427 Works

DEVELOPMENT OF AN OPTIMIZATION MODEL FOR DECISION MAKING IN BUILDING RETROFIT PROJECTS

Ehsan Asadi & Manuel Gameiro Da Silva
Retrofitting of existing buildings offers significant opportunities for improving occupants’ comfort and well-being, reducing global energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. This is being considered as one of the main approaches to achieve sustainability in the built environment at relatively low cost and high uptake rates. Although a wide range of retrofit technologies is readily available, methods to identify the most suitable set of retrofit actions for particular projects are still a major technical and...

Decentralized storage in combined heat distribution circuits: how to control?

Stef Jacobs, Margot De Pauw, Peter Hellinckx & Ivan Verhaert
In apartment buildings, collective heating networks have great energetic advantages. One form gaining more attention for the last decades is a combined heat distribution circuit (CHDC), in Belgium called “combilus”. It is a two-pipe system for the distribution of both space heating (SH) and domestic hot water (DHW). The supply temperature is set to the highest needed temperature, which is around 65°C for DHW (considering a temperature difference for enabling heat transfer). However, if decentralised...

FDD method for a variable-speed heat pump with natural refrigerants

Ivan Bellanco, Francisco Belío, Manel Vàlles, Raphael Gerber & Jaume Salom
Heat pumps are one of the most efficient devices to provide heat and cool. The number of heat pumps sold in Europe increases every year as European Legislation moves towards the use of natural refrigerants that have negligible global warming potential compared to synthetic refrigerants. Variable-speed domestic heat pumps may have hard-to-detect faults that increase energy consumption while the demand is still covered. These faults could worsen and take down the equipment. Fault detection and...

Control of the bed thermal environment by a ventilated mattress

Rinsa Kunnathummal, Mariya P. Bivolarova & Arsen K. Melikov
Thermal comfort affects the sleep quality and well-being of people. The effect of a ventilated mattress (VM with integrated localized heating on providing the necessary thermal conditions for comfort in the bed-microenvironment was studied. The VM has an exhaust opening located under the feet of a lying person. Air is sucked and transported inside the mattress by a small fan connected to the mattress. The benefit of using such a mattress is that it sucks...

Reinforcement learning for occupant-centric operation of residential energy system

Amirreza Heidari, François Maréchal & Dolaana Khovalyg
Occupant behavior is a highly stochastic phenomenon, which is known as a key challenge for the optimal control of residential energy systems. With the increasing share of renewable energy in the building sector, the volatile nature of renewable energy is also another key challenge for optimal control. It is challenging and time-consuming to develop a rule-based or model-based control algorithm that can properly take into account these stochastic parameters and ensure an optimal operation. Rather,...

Numerical investigation of the transmission route of infectious particles produced by human

Wonseok Oh, Ryozo Ooka, Hideki Kikumoto & Sihwan Lee
This study aims to investigate the major factors to influence the respiratory transmission occurred by infectious particles from a human in an indoor environment. Identifying the critical factors of respiratory transmission is important for taking a countermeasure to control its spread. However, it is difficult to track large numbers of infectious particles generated by a human and floating in a room by the experimental method. Therefore, the transient jet airflow by human cough was numerically...

Optimal dispatch strategy for building aggregators to fully utilize the energy flexibilities

Hong Tang & Shengwei Wang
Well-managed demand-side flexibility can effectively alleviate the pressure on the reliability of the power system and the advanced development of smart grid technologies creates win-win opportunities for the power system operators and demand-side users. The building sector, as one of the largest consumers of electricity, has great flexibility potential through smart load control and natural thermal mass storage. However, few studies have investigated the potential contribution of buildings in providing multiple flexibility services without sacrificing...

Assessment of the infection risk distribution of COVID-19 and ventilation energy consumptions in indoor environments

Marco Marigo, Giacomo Tognon, Michele De Carli & Angelo Zarrella
The energy use for ventilating buildings involves high economic and primary energy consumption costs. Nevertheless, ventilation is essential, especially in public places, to ensure acceptable Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) levels and reduce the risk of airborne virus infection. The latter aspect has recently increased because of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. In this paper, a model that couples a zonal ventilation model with infection risk calculation is integrated with an energy consumption model to analyse the...

