461 Works

The INSIDE project: Investigating the impact of geothermal exploitation in the Munich area – The induced seismicity perspective.

Jérôme Azzola , Emmanuel Gaucher , Felix Bögelspacher , Ralph Baasch , Bernhard Betzl & Ilka Schultz
Scientific research is carried out in the framework of the INSIDE project (supported by the German Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy, BMWi) to assess the impact of deep geothermal exploitation on induced seismicity in the Munich area (Germany, Molasse Basin). The project involves the research institute Karlsruhe Institute of Technology as well as two geothermal operators, Stadtwerke München (SWM) and Innovative Energie für Pullach (IEP). The research work focuses on three aspects: the...

Artificial neural networks acting as geothermometer for reservoir temperature estimation

Mark Vollmer , Lars Helge Yström , Fabian Nitschke & Thomas Kohl
The application of geothermometry has been used for the last six decades for geothermal reservoir temperature estimation. A steady evolution of conventional geothermometers to multicomponent tools as well as application of artificial intelligence are nowadays available. The development of high-performing computers offers the possibility to use deep learning algorithm for reservoir temperature estimation. Serving a selection of geochemical input parameters to artificial neural networks, they can be used to predict temperatures in the subsurface. Therefore,...

Role of asperities on the transition from seismic to aseismic slip using an experimental fault slip system

Weiwei Shu , Olivier Lengliné & Jean Schmittbuhl
Faults are common geological structures distributed at various depths within the Earth with different behaviors: from seismic to aseismic. The frictional stability of faults is linked to the properties of asperities that make the contact between fault surfaces. Investigating the interaction between asperities and their link with the frictional stability of faults aims at a better understanding of the intrinsic relationships between the observations of earthquake swarms and the slow local aseismic transient. Here we...

The permeability of granite deformed in the brittle regime to large strains: Implications for the permeability of fractured geothermal reservoirs

Michael Heap , Hugo Duwiquet , Luke Griffiths , Laurent Guillou-Frottier , Patrick Baud & Marie Violay
Efficient fluid flow and circulation are important for an economically viable geothermal reservoir. One type of underexplored reservoir for high-temperature geothermal exploitation is a crustal fault zone, where hot fluids from depths corresponding to the brittle-ductile transition are brought to the surface via crustal-scale, permeable fault zones. To better understand the evolving permeability of reservoir rock during deformation in the brittle regime—fault formation and sliding on the fault—we performed triaxial experiments on samples of well-characterised...

Inversion of Borehole Temperature Data Using Surrogate Model

Jia Wang , Fabian Nitschke , Emmanuel Gaucher & Thomas Kohl
The undisturbed or static formation temperature (SFT) is a key objective of the borehole measurements analysis. Conventional methods to estimate SFT require borehole temperature data measured during thermal recovery periods. As such, shut-in conditions should prevail for temperature logging, which can be both economically and technically prohibitive in actual operational conditions, especially for high-temperature boreholes. This study investigates the use of temperature logs obtained under injection conditions for SFT determination by applying a Bayesian inference...

3D lithofacies modelling and quantitative fault seal analysis in the Altmark region (North German Basin)

Jacob Waechter , Christian Olaf Mueller & Alexander Malz
Geological survey of Saxony-Anhalt, Germany(1);Attributed 3D volumetric models are important tools for geothermal exploration, subsurface storage of natural gases and waste and for risk management (e.g. contamination of ground water or induced seismicity). Of special interest are lithological attributes, which reveal important evidence on characteristics of deep aquifers and reservoir rocks and support project planning. Therefore, we created attributed 3D volumetric models, which base on a detailed 3D structural geological model of the Altmark region...

Three-component fluid mixing: Evidence from trace element and isotope systematics in vent fluids and sulphides from Maka volcano, North Eastern Lau Spreading Centre

Lukas Klose, Manuel Keith, Daniel Hafermaas, Charlotte Kleint, Wolfgang Bach, Alexander Diehl, Frederike Wilckens, Christian Peters, Harald Strauss, Reiner Klemd, Karsten Haase & Andrea Koschinsky
The axial volcanic edifice of Maka at the North Eastern Lau Spreading Centre shows intense hydrothermal activity at two vent sites (Maka HF and Maka South) emitting fluids of distinct composition. We present trace element and isotope data for hydrothermal fluids and related sulphide precipitates that actively form on the seafloor at 1525 to 1543 m water depth. Hydrothermal activity at Maka HF is present as vigorously venting black smoker-type fluids reaching temperatures of ~330°C....

Geochemistry, mineralogy, Cu, Zn and Fe isotopic composition of Gossans found in Cyprus-type VMS systems from the Troodos ophiolite.

Nina Zaronikola, Vinciane Debaille , Sophie Decrée, Ryan Mathur & Christodoulos Hadjigeorgiou
The Troodos ophiolite hosts significant Volcanogenic Massive Sulfide (VMS) systems, well-known as Cyprus-type sulfide deposits. They are mafic type VMS deposits, mainly enriched in copper and zinc and they have been deposited from seawater derived-hydrothermal fluids. Along the Troodos ophