621 Works

Curb Your Enthusiasm: On Scarcity and Replenishment in Literature

Klaus Benesch
In literature and the arts, scarcity has often been given a positive interpretation. It appears in the form of asceticism: something to be cherished not shunned, actively endorsed and idealized rather than dismissed as an obstacle to artistic success. Romantic notions of the “artist in the garret” living a life of poverty for art’s sake, or the idea that art is the product of genius, make rarity a source of value. In the abundance and...

VDB-Regionalverband Südwest. Rückblick auf das Jahr 2016

Robert Scheuble

Kein Königsweg - die Vermittlung von Forschungsdatenkompetenz auf allen universitären Ebenen

Kerstin Helbig & Pamela Aust
Die Strategien und Erfahrungen der Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin bei der Einführung von Schulungs- und Informationsangeboten für Universitätsangehörige im Bereich Forschungsdatenmanagement werden in diesem Artikel dargestellt. Dabei werden insbesondere Unterschiede zwischen den Zielgruppen, aber auch geeignete Schulungsformate sowie Probleme und zukünftige Herausforderungen thematisiert. The article presents the strategies and experiences of Humboldt University, Berlin, in introducing workshops and offers of information about research data management for university members. In particular, the paper addresses the differences between...

Kooperative Informationskompetenzvermittlung im Fach Architektur: Lehrveranstaltungsreflexion eines Blended-Learning-Workshops mithilfe der Theorie des constructive alignments

Simone Kibler
Kooperative Informationskompetenzvermittlung ist gewünscht und sinnvoll, dennoch ist diese in Deutschland bisher nicht flächendeckend umgesetzt. Die Universitätsbibliothek Braunschweig kooperiert bereits mit zahlreichen Fakultäten und Instituten der Technischen Universität Braunschweig und erprobt neue Formate der kooperativen Vermittlung. Im vorliegenden Artikel geht es um die theoriegeleitete Evaluation eines Blended-Learning-Workshops zur Vermittlung ausgewählter Aspekte der Informationskompetenz im Fach Architektur. Cooperative impartation of information literacy is both desired and necessary. However, nationwide implementation has not been achieved yet. The...

Dragons Abroad: Chinese Migration and Environmental Change in Australasia

James Beattie
This article examines the role played by Chinese immigration in shaping and understanding the landscapes of New Zealand and Australia. Chinese immigrants were instrumental in the advance of goldmining and the kinds of technology adopted; they also built settlements and planted gardens to grow food. Their understanding of their new environment and their ways of interacting with it are a fundamental part of the environmental history of the continent.

Whose Anthropocene? A Response

Dipesh Chakrabarty
Chakrabarty responds to the contributors of this volume by addressing five issues he considers fundamental to discussions on climate change. He addresses the biogeological aspects of climate change, the Anthropocene and the inequities of capitalism, politics in and of the Anthropocene, species thinking, and the narratives that currently exist.

Losing the Unruly Stream: Kondopoga and the Kivach Waterfall

Grigory Suzi
In 1929, the Kondopoga hydroelectric power station was built and resulted in the damming of Lake Girvas and diversion of the Suna River. This transformation of landscape resulted in the near loss of one of Russia's foremost nature sites: the Kivach waterfall. As less water went downstream, the famous Kivach cascade waterfall grew markedly shallower, and two further cascade waterfalls—the Girvas and the Poor-porog—dried up altogether.

“The People’s Fuel”: Turf in Ireland in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries

Liam Kennedy
The focus of this paper is on turf as a source of heat and energy for households. Ireland was a largely agrarian society in the nineteenth century, and, with the notable exception of the northeast of the island, modern industrialization did not take root until the later twentieth century. Domestic fuel supply was the critical energy issue. The subsistence crops of potatoes and turf constituted the mainstay of living over much of Ireland before the...

Utopian Struggle: Preconceptions and Realities of Intentional Communities

William James Metcalf
Most people know little about intentional communities, and what they think they know is often wrong. Metcalfe discusses some of these preconceptions and why they are inaccurate. Intentional communities have been recorded over two and a half millennia and are anything but a modern phenomenon. Moreover, their membership and goals are quite diverse. What defines intentional communities is an attempt to live beyond the bounds of mainstream society by adopting a consciously devised and usually...

Coal in the Age of the Oil Sands

Liza Piper
While Alberta’s oil sands are the focus of much scholarly and political attention, coal, as Piper argues in this article, has also played an important role in the Canadian province’s history. Once essential to Alberta’s economy, the coal industry declined in the post-World War Two period, rebounding by the early 1970s thanks to government support. This renaissance coincided with the emergence of a new environmentalist consciousness in Alberta, in part focused on the effects of...

The Enjoyment of Complexity: A New Political Anthropology for the Anthropocene?

Jens Kersten
The concept of the Anthropocene calls for a new political anthropology that focuses on human enjoyment of a complex world. The global scale of human influence on the environment means that we are embedded in various social, economic and ecological contexts that are inseparably connected. Even though the Anthropocene originated as a geological description of a new Earth period, it is by necessity an ethical and normative reflexive concept as well. A paradigm change in...