Development of an energy analysis tool for data center free cooling technologies modelizzation and comparison in different climate conditions

Mauro Mantovan, Carlo Bissaro, Fabio Poletto, Michele De Carli & Angelo Zarrella
Data Centers are currently undergoing a great period of change. Developments in business and personal data transfer together with new technologies such as virtualisation and cloud computing are transforming Data centers into dynamic environments with greater power demands unexpectedly. The cooling requirements of the Data Center infrastructure form a large part of the overall power requirements and it is therefore critical to ensure correct optimisation to achieve the desired energy efficiency levels. In Planning data...

Exploring futures of summer comfort in Dutch households

Lenneke Kuijer & Lada Hensen Centnerová
Due to climate change, the outdoor temperatures, frequencies, and durations of heatwaves and levels of solar gain in the Netherlands are expected to increase. Based on the European Energy Performance of Building Directive (EPBD) new standards are introduced. However, it is still uncertain how Dutch culture might adapt to this change in climate. The qualitative study underlying this paper addressed this question by focusing on the future of summer comfort in Dutch households. It comprised...

Flexibility deployment of a heating system with heat pump in residential towers

Beatrix Bos, Pieter Jan Hoes, Jan Hensen, Ingrid Van Prooijen & Christina Papachristou
The transition from fossil fuel energy sources to renewable energy sources requires flexible use of our energy consumption to prevent congestion in the electricity grid. The heating systems of buildings are large energy consumers and can play an important role in matching electricity generation and demand. This research evaluates the amount and value of the potentially available flexibility from the heat pump in a case study on the heating system of two residential towers in...

Energy efficiency and indoor climate benefits of demand-based ventilation in simulated office rooms

Vili Kohtaniemi & Panu Mustakallio
The demand for high energy efficiency of office buildings with an increasing focus on safety and good indoor air climate has increased the use of demand-based HVAC systems. The varying occupancy of office spaces can lead to unnecessarily high ventilation airflow rates and cooling of the room when there are no occupants. To achieve the same level of indoor climate with a more traditional ventilation system causes high energy consumption and inefficient operation of the...

Transparent dynamic insulation

A.J.H. Frijns & L.A. Van Schaijk
Greenhouse horticulture cultivates vegetables, fruits, and flowers in protected glass houses. Approximately 65%-85% of the total energy in greenhouses is used for heating. To reach the climate goals energy reduction is needed. Energy savings cannot only be achieved by improving the insulation value of the greenhouse covers since also the relative humidity of indoor air needs to stay below a critical humidity level to avoid fungus growth. Therefore ventilation is required with an average air...

Recognition and Analysis of Air‐conditioner Operation Based on Basic IAQ‐monitoring

Yuanchen Wang, Florian Frey, Dirk Schwede & Konstantinos Stergiaropoulos
Building performance simulations are particularly important for the development of various building energy efficiency strategies. However, the accuracy of these building simulations is often greatly influenced by real occupant behaviour, which leads to deviations between expected and measured performance. The occupant behaviour varies greatly from region to region and even within the same region due to the differences in cultural, climatic and socioeconomic contexts and building characteristics. Therefore, typical occupant behaviours and usage patterns in...

Dynamic evaluation method for assessing households’ thermal sensation using parametric statistical analysis

Hasim Altan & Bertug Ozarisoy
Climate change is causing a wide range of impacts, including more frequent and brutal climate events, such as long-term heatwaves while compound effects of extreme weather events can dramatically disrupt indoor thermal conditions, causing increased mortality risks, especially for vulnerable populations with health conditions. Comfort standards do not give clear guidelines to determine the minimum or ideal range of continuous measurements, considering the climate change projections to determine neutral thermal comfort thresholds in 2030s, 2050s...

Parametric Modelling Using the Operative Temperature Map for Façade Design of Office Buildings

Yu Chen Lin & Yaw Shyan Tsay
Controlling incoming solar radiation to a building is one of the main targets of sustainable architecture designers because it decreases HVAC energy consumption and maximizes thermal comfort and usable daylight. The introduction of parametric design has allowed designers to expand their approaches to explore possibilities in façade forms and systems. However, most solar shading designs with complex geometries have been rejected by such building performance simulation software as Energyplus when assessing the calculation of thermal...

A Methodology to assess economical impacts of poor IAQ in office buildings from DALY and SBS induced costs

Louis CONY & Jelle LAVERGE
Indoor air quality is a major issue that concerns everyone. Indeed, human being spend more than 70% of time in indoor environment. Indoor pollutants are responsible for many chronic diseases such as lung cancer or leukaemia, but it also has short-term outcomes, it can cause headache, coughing, running nose, etc, it affects daily concentration and productivity of office workers. Considering the numerous consequences of indoor pollution, a will to quantify induced costs seems logical. In...

