427 Works

Thermal environment in simulated office rooms generated by active ceiling diffuser with radiant panels

Panu Mustakallio, Pekka Kanerva, Yuxin Wu & Risto Kosonen
Ventilation airflow rates are typically controlled based on occupancy, air quality and heat load levels in office rooms with variable air volume (VAV) system. Additional water-based cooling is often the most energy efficient to use when cooling by cold ventilation air for occupancy and indoor air quality does not cover heat gains. This can be done by air-water system, by combining ceiling diffusers with radiant panels. The target of operation of these room units is...

Repeated solar regeneration of a medium-term heat storage for a heat pump

Annemarie Lauffer & Christian Schweigler
This paper deals with a heat pump system with two heat sources, a medium-term ground collector heat storage and a façade-integrated massive solar-thermal collector. Aiming at affordable system cost, a medium-term heat storage is applied instead of a seasonal heat storage. During milder phases of the heating period, the heat storage is regenerated by the solar absorber to be used as ambient heat source under frosty weather conditions. Preparing for the design of heat pump...

Impact of the Weather Forecast Quality on a MPCdriven Heat Pump Heating System

Sebastian Hummel, Christina Betzold & Arno Dentel
Electrically driven heat pumps offer in combination with thermal energy storage systems the potential to response to fluctuating renewable energy sources, e.g. photovoltaics. To fully exploit this flexibility and financial potential, smart predictive control strategies such as Model Predictive Control (MPC) are needed. For such a controller, weather forecast data are mandatory to perform the optimization. Several sources of weather forecast data are available with variable forecasting quality. In this study, the impact of the...

Practical Application of DC Droop Control with IoT capabilities

Damiën Zuidervliet, Holly Engelbrecht, Christiaan Nagy, Diëgo Zuidervliet & Peter Van Duijsenea
The application of DC grids is gaining more attention in office applications. Especially since powering an office desk would not require a high power connection to the main AC grid but could be made sustainable using solar power and battery storage. This would result in fewer converters and further advanced grid utilization. In this paper, a sustainable desk power application is described that can be used for powering typical office appliances such as computers, lighting,...

Study of Using R290 Refrigerant Replacement in a Heat Pump Application

Tarlea Gratiela, Mardare George & Tarlea Ana
The study represents a new approach in the research of the advantages obtained by the water-to-water heat pumps. This original system can use a renewable energy resource, respectively groundwater, rivers or sea water and can achieve both the heating and cooling requirements of a location. The study represents also a research in the field of energy efficiency and environmental optimization of heat pumps by changing the refrigerant R407C to R290. For testing, an open circuit...

Reference Architecture for Data-Driven Smart Buildings Using Brick and LBD Ontologies

Pieter Pauwels & Gabe Fierro
With the increasing adoption of sensors, actors and IoT devices in existing buildings, the real estate sector is becoming increasingly automated. Not only do these devices allow to monitor these buildings (energy use, occupancy, indoor air quality, etc), they also enable modelpredictive control (MPC) through building automation and control systems (BACS). A critical feature to enable these is the metadata associated to data streams obtained from the building. Such metadata allows building operators to assess...

Numerical analysis of germicidal uv-c lamp air disinfection system

Tunahan Akış, Ziya Haktan Karadeniz & Orhan Ekren
In this study, four germicidal UV-C lamps that are in a 600x600 square duct are numerically investigated. Also an UV reactor design is investigated for high resistive microorganisms. Air flow in the duct has 3000 m3/h volumetric flow rate. Simulations are conducted with commercial computational fluid dynamics solver ANSYS-FLUENT. In square duct, Lamps has 75 W UV power and their electrical efficiency depends on UV radiation generation, lamp surface temperature, contact air humidity, lamp working...

Multi-zone Dynamic Simulations for Investigation of Occupant Behaviour and Building Performance

Elisa Venturi, Fabian Ochs & Mara Magni
The study aims to investigate the correlation between occupant preferences, occupant thermal comfort and building energy performances by means of dynamic building simulations. Moreover, the design power of a central heating system is studied in correlation with an increasing number of occupants with non-standard behaviour. A building consisting of 24 office rooms and a common traffic zone, distributed on 3 floors is simulated in MATLAB Simulink environment. The heating demand evaluated considering the climate of...

