589 Works

On the infrasound emission generated by wind turbines

Lars Ceranna , Peter Gaebler, Gernot Hartmann, Patrick Hupe, Christoph Pilger & Andreas Steinberg
Aerodynamic infrasonic signals generated by wind turbines can be detected by highly sensitive micro-barometers showing spectral peaks at the blade passing harmonics, which are above the background noise level. As infrasound is one of the four verification technologies for the compliances with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), decreases in detection capability for dedicated infrasound arrays have to be avoided. Therefore, preventing such decrease is particularly important for the two German infrasound stations IS26 in the...

Similarities of the Scotia and Caribbean Plates: Implications for a common plate tectonic history?!

Burmeister Christian , Paul Wintersteller & Martin Meschede
The active volcanic arcs of the Scotia- and Caribbean Plate are two prominent features along the otherwise passive margins of the Atlantic Ocean, where subduction of oceanic crust is verifiable. Both arcs have been important oceanic gateways during their formation. Trapped between the large continental plates of North- and South America, as well as Antarctica, the significantly smaller oceanic plates show striking similarities in size, shape, plate margins and morphology, although formed at different times...

The spectroscopy of luminescent geological materials

Ian M. Coulson
Luminescence is the non-incandescent emission of light from materials excited by an electron beam. Electron irradiation raises sample electrons to an excited state, which then emit a photon as they return to a lower energy. Luminescence phenemona may be studied in several ways, including spectral and spatial methods. Whilst cathodolominescence (CL) has become an established method of analysis for Earth materials, other forms of luminescence in minerals should not be overlooked. Photoluminescence (PL) studies, for...

On-site hydraulic and mechanical characterization of a claystone around a non-lined test tunnel in Mont Terri, Switzerland

Sina Hale , Xavier Ries , David Jaeggi & Philipp Blum
The rock mass around man-made underground structures inevitably experiences major changes in hydraulic and mechanical properties, commonly referred to as excavation damage. In host rock formations for underground nuclear waste storage, such an excavation damaged zone (EDZ) is potentially critical and therefore requires reliable field data sets for safety assessment and the estimation of the long-term behavior. In this study, different on-site measurements were carried out in the EZ-B niche of the Mont Terri Rock...

Geo-Rational - Ethics in/for the Geosciences

Martin Bohle
Geosciences co-shape the human niche, that is, the planetary network of twinned natural and cultural landscapes. Bundled by global supply chains, human agents (individuals, groups, institutions, corporations) alter the human niche through engineering, production processes and consumption patterns [1]. The resulting [planetary] social-ecological systems exhibit complex-adaptive dynamics. In turn, human agents face system features like counter-intuitive behaviour, irreversible path-dependency and multi-facet values and interests. Geoethical thinking explores cultural substrates that nurture human agents' skills and...

3D Digital Sedimentary Petrology Models

Robert Lander , Linda Bonnell & James Guilkey
“Digital sedimentary petrology” models represent the microstructure of clastic rocks in 3D and use forward process models to simulate diagenesis in response to evolving burial conditions. This modeling approach predicts textures and morphologies that can be readily compared with natural samples and laboratory experiments. These models are useful tools for studying diagenetic processes and also are designed to predict rock microstructure in undrilled areas of the subsurface. Digital petrology models are natural counterparts to “digital...

Magnesium and calcium isotope fractionation during microbial dolomite formation

Michael Tatzel , Adina Paytan , Samantha Carter , Daniel A. Frick , Francisca Martinez-Ruiz , Zach A. DiLoreto , Maria Dittrich , Tomaso R. R. Bontognali & Mónica Sanchez-Román
Microbial mediation is considered an important process for the formation of primary dolomite at ambient temperature. Yet, no structural, mineralogical, chemical or isotopic means exist to discern this mode of dolomite formation from secondary dolomite. To explore the utility of metal isotopes in allowing this distinction we characterize magnesium and calcium stable isotope ratios in primary (proto)dolomites from a modern hypersaline environment. Samples from the Khor Al-Adaid sabkhas in Qatar show consistent isotopic differences of...

New phenomena in ESR spectra of iron ores from Kryvyi Rih deposit

Valentyna Dmytrivna Shvets
The electron spin resonance (ESR) spectra of iron ores from Kryvyi Rih deposit have been measured at two different temperatures: 295 K and 150 K. Two samples of ores were chosen for investigations: hematite ore of the Inguletsky combine of oxidized ores (sample 1) and hematite ore of the Novokryvorizky combine of oxidized ores (sample 2). The broad absorption lines with resonance field 1.546 kOe (sample1) and 1.453 kOe (sample 2) were observed at 295...

Large regional structures from puzzle pieces - the hidden Triassic rift on the western flank of the Eichsfeld-Altmark-Swell

Alexander Malz, Jonas Kley & Heinz-Gerd Röhling
The incorporation of regional geologic knowledge is essential to solve multiple geological questions in any defined research area meaning that small-scale observations must fit with general regional interpretations as well as the tectonic and sedimentary setting. Conversely, in areas with sparse subsurface information, a conceptional knowledge of the observed area must be developed by incorporating and combining small-scale indications into a sound regional geologic model. In this contribution, we collect some of these small-scale “puzzle...

Host influenced geochemical signature in the parasitic foraminifer Hyrrokkin sarcophaga

Nicolai Schleinkofer , David Evans , Max Wisshak(3) , Janina Vanessa Büscher , Jens Fiebig , André Freiwald , Sven Härter , Horst Marschall , Silke Voigt & Jacek Raddatz
Here, we present element to Ca ratios (Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca, Na/Ca and Mn/Ca) and stable isotope data (δ18O, δ13C) of the parasitic foraminifer Hyrrokkin sarcophaga, collected from two different host organisms, Desmophyllum pertusum - a cold-water coral commonly found in cold-water coral reefs and Acesta excavata - a bivalve associated with cold-water coral reefs. Our results reveal that the geochemical signature in H. sarcophaga is influenced by the host organism. Sr/Ca ratios are 1.1 mmol mol-1...

The effect of Co substitution and sample preparation on the Raman spectra of pyrite

Khulan Berkh & Dieter Rammlmair
Effect of Co substitution in pyrite was investigated using a Raman microprobe. Textural appearance of Co-bearing pyrite was visualized by mapping method. The revealed Raman map tightly correlates with a Co distribution map obtained by electron microprobe and µ-energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence microscope. In addition, a strong influence on the pyrite spectra due to sample preparation was documented. The standard mechanical polishing caused highly broadened modes at upshifted frequencies, which could be avoided by analyzing of...

Recurrent continent-scale hiatus surfaces in Europe and links to upper mantle flow

Berta Vilacís , Jorge N. Hayek , Hans-Peter Bunge , Anke M. Friedrich & Sara Carena
Mantle convection is a fundamental driving force for the tectonic activity of our planet. It is commonly perceived that mantle convection is difficult to constrain directly. Its processes, however, affect the surface of the Earth and leave an imprint in the geological record. One response to topographic changes driven by mantle convection is the development of unconformities in the geological record (i.e. the absence of a stratigraphic layer), due to non-deposition or erosion. Modern geological...

Sediment production in the Coastal Cordillera of Chile from detrital apatite geochemistry and thermochronology

Andrea Madella , Christoph Glotzbach & Todd A. Ehlers
We study spatial patterns of sediment production in two catchments of the Coastal Cordillera (Chile) situated in semi-arid and mediterranean bioclimates. To do so, we measure bedrock and detrital apatite trace elements as well as apatite cooling ages with the U/Pb, fission track, U-Th(-Sm)/He thermochronometric systems. The compositional and geochronologic data measured in bedrock are run through a Principal Component Analysis and a Support Vector Machine clustering algorithm to find the parameters that are best...

Reservoir characterization of the coal-bearing Upper Carboniferous clastic succession, Ruhr area, Germany

Jonas Greve , Benjamin Busch , Dennis Quandt & Christoph Hilgers
Structural Geology & Tectonics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology(2);Due to the closure of coal mining in the northwestern German coalfields, active mine water drainage becomes technically redundant. As a result, the rising mine water table affects the subsurface stress conditions and may induce heterogeneous ground movements of fault blocks. Petrophysical properties of the Upper Carboniferous (Westphalian A and B) rocks are crucial to understand subsurface behavior during mine water rise. As a part of the interdisciplinary...

Regional deformation imprints from anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility data – an example from the Raichur Schist Belt (Dharwar Craton, India)

Santu Biswas, Manish A Mamtani , Agnes Kontny & Christoph Hilgers
The Raichur Schist Belt (RSB) is a NW-SE trending late-Archaean greenstone belt that forms part of the supracrustal units lying over an older gneissic basement. Granites (ca 2.5 Ga) occur in the vicinity of the RSB. The metavolcanics and granites are both massive and lack a field foliation and/or lineation. To work out the time-relationship between emplacement, fabric development and regional deformation of the granite vis-à-vis metavolcanic rocks and regional deformation, we performed Anisotropy of...

Volcanic structures and magmatic evolution of the Vesteris Seamount, Greenland Basin

Katharina Anna Unger Moreno, Janis Thal , Wolfgang Bach , Christoph Beier & Karsten Matthias Haase
The solitary intraplate volcano Vesteris Seamount is located in the Central Greenland Basin and rises around 3000 m above the seafloor with a total eruptive volume of ~500 km3. Newly acquired high-resolution bathymetry allows through backscatter data and raster terrain analysis to distinguish several volcanic structures. The Vesteris Seamount is a northeast to southwest elongated stellar-shaped seamount with an elongated, narrow summit radially surrounded by irregular volcanic ridges, separated by volcanic debris fans. Whole rock...

The correlation of radon in different types of buildings and radon prone areas of Cluj-Napoca, Romania.

István Mihály Pap(1)
It is a well-known fact that the city of Cluj-Napoca in Romania has a diverse geological stratification, based on the geological data and studies performed on the soil by geologists. Also, the measurements and studies performed of radon in soil conclude the fact that in certain parts, the geological formations lead to a higher concentration of geogenic radon, thus making the soil in this area a radon prone hotspot. The following presentation aims to show...

