427 Works

Are bedroom air temperatures affected by temperature boosts in adjacent rooms?

Louise Christensen, Thea Hauge Broholt & Steffen Petersen
Recent research has indicated that economic model predictive control (E-MPC) of residential space heating can be a significant demand response (DR) asset in district heating systems. Typical E-MPC formulation for this purpose relies on acceptance of occasionally increased indoor temperatures and the DR potential is thus limited by thermal comfort constraints. This paper reports on a field experiment on whether bedroom air temperatures are affected by temperature boosts in adjacent rooms in three case buildings....

Energy demand with natural ventilation in unheated bedrooms, combined with balanced ventilation

Vegard Heide & Laurent Georges
In Norway, many detached houses are renovated without mechanical ventilation being installed. Many occupants prefer or accept low temperatures in bedrooms and ventilate with regular window openings all year round. In this context, a hybrid ventilation strategy combining ordinary balanced ventilation in warm zones, and natural ventilation in cooler bedrooms, could be appropriate Such a hybrid ventilation strategy might be most relevant for renovation projects where introducing ventilation ducts can be complicated and costly. The...

Design of Renewable Energy Production in District Heating System

Martina Mudrá & Ján Takács
One way to decarbonise the heat supply in buildings by using environmentally friendly and highly energy-efficient equipment and technologies that save primary energy is through existing district heating systems (DHS´s) that supply several buildings at once. Many heat sources and equipment on the heat production and distribution side of these DHS´s are beyond their service life or use fossil fuels as an energy source. It is therefore necessary to modernize such systems through highly efficient...

Technology concepts for rapid renovation using adaptable lightweight façade systems

Daniel Adamovský, Jan Vcelak, Pavel Mlejnek, Jaume Colon, Zuzana Prochazkova, Constantinos Tsoutis, Daniel Philippen & Maria Founti
H2020 project PLURAL (Plug-and-Use Renovation with Adaptable Lightweight Systems) proposes prefabricated, modular and adaptable lightweight façade systems for rapid renovation of existing buildings providing high-performance, cost-effective and fast renovation solutions. This paper presents the early stage technology concepts of three different core systems representing Plug-and-Use (PnU) building envelope kits. The PnU kits couple the lightweight façade module concept with ecological coating materials, integrated energy systems such as photovoltaics, heating, cooling, and ventilation. The paper describes...

Study of Using R290 Refrigerant Replacement in a Heat Pump Application

Tarlea Gratiela, Mardare George & Tarlea Ana
The study represents a new approach in the research of the advantages obtained by the water-to-water heat pumps. This original system can use a renewable energy resource, respectively groundwater, rivers or sea water and can achieve both the heating and cooling requirements of a location. The study represents also a research in the field of energy efficiency and environmental optimization of heat pumps by changing the refrigerant R407C to R290. For testing, an open circuit...

Verification of Energy Efficiency Measures in Three Apartment Buildings Using Gaussian Process

Sakari Uusitalo
The aim of this work was to examine whether the Gaussian process as a machine learning method is suitable for modelling time series data collected from buildings and whether it can be used to verify the effects of energy efficiency measures on three apartment buildings. A Gaussian process regression model was created using outdoor temperature and time information as inputs including information about the day of the week and the hour of the current day....

Nearly zero energy buildings with air-source heat pumps across Europe

László Zsolt Gergely, Zsuzsa Szalay & Tamás Csoknyai
Buildings are one of the most significant energy consumers and carbon emitters. As a result, their energy efficiency is a focal subject of European legislation, including the regulation of nearly zero energy building (NZEB) constructions. NZEB definition, however, differs significantly when it comes to the national level. Consequently, residential NZEBs can be characterised with altering building physical characteristics and various energy demands, according to the location of the buildings. More than that, not only the...

Identification of dynamic U-values for supply-air double windows based on experiments

Yujian Huang, Mohamed El Mankibi & Richard Cantin
The double windows with supply-air are recommended for both new and retrofitted buildings where preheating fresh air is needed especially when dealing with historical and protected buildings. To evaluate their energy saving potentials in buildings and optimize their performance, building energy simulations are necessary. In building energy simulation tools, the thermal transmittance (i.e., U-value) is one of the most important input parameters. The conventional U-value is a static indicator and a number of numerical studies...