Simulating indoor air quality in London hospitals

Shih-Che Hsu, Ian Hamilton, Anna Mavrogianni & Rob Liddiard
Healthcare premises are energy-intensive buildings, and their operation and performance are critical to healthcare delivery and the protection of patients. A key step towards ensuring people’s wellbeing and facilitating recovery is establishing the distributions of indoor air pollutants and temperature, and associated exposures in hospitals. Microenvironment pollutant concentrations are determined by the generation of indoor sources of pollution and the penetration of outdoor air to the indoors. In hospitals, the conditions for air pollution are...

Productivity prediction via human physiological signals for an optimum thermal environment

Dongwoo Yeom, Taegeun Kim & Sung-Guk Yoon
This study aims to understand the relationship between indoor temperature, physiological signals, thermal sensation, and productivity and to estimate the occupant’s productivity. A series of human experiments were conducted with 48 participants, and local skin temperatures, heart rate, and thermal sensation data were collected in 6 temperature conditions. OSPAN (Operation Span Task) was used to measure the occupant’s productivity and the LightGBM algorithm was used to generate a predictive model. The result verified that there...

structured approach to online education of future HVAC and energy professionals

Laure Itard, Philomena Bluyssen & Paula Van Den Brom
The HVAC sector is essential to realize the energy transition and is facing numerous challenges like educating enough HVAC engineers to carry out the task and being able to integrate knowledge from the construction, energy, IT and health sectors and to cope with rapid technological changes. The availability of structured and easy-to-follow courses on HVAC and energy systems for buildings at higher education level could help to motivate (future) engineers to contribute to the HVAC...

Interactive GUI for enhancing user awareness applying IoT-sensors and physics-assisted AI

Dietmar Siegele, Paola Penna, Alice Schweigkofler, Orjola Braholli, Michael Riedl & Dominik T. Matt
Several studies proved that occupant behaviour has a significant impact on energy consumption and indoor comfort. Thus, monitoring data and Internet of Things solutions are used to address behavioural changes for promoting energy efficiency and increasing, at the same time, the comfort perception. The possibility of seeing invisible information, such as energy consumption or comfort parameters, on a digital support have been proved to be effective in increasing users’ awareness and to encourage efficient behaviours....

A web-based approach to BMS, BIM and IoT integration

Lasitha Chamari, Ekaterina Petrova & Pieter Pauwels
Buildings are complex cyber-physical systems that rely on a combination of heterogeneous systems to provide smooth operation, energy efficiency, occupant comfort, well-being and safety. Building Management Systems (BMS) are central to these operations and generate a huge amount of data. Traditionally operated in a local server in a building, state-of-art BMS solutions are now moving towards the cloud. Internet of Things (IoT) meters and sensors are also increasingly used in buildings and hold tremendous potential...

Health and energy assessment of a demand controlled mechanical extraction ventilation system

Janneke Ghijsels, Klaas De Jonge & Jelle Laverge
Today, the assessment of residential demand controlled ventilation systems only considers the perceived indoor air quality in terms of comfort, with CO2 and humidity as the main parameters to investigate. However, the ventilation system and its controls also have an impact on the health aspect of Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) due to the higher exposure to unhealthy pollutants (Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), fine dust particles, e.g. PM2.5). In this paper, two demand controlled mechanical extraction...

Performance evaluation of balanced heating and cooling with hydronic ceilings and floors

Peter Holzer, Georgios Gourlis & Philipp Stern
Climate change increases the necessity of cooling demand in European housing. Systematic solutions in building planning and construction level are essential in order to avoid retrofit air conditioning units’ installations. Implementation of Low Temperature Heating and High Temperature Cooling with embedded water-based systems is gaining ground in large scale residentials projects, being already a standardised practise in the tertiary building sector. In all related systems, heat dissipation and absorption at low temperature difference to room...

domOS: an “Operating System” for Smart Buildings

Junior Dongoa, Dominique Gabioud, Amir Laadhar, Martin Meyer, Brian Nielsen, Frédéric Revaz & Christian Thomsen
Smart energy services deployed in buildings have the potential to increase their energy efficiency and to turn them into active nodes of energy grids, with limited costs and in the short term. Today, smart services are deployed by manufacturers of energy appliances as independent silo solutions. The lack of a common approach prevents the deployment of unified multi-appliance, multi-service solutions. This paper presents the domOS ecosystem specification, a guideline for a unified organisation of energy...

Digital system interaction test

Rebekka Benfer, Ralf Ulmer, Eike Hinck, Jochen Müller, Samuel Rischmüller & Stefan Plesser
Technical building systems are becoming increasingly complex, more diverse and more strongly networked through building automation systems. As a result, resource-saving and energy-efficient operation can be achieved. In practice, however, faults and deficiencies often exist in the systems that prevent the most efficient plant operation possible. The deficiencies include, for example, an incorrect parameterization of systems, controller settings that are not matched and optimized to the system, and inadequate cross-plant automation functions. In practice, various...