Intelligent building envelope solutions in Finnish new and old apartment buildings

Azin Velashjerdi Farahani, Juha Jokisalo, Natalia Korhonen, Kirsti Jylhä, Heikki Ihasalo, Jaakko Ketomäki & Risto Kosonen
This study investigated the effects of intelligent building envelope solutions (automated blinds, openable windows, and awnings as well as electrochromic windows) in Finnish old and new apartment buildings. Moreover, the results are compared to the passive solutions (manual blinds and solar protection windows). The main goal was to compare the performance of each solution in improving the indoor temperature conditions in Finland’s current climate. Thus, the solutions were simulated with the usage of a mechanical...

Potential of WASTE WATER HEAT RECOVERY in reducing the EU's energy need

Pavel Sevela, Johannes Frenger, Jürgen Schnieders & Rainer Pfluger
After extensive research, Waste-Water Heat-Recovery (WWHR) technology was identified as the most promising technology to unlock the under-addressed potential in reducing the energy need for water heating. Particularly interesting application of WWHR is for showering, which accounts for about 70 to 82 % of the daily residential hot water tapping profile. Shower-wise installed heat-exchangers offer a cost-effective way of utilizing otherwise wasted heat for preheating cold fresh water, thus reducing the temperature span covered by...

Data-driven statiscal and machine learning modelling of real building stock energy use

Matthias Van Hove, Jelle Laverge, Arnold Janssens & Marc Delghust
One of today’s major challenges is to become climate neutral by 2050. Large potential for energy reduction is found in the building sector (which accounts for 40% of Europe’s total primary energy use). To compare energy reduction strategies, Building-Stock Energy Models are vital instruments. Yet, the regulatory energy performance calculation (which is currently used by EU policy makers) poorly predicts the real building energy use in residential buildings and largely overestimates the potential energy savings....

Perceived and measured indoor environment in educational buildings

Tuomo Ojanen, Esa Nykänen & Teemu Vesanen
In educational buildings there is strong variation of the user-caused loads on indoor air during the working days. The challenge is to energy efficiently maintain comfortable indoor environment allowing good working and learning conditions for the building users. The objective was to define the main factors having effect on the user experience of indoor environment and to evaluate what range of measured factors are found comfortable in different building user groups. Three educational buildings representing...

Digital Competence & Computational Thinking for Preschool Pre-service Teachers

Ali HAMIDI, Rafael ZEREGA, Sepideh TAVAJOH, Marcelo MILRAD & Italo MASIELLO
Digital competence is a skill associated with the 21-century abilities essential to contribute to today’s and tomorrow’s digital and technical environments. Computational Thinking (CT), which is a thought process for problem-solving, is one of the emerging trends that makes up digital competence. In our explorative study, we have used educational robotics with four pre-service teachers during their four-weeks placement at different preschools. We applied three distinct and complementary approaches to design and conduct this study:...

Solving Domain-Specific Problems with Computational Thinking

Sharon CALOR, Izaak DEKKER, Dorrith PENNINK & Bert BREDEWEG
Computational thinking (CT) skills are crucial for every modern profession in which large amounts of data are processed. In K-12 curricula, CT skills are often taught in separate programming courses. However, without specific instructions, CT skills are not automatically transferred to other domains in the curriculum when they are developed while learning to program in a separate programming course. In modern professions, CT is often applied in the context of a specific domain. Therefore, learning...

Developing a Continuous, Rather Than Binary, Classification for Measuring STEM Jobs

Ted CARMICHAEL, John STAMPER & John CARNEY
This paper presents our review and synthesis of the literature on STEM classification, and our results for a novel approach towards understanding, categorizing, and tracking STEM attributes in the workplace. We found two deficiencies in the way STEM is traditionally discussed, which we attempt to address in this work. The first is that the key components of STEM tend to be discussed holistically in the literature, rather than discretely as Science, Technology, Education, and Mathematics....

Modelling Zombies and Other Diseases

Faron MOLLER, Stewart POWELL, Phoebe ASPLIN, Dan ARCHAMBAULT, Cagatay TURKAY, Graham MCNEILL & Max SONDAG
Technocamps1 is a national outreach programme based at Swansea University which - amongst many other things - provides STEM-based workshops to schools and young people. Before 2020, one popular set of Technocamps computational thinking workshops was on modelling the spread of diseases, which for our audience was a zombie infection. These workshops were all unplugged in nature and involved spreading diseases by passing around tokens. Different numbers of tokens were passed about, representing the ability...

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