Energy consumption characteristics based on monitored data

Kristina Vassiljeva, Margarita Matson, Eduard Petlenkov, Juri Belikov, Matrin Thalfeldt & Jarek Kurnitski
This study is an initial step for a creation of smart platform for schools in Estonia which will model, analyze, and evaluate the real energy performance of school buildings. Energy meters provide electricity consumption data which can be used to understand energy usage patterns and finally improve building energy management. First, data preparation is made. On the following step hierarchical clustering is applied to identify the outliers of weekly electricity load profiles. Finally, daily electrical...

Development of occupancy-based multi-scale building archetypes

Divyanshu Sood, Ibrahim Alhindawi, Usman Ali, James McGrath, Miriam Byrne & James O’Donnell
In the context of the European building stock, more than 50 % of buildings were built before 1960, and it has been estimated that 75 % of the current building stock will still exist in 2050. A typical approach to estimate energy consumption at multiple scales is by using archetypes which are the cohort of representative buildings with similar characteristics. Typically, archetypes are classified based on year of construction, type of dwelling and type of...

Health monitoring

Bram Hajee, Kees Wisse & Peyman Mohajerin Esfahani
Multi-sensor networks are becoming more and more popular in order to assess the post occupancy performance of smart buildings, since they enable continuous monitoring with a high spatial resolution of the occupancy, thermal comfort and indoor air quality. An urgent, but poorly attended topic in this field is the automated detection of sensor anomalies. For example, CO2-sensors can perform auto-calibration, during which the data is not reliable. Without identifying the poor reliability of this data,...

Ventilation and air conditioning for school buildings

Pavol Štefanič & Zuzana Straková
One of the basic problems of school buildings is the unsatisfactory thermal insulation properties of peripheral building structures. Unsatisfactory, especially in terms of the creation and long-term maintenance of microclimatic conditions in the classroom, is the complete absence of mechanical ventilation systems. In almost all schools, ventilation is based on the natural exchange of air through windows. Such a solution is no longer satisfactory today. In the old school buildings, the old ventilation shafts were...

Monitoring a deep energy renovated building

Matthias Haase
A typical residential building from 1937 located near Wurzburg in Germany, was deep retrofitted in 2013. The energy use and costs could be drastically reduced compared to the old building. However, increase in energy costs can thread economic success. Therefore, it is important to monitor also the performance of the different technical systems. A measurement campaign of a real building with energy consumption and production (“prosumer model”) proves the concept of prosumer over time. The...

Machine Learning Models for Indoor PM2.5 Concentrations in Residential Architecture in Taiwan

Lin Yu Chen, Yaw Shyan Tsay & Chien Chen Jung
People typically spend 80-90% of their time indoors. Therefore, establishing prediction models estimate particulate matter (PM2.5) concentration in indoor environments is of great importance, especially in residential households, in order to allow for accurate assessments of exposure in epidemiological studies. However, installing monitoring instruments to collect indoor PM2.5 data is both labor and budget-intensive. Therefore, indoor PM2.5 concentration prediction models have become critical issues. This study aimed to develop a predictive model for hourly household...

Development of the TAIL rating scheme for indoor environmental quality in schools

Minh-Tien Tran, Wenjuan Wei, Claire Dassonville, Corinne Mandin, Pawel Wargocki & Valérie Hequet
The TAIL rating scheme was developed to assess indoor environmental quality (IEQ) in offices and hotels undergoing deep renovation and was recently extended by the PredicTAIL method allowing prediction of IEQ through modeling. TAIL provides the methodology for rating the quality of the thermal, acoustic, and luminous environments, the indoor air quality, and the overall quality of the indoor environment. The present work is an extension of the use of TAIL rating scheme for school...

Performance evaluation of balanced heating and cooling with hydronic ceilings and floors

Peter Holzer, Georgios Gourlis & Philipp Stern
Climate change increases the necessity of cooling demand in European housing. Systematic solutions in building planning and construction level are essential in order to avoid retrofit air conditioning units’ installations. Implementation of Low Temperature Heating and High Temperature Cooling with embedded water-based systems is gaining ground in large scale residentials projects, being already a standardised practise in the tertiary building sector. In all related systems, heat dissipation and absorption at low temperature difference to room...

Digital system interaction test

Rebekka Benfer, Ralf Ulmer, Eike Hinck, Jochen Müller, Samuel Rischmüller & Stefan Plesser
Technical building systems are becoming increasingly complex, more diverse and more strongly networked through building automation systems. As a result, resource-saving and energy-efficient operation can be achieved. In practice, however, faults and deficiencies often exist in the systems that prevent the most efficient plant operation possible. The deficiencies include, for example, an incorrect parameterization of systems, controller settings that are not matched and optimized to the system, and inadequate cross-plant automation functions. In practice, various...

BIM-based circular building assessment and design for demountability

Tetiana Lukianova, Cihan Kayaçetin, Lode Lefevre, Alexis Versele & Ralf Klein
The on-going transformation of the linear economy model (LE) to a sustainable circular economy (CE) creates new challenges for information management, evaluation methods, and information exchange. This impacts also the traditional definitions of roles and processes in the AEC sector. OpenBIM and a proper definition of the design process and the key decision points based on EN ISO 19650 and using the IDM framework (EN ISO 29481) can help to master these challenges. This is...

Reference Architecture for Data-Driven Smart Buildings Using Brick and LBD Ontologies

Pieter Pauwels & Gabe Fierro
With the increasing adoption of sensors, actors and IoT devices in existing buildings, the real estate sector is becoming increasingly automated. Not only do these devices allow to monitor these buildings (energy use, occupancy, indoor air quality, etc), they also enable modelpredictive control (MPC) through building automation and control systems (BACS). A critical feature to enable these is the metadata associated to data streams obtained from the building. Such metadata allows building operators to assess...

structured approach to online education of future HVAC and energy professionals

Laure Itard, Philomena Bluyssen & Paula Van Den Brom
The HVAC sector is essential to realize the energy transition and is facing numerous challenges like educating enough HVAC engineers to carry out the task and being able to integrate knowledge from the construction, energy, IT and health sectors and to cope with rapid technological changes. The availability of structured and easy-to-follow courses on HVAC and energy systems for buildings at higher education level could help to motivate (future) engineers to contribute to the HVAC...

Interactive GUI for enhancing user awareness applying IoT-sensors and physics-assisted AI

Dietmar Siegele, Paola Penna, Alice Schweigkofler, Orjola Braholli, Michael Riedl & Dominik T. Matt
Several studies proved that occupant behaviour has a significant impact on energy consumption and indoor comfort. Thus, monitoring data and Internet of Things solutions are used to address behavioural changes for promoting energy efficiency and increasing, at the same time, the comfort perception. The possibility of seeing invisible information, such as energy consumption or comfort parameters, on a digital support have been proved to be effective in increasing users’ awareness and to encourage efficient behaviours....

Should we ventilate differently in an adaptable context?

Oskar Seuntjens, Bert Belmans, Matthias Buyle, Zakarya Kabbara, Sandy Jorens & Amaryllis Audenaert
Currently a great number of buildings, that are not able to meet the evolving needs of building owners and users, are being demolished before reaching their technical life span. To avoid such waste, it is crucial that buildings have an adaptable design in order to allow for flexible building usage. Ventilation is crucial in this transition as a flexible building usage can lead to fluctuating ventilation requirements. However, knowledge about how to choose between ventilation...

Influence of temperature and relative humidity on subjective and objective air quality data in shopping centers

Mahmoud El-Mokadem, Kai Rewitz & Dirk Müller
Germany has 493 shopping centers mostly located in urban cities. According to STASTICA, the number of shopping centers was doubled in the last two decades .For consumers, good indoor air quality (IAQ) is a basic requirement for their shopping experience. This leads to very high air exchange rates for current operation of HVAC systems in shopping centers. Accordingly, achieving good IAQ in combination with increasing energy efficiency is a main issue for operation. Thus, previous...

comparative study of solar cooling technologies

Beethoven Narváez-Romo, Eliane Hayashi Suzuki & José R. Simões-Moreira
The environmental impacts of refrigeration and air conditioning applications include synthetic refrigerant fluids use and the high demand for electrical energy for activation, being critical in places whose energy mix depends on fossil fuels. Brazil has advantages due to hydroelectricity and the high incidence of solar irradiation, enabling solar energy technologies in refrigeration cycles. This work aims to study the technical-economic feasibility of photovoltaic energy to drive the vapor compression refrigeration system, and solar thermal...

domOS: an “Operating System” for Smart Buildings

Junior Dongoa, Dominique Gabioud, Amir Laadhar, Martin Meyer, Brian Nielsen, Frédéric Revaz & Christian Thomsen
Smart energy services deployed in buildings have the potential to increase their energy efficiency and to turn them into active nodes of energy grids, with limited costs and in the short term. Today, smart services are deployed by manufacturers of energy appliances as independent silo solutions. The lack of a common approach prevents the deployment of unified multi-appliance, multi-service solutions. This paper presents the domOS ecosystem specification, a guideline for a unified organisation of energy...

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