Performance of manganese oxide sorbents for direct lithium extraction from geothermal brines

Klemens Slunitschek , Jochen Kolb & Elisabeth Eiche
Lithium is one of the critical elements for the realization of electric mobility and energy transition. With a contribution to global Li-production and recycling of less than 1% (2017), Europe depends almost entirely on Li-import. To reduce the dependency, new and unconventional Li resources are explored in the EU. One resource are highly saline brines from geothermal reservoirs of the Upper Rhine Graben (URG), characterized by Li concentrations of up to 200 mg/L. Due to...

Raman spectroscopy as a functional scientific examination method for minerals, rocks and meteorites in the modern Geosciences

Melanie Kaliwoda , Malte Junge , Felix Hentschel , Wolfgang W. Schmahl , Fabian Dellefant & Claudia Trepmann
Mineralogical State Collection Munich, SNSB and Ludwig Maximilians University, LMU, Germany(1);Ludwig Maximilians University, LMU, Germany(2);Raman spectroscopy is becoming an increasingly important investigative tool in modern geosciences. So it has been applied in the examination of a variety of materials, including meteoritic and igneous rocks, as well as natural and synthetic minerals and crystals. This is not least due to the many advantages of Raman spectroscopy, like very fast measurements, small spot size or different samples...

Threats to groundwater quality in the Anthropocene

Christian Moeck & Mario Schirmer
Groundwater quality degradation is a well-recognized phenomenon and has received considerable attention since the industrial revolution. In spite of this, many aspects concerning the understanding and management of groundwater as a resource remain complex, and adequate information, in many cases, remains elusive. Strategies to protect and manage groundwater quality are often based on limited data and thus restricted system knowledge. As questions remain about the behaviour and prediction of well-known groundwater contaminants, new concerns around...

Petrographic characterisation of the Algeciras Unit, Campo de Gibraltar Complex, S Spain

Heike Koch & Tom McCann
The layer-cake strata of the epeiric Anisian-Ladinian Muschelkalk are devoid of large-scale architectural elements, e. g. steep clinoforms of a progThe Cenozoic-age Algeciras Unit is a deep-marine unit cropping out between Algeciras and Tarifa and forms part of the Campo de Gibraltar Complex (Flysch Trough Units) of southern Spain. The Campo de Gibraltar Complex is situated along the contact between the internal and external zones of the Betic Cordillera. The various units range from Cretaceous...

Toxicological effects of rare earth elements to photosynthetic organisms

Edith Padilla Suárez, Antonietta Siciliano, Marco Guida, Giovanni Pagano, Marco Trifuoggi, Sara Serafini, Emilia Galdiero, Franca Tommasi, Giusy Lofrano, Isidora Gjata, Antonios Apostolos Brouziotis, Renato Liguori & Giovanni Libralato
Rare earth elements (REEs) have become a key component in many technological applications. Due to the rapid increase in their use, the potential environmental exposure has also expanded. However, the effects on the ecosystem have not been yet thoroughly evaluated, leaving many knowledge gaps. To evaluate the effects of REEs, a set of experiments with acute and chronic exposure were performed on photosynthetic organisms. The effects of acute exposure of four elements (cerium, gadolinium, lanthanum...

Uncertainty Quantification for Geothermal Basin- and Reservoir-Scale Applications

Denise Degen, Mauro Cacace, Magdalena Scheck-Wenderoth, Karen Veroy & Florian Wellmann
Numerical simulations of the governing geophysical processes are crucial for geothermal applications in order to characterize the subsurface. This characterization presents us with major challenges ranging from the correct physical and geometrical characterization to the quantification of uncertainties. Quantifying rock physics uncertainties and performing other probabilistic inverse methods is, even with current state-of-the-art finite element solver and high-performance infrastructures, computationally not feasible for complex basin- and reservoir-scale geothermal applications due to the large spatial, temporal,...

Changing carbonate budgets and the maintenance of coral reefs and reef islands

Chris T Perry
The ecology and structure of many tropical coral reefs have altered markedly over the past few decades. Drivers of this degradation range from direct local damage from destructive human practices to global scale climate stressors, and especially those associated with elevated sea‐surface temperature anomalies. A major consequence of these climatic and pervasive local stressors has often been a rapid decrease in the abundance of habitat building corals, which has consequently reduced reef structural complexity and...

Towards a green future – Where is the critical raw material resource potential in Europe?

Daniel P. de Oliveira
The “Green Future”; a concept of desirable European climate-neutral living conditions, which is the goal of the EU Green Deal means a huge increase in the use of mineral raw materials. Minerals are an essential component for many of today’s rapidly growing clean energy technologies – from wind turbines and electricity networks to electric vehicles. But ensuring that these and other key technologies can continue to rely on sufficient mineral supplies to support the acceleration...

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Affiliations

  • Karlsruhe Institute of Technology
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  • Helmholtz Centre Potsdam - GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences
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  • Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources
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  • Technical University of Darmstadt
    20
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  • Leibniz University Hannover
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