BIM-based circular building assessment and design for demountability

Tetiana Lukianova, Cihan Kayaçetin, Lode Lefevre, Alexis Versele & Ralf Klein
The on-going transformation of the linear economy model (LE) to a sustainable circular economy (CE) creates new challenges for information management, evaluation methods, and information exchange. This impacts also the traditional definitions of roles and processes in the AEC sector. OpenBIM and a proper definition of the design process and the key decision points based on EN ISO 19650 and using the IDM framework (EN ISO 29481) can help to master these challenges. This is...

comparative study of solar cooling technologies

Beethoven Narváez-Romo, Eliane Hayashi Suzuki & José R. Simões-Moreira
The environmental impacts of refrigeration and air conditioning applications include synthetic refrigerant fluids use and the high demand for electrical energy for activation, being critical in places whose energy mix depends on fossil fuels. Brazil has advantages due to hydroelectricity and the high incidence of solar irradiation, enabling solar energy technologies in refrigeration cycles. This work aims to study the technical-economic feasibility of photovoltaic energy to drive the vapor compression refrigeration system, and solar thermal...

Influence of temperature and relative humidity on subjective and objective air quality data in shopping centers

Mahmoud El-Mokadem, Kai Rewitz & Dirk Müller
Germany has 493 shopping centers mostly located in urban cities. According to STASTICA, the number of shopping centers was doubled in the last two decades .For consumers, good indoor air quality (IAQ) is a basic requirement for their shopping experience. This leads to very high air exchange rates for current operation of HVAC systems in shopping centers. Accordingly, achieving good IAQ in combination with increasing energy efficiency is a main issue for operation. Thus, previous...

Should we ventilate differently in an adaptable context?

Oskar Seuntjens, Bert Belmans, Matthias Buyle, Zakarya Kabbara, Sandy Jorens & Amaryllis Audenaert
Currently a great number of buildings, that are not able to meet the evolving needs of building owners and users, are being demolished before reaching their technical life span. To avoid such waste, it is crucial that buildings have an adaptable design in order to allow for flexible building usage. Ventilation is crucial in this transition as a flexible building usage can lead to fluctuating ventilation requirements. However, knowledge about how to choose between ventilation...

Inclusive Stations

Manuela Triggianese & Yagiz Söylev

Precoding skills - Teaching computational thinking to preschoolers in Singapore using unplugged activities

Vidhi Singhal
Computational Thinking (CT) by now is widely recognized as an important skill in K-12 education. Research suggests that, during children's early formative years, certain types of experiences, including exploration, exposure to basic skills, and practice with rich communication, among others, are critical to support typical development (Ramey and Ramey 1999). Exposure to these experiences cultivates school readiness, which in turn supports children's later achievement. The same holds true for CT. Exposing children to different kinds...


Marc Jansen, Nardie Fanchamps, Marcelo Milrad, Marcus Specht & Ali Hamidi
One major challenge the educational community is facing relates to how to effectively integrate computational thinking (CT) concepts and ideas into a particular school curriculum. Acquiring CT-skills by means of STEM offers rich opportunities within students´ education which may lead to learning gains. Previous research has shown that, to maximize the appeal and potential of CT learning environments, a precondition must be set first. The materials used must invite problem-based, inquiry-based and self-discovery learning, must...

Comparison of STEM, non-STEM, and Mixed-Disciplines Pre-service Teachers’ Early Conceptions about Computational Thinking

Wendy HUANG, Chee-Kit LOOI & Ibrahim H YETER
This paper presents the results of an investigation on pre-service teacher' conceptions of computational thinking (CT) in Singapore prior to a two-hour introductory module on CT. Of 407 teachers, 280 provided valid responses to the pre-survey, which included questions on teachers' school subjects, current understandings of CT, confidence in their understandings of CT, and sources of the understandings. We deductively coded the open-ended responses through thematic analysis using four categories from a synthesis review on...

Registration Year

  • 2022
  • 2021

Resource Types

  • Text
  • Book


  • Delft University of Technology
  • Harbin Institute of Technology
  • University of Paris-Est
  • Wuhan Modern Urban Agriculture Planning and Design Institute
  • IHE Delft Institute for Water Education
  • Wuhan University
  • Council for Scientific and Industrial Research