Fan, Mariya Petrova Bivolarova, Anna Mainka, Chandra Sekhar, Jelle Laverge, Li Lan, Mizuho Akimoto & Pawel Wargocki
Higher ventilation rates were verified to have a positive impact on indoor air quality and therefore benefit sleep quality. However, how does ventilation influence bedroom air quality if the outdoor air quality is poor? Whilst ventilation helps to reduce indoor pollution it inadvertently brings outdoor pollution indoors, such as NO2, which is from vehicular emission. In this study, we collected the info of window and door status during sleep and measured carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen...

Examination of life cycle cost in nZEB design

Makiko Ukai, Masaya Okumiya, Gyuyong Yoon & Hideharu Niwa
In this paper, the feasibility and net present value of life cycle cost (LCC(NPV)) of nZEB under the meteorological conditions of Sapporo, Japan was examined for the model building. The procedure for examining the feasibility of nZEB is as follows. First, a building with envelope and equipment that meets the performance standards of the Japanese Building Energy Conservation Law is set as a reference building. Then the energy performance improvement measures of strengthening the thermal...


Adrian Anastase & Gratiela Maria Tarlea
Electricity consumption for thermal comfort in urban buildings is estimated to an average of 35%. The aim of this article is to evaluate, theoretically, the impact of sensors inaccuracies on the performance and efficiency of HVAC equipment. Different types of temperature and pressure sensors are considered. The measurement tolerance, from manufacturer’s technical data sheet, will be used for the theoretical evaluation of the range in which the operating point of the equipment can vary. Compressor...

Performance analysis of water-to-water CO2 heat pump in different compressor rotational speed

Yantong Li & Natasa Nord
Ozone layer depletion can be weakened when carbon dioxide (CO2) replaces hydrochlorofluorocarbons and chlorofluorocarbons as the refrigerant in heat pumps. Performance investigations on water-to-water CO2 heat pumps are still insufficient, especially in real life and experimental conditions. Seldom studies have reported that the compressor frequency may affect the performance of CO2 heat pumps in some degree. However, the influence of compressor frequency on the performance of the water-to-water CO2 heat pumps is still unknown. Hence,...

Cooking habits and usage of kitchen hoods in Norwegian homes

Adele Helene Ninauve Jutulstad, Aileen Yang, Peter G. Schild, Arnab Chaudhuri & Kari Thunshelle
Sustainable urban development results in more space and energy-efficient apartments. Open plan solutions are becoming more common, and the market is exploring new configurations and ventilation solutions for the kitchen in direction of the design and minimize space for ductwork. Cooking is an important aspect of human life and is considered one of the major sources of particle emissions. The cooking method, the type of cuisine, and the type of kitchen hood are some of...

Theoretical analysis on active radiant heat reflector integrated phase change material wall

Gyu-Bae Lee, Seong-Young Cheon, Yong-Kwon Kang, Beom-Jun Kim, Jae-Won Joung & Jae Weon Jeong
Recently, as interest in increasing energy efficiency of buildings increases, a method of reducin g indoo r hea t gain and los s b y integrating phas e change material s (PCM ) into building wal ls is bein g studie d. Th e PC M is a typ e of he at storag e materi al th at ca n redu ce energy consumption o f the cooling and heating devices o f the...

Experimental assessment of radiant panel for thermal conditioning of open spaces

Daniel Castro Medina, María Del Carmen Guerrero Delgado, Teresa Rocío Palomo Amores, Alberto Cerezo Narváez, José Sánchez Ramos & Servando Álvarez Domínguez
Climate change resulting from the high emission of greenhouse gases has caused a continuous increase in the Earth's temperature, leading to an increase in the demand for refrigeration in the residential sector. Added to this is the heat island effect that generates even worse microclimatic conditions. Based on this idea, the CartujaQanat project was born, which seeks to recover life on the street by providing up-to-date solutions to combine the knowledge obtained from experience, tradition,...

Detection of the low ∆T syndrome using machine learning models

Anand Thamban, Alet Van Den Brink, Shalika Walker & Wim Zeiler
The low ∆T syndrome has been a prevalent issue in many chilled water systems, leading to an increase in the pump energy consumption, increase in the chiller energy consumption, and/or failure to meet the cooling loads. It is therefore important to detect the low ∆T syndrome using suitable fault detection and diagnosis methods. One such fault detection method is the data-based approach using machine learning algorithms. The main signs indicating the low ∆T syndrome include...

Integral design a necessity for sustainable building design

Wim Zeiler
Due to the rising demand for more sustainable buildings it is essential to make optimal use of the natural resources of sun, earth, water and wind. There is a urgent need saving energy and the necessity of zero or even energy positive buildings in the near future. However, therefor it is necessary to end the dichotomy between architecture and technology. This dichotomy leading to far from optimal functional buildings with poor indoor comfort and health...

CO2 levels as an indicator of ventilation performance in me-chanical ventilated buildings

Natalia Lastovets, Piia Sormunen & Ksenia Ruuska
The current COVID-19 pandemic has attracted considerable attention from the general public and researchers. To increase this resilience toward global pandemics, we urgently need a deeper understanding of effective protection strategies. During the COVID-19 pandemic, more evidence confirms that airborne transmission plays an essential role in spreading pathogens. The ventilation systems play an important role in removing pathogens from indoor air. The current paper focuses on examining the air ventilation performance of the existing building...

Interactive worksheets as a resource for teaching building performance and energy systems simulation

Roel Loonen
This paper describes the development, implementation and evaluation of Jupyter Notebooks as a digital tool to promote (i) self-directed learning of theory concepts and (ii) active engagement with practical assignments in a graduate-level course on building performance and energy systems simulation. Jupyter Notebooks are gaining popularity as an educational tool for their ability to accommodate digital documents that weave together executable code, equations, data visualizations, and narrative text, without the need for dedicated software environments...

Development of occupancy-based multi-scale building archetypes

Divyanshu Sood, Ibrahim Alhindawi, Usman Ali, James McGrath, Miriam Byrne & James O’Donnell
In the context of the European building stock, more than 50 % of buildings were built before 1960, and it has been estimated that 75 % of the current building stock will still exist in 2050. A typical approach to estimate energy consumption at multiple scales is by using archetypes which are the cohort of representative buildings with similar characteristics. Typically, archetypes are classified based on year of construction, type of dwelling and type of...

Health monitoring

Bram Hajee, Kees Wisse & Peyman Mohajerin Esfahani
Multi-sensor networks are becoming more and more popular in order to assess the post occupancy performance of smart buildings, since they enable continuous monitoring with a high spatial resolution of the occupancy, thermal comfort and indoor air quality. An urgent, but poorly attended topic in this field is the automated detection of sensor anomalies. For example, CO2-sensors can perform auto-calibration, during which the data is not reliable. Without identifying the poor reliability of this data,...

Ventilation and air conditioning for school buildings

Pavol Štefanič & Zuzana Straková
One of the basic problems of school buildings is the unsatisfactory thermal insulation properties of peripheral building structures. Unsatisfactory, especially in terms of the creation and long-term maintenance of microclimatic conditions in the classroom, is the complete absence of mechanical ventilation systems. In almost all schools, ventilation is based on the natural exchange of air through windows. Such a solution is no longer satisfactory today. In the old school buildings, the old ventilation shafts were...

Identification of dynamic U-values for supply-air double windows based on experiments

Yujian Huang, Mohamed El Mankibi & Richard Cantin
The double windows with supply-air are recommended for both new and retrofitted buildings where preheating fresh air is needed especially when dealing with historical and protected buildings. To evaluate their energy saving potentials in buildings and optimize their performance, building energy simulations are necessary. In building energy simulation tools, the thermal transmittance (i.e., U-value) is one of the most important input parameters. The conventional U-value is a static indicator and a number of numerical studies...

Energy consumption characteristics based on monitored data

Kristina Vassiljeva, Margarita Matson, Eduard Petlenkov, Juri Belikov, Matrin Thalfeldt & Jarek Kurnitski
This study is an initial step for a creation of smart platform for schools in Estonia which will model, analyze, and evaluate the real energy performance of school buildings. Energy meters provide electricity consumption data which can be used to understand energy usage patterns and finally improve building energy management. First, data preparation is made. On the following step hierarchical clustering is applied to identify the outliers of weekly electricity load profiles. Finally, daily electrical...

Monitoring a deep energy renovated building

Matthias Haase
A typical residential building from 1937 located near Wurzburg in Germany, was deep retrofitted in 2013. The energy use and costs could be drastically reduced compared to the old building. However, increase in energy costs can thread economic success. Therefore, it is important to monitor also the performance of the different technical systems. A measurement campaign of a real building with energy consumption and production (“prosumer model”) proves the concept of prosumer over time. The...

Machine Learning Models for Indoor PM2.5 Concentrations in Residential Architecture in Taiwan

Lin Yu Chen, Yaw Shyan Tsay & Chien Chen Jung
People typically spend 80-90% of their time indoors. Therefore, establishing prediction models estimate particulate matter (PM2.5) concentration in indoor environments is of great importance, especially in residential households, in order to allow for accurate assessments of exposure in epidemiological studies. However, installing monitoring instruments to collect indoor PM2.5 data is both labor and budget-intensive. Therefore, indoor PM2.5 concentration prediction models have become critical issues. This study aimed to develop a predictive model for hourly household...

Development of the TAIL rating scheme for indoor environmental quality in schools

Minh-Tien Tran, Wenjuan Wei, Claire Dassonville, Corinne Mandin, Pawel Wargocki & Valérie Hequet
The TAIL rating scheme was developed to assess indoor environmental quality (IEQ) in offices and hotels undergoing deep renovation and was recently extended by the PredicTAIL method allowing prediction of IEQ through modeling. TAIL provides the methodology for rating the quality of the thermal, acoustic, and luminous environments, the indoor air quality, and the overall quality of the indoor environment. The present work is an extension of the use of TAIL rating scheme for school...

Numerical investigation of an evacuated tube solar collector in a solar assisted rooftop unit

Tunahan Akış, Orhan Ekren & Kerim Gümrükçüler
In this study, numerical analysis of an evacuated tube solar collector integrated into the discharge line in a rooftop air conditioner is carried out. The goal in this system is to increase the efficiency of the unit by reducing the compressor energy consumption with the solar collector. The solar collector consists of vacuum tube collectors. Inside the vacuum tube, there is a copper pipe installation through which the R410a refrigerant in the superheated vapor phase,...

Registration Year

  • 2022
  • 2021

Resource Types

  • Text
  • Book


  • Delft University of Technology
  • Harbin Institute of Technology
  • University of Paris-Est
  • Wuhan Modern Urban Agriculture Planning and Design Institute
  • IHE Delft Institute for Water Education
  • Wuhan University
  • Council for Scientific and Industrial Research