OCR-D - Koordinierte Förderinitiative zur Weiterentwicklung von OCR-Verfahren

Elisa Herrmann & Thomas Stäcker
Das Projekt OCR-D hat zum Ziel, das Verfahren der automatischen Texterkennung historischer Texte weiterzuentwickeln. Nach einer primären Phase der Bedarfsanalyse folgt 2018 die Modulprojektphase. Der vorliegende Artikel beschreibt in Kürze das in der ersten Projektphase erarbeitete Funktionsmodell von OCR-D und geht auf die Herausforderungen der einzelnen Prozessschritte ein. Für diese sollen die Modulprojekte zukünftig Lösungen erarbeiten. The OCR-D Project aims to refine the process of automatic text recognition especially for historical texts. After an initial...

The Fen River in Taiyuan, China: Ecology, Revitalization, and Urban Culture

Matthias Falke
This case study of the Fen River in China’s Shanxi Province explores the interrelationship between urban society and its surrounding ecosystem. From a geographical viewpoint, the article illustrates how, over time, urban society experiences sociocultural change that can be divided into three stages. Starting from a stage of environmental determinism in which cultural behavior is predominantly characterized by adaption to local environment, China’s industrialization of the late 1950s reflects the stage of geographical possibilism accompanied...

Regionalverband Berlin – Brandenburg. Jahresbericht 2016

Karen Schmohl

Ideals and Practices of European Ecovillages

Louise Meijering
In the context of the current global economic crisis, it seems that people are increasingly looking for more sustainable ways of living. Ecovillages provide people with a way to pursue a more sustainable lifestyle. Meijering introduces sustainability ideals and practices of ecovillages, looking first at intentional communities in Europe in general and then ecovillages more specifically. Three ecovillages (Toustrup Mark, Chickenshack, and Tweed Valley) are examined in more detail, focusing on the sustainability ideals and...

Saudi Dreams: Icebergs in Iowa

Rafico Ruiz
The First International Conference on Iceberg Utilization, held at Iowa State University in October 1977, contributed to the formation of nascent hydrologics in the late 1970s that were used to justify incursions into unconventional sites of resource extraction by “dry” nations such as Saudi Arabia. As a central site of water-related knowledge production, the Iceberg Utilization meeting put forward a collection of media that would constitute a form of evidentiary claim in the emergence of...

Snakey Waters, or: How Marine Biology Structured Global Environmental Sciences

Franziska Torma
In the late nineteenth and early twentieth century the ocean was “discovered” as a three-dimensional space filled with living organisms. Investigation of this new frontier caused the world to be reevaluated in a multitude of ways. Research in marine biology brought together economic, political, and cultural interests. Furthermore, marine expeditions transmitted both specific impressions of the world and the respective opinions of participating scientists. Contemporary reports of sea serpents illustrate the attitude towards the sea...

Unruly Environments

Siddhartha Krishnan, Christopher L. Pastore & Samuel Temple
“Unruly environments”—as unwanted, unproductive, and difficult to control spaces—both attract and repel human efforts to transform them. Far from dwindling away in the modern era, these unmastered places are proliferating, in scholarship as in the world at large. As unruly geographies and ecologies—oceans, marshes, grasslands, mountains, and deserts—they frustrate efforts at social and environmental control. As territorial borderlands, they facilitate unexpected cultural exchange, migration, and material flows. As transformed and built landscapes, they generate new...

Critical Urban Gardening

Chiara Certomà
In this article, Chiara Certoma examines the gardening movements that have begun to reclaim public space and the right to produce local food. Critical urban gardening (also called political or radical gardening) includes various informal activism practices that encourage people to garden in any available city space to demonstrate an alternative to the current conventional use of space and the system of food production, distribution, and consumption. The gardens provide inhabitants with colorful and life-affirming...

Energy Transitions in History: The Shift to Coal

Robert C. Allen
In the Middle Ages, the main energy sources were firewood, charcoal, animals, and human muscle power. By 1860, 93 percent of the energy expended in England and Wales came from coal. The transition was slow and much of it happened before the Industrial Revolution: Coal’s share of energy generation in England and Wales rose from 10 percent in 1560 to 35 percent in 1660 and reached 64 percent in 1760, a date that is often...

Beyond Doom and Gloom: An Exploration through Letters

Elin Kelsey
Our worries about the environment are not only academic—they affect us personally. Yet there is a strange silence about the emotional impact of the ways in which we talk about the environment, which is so enmeshed with hopelessness: horrifying statistics and gut-wrenching images that threaten to seal the planet’s fate. How can we best influence and enact a shift beyond “doom and gloom”? The letters in this Perspectives volume are responses to this dilemma. Through...

The Nuclear Disaster of Kyshtym 1957 and the Politics of the Cold War

Thomas Rabl
In the late afternoon of 29 September 1957, a major explosion at the Soviet military nuclear facility "Mayak" located in Kyshtym in the Southern Urals, caused the contamination of an area of 20,000 square kilometers, home to 270.000 people. The Kyshtym incident was the first major nuclear accident in the world and is still considered the third most severe nuclear accident in history. However, it was kept almost completely secret by both the Soviet Union...

Energy, Industry, and Transport in South-Central Africa’s History

Clapperton Chakanetsa Mavhunga
Energy must be seen in interaction with transportation and industry in order for its role in South-Central Africa to be fully understood. All three—energy, industry, and transportation—are themselves always socialized and at the whim of human-engineered mobilities. This article traces the history of energy, industrialization, and transportation from the pre-colonial through the colonial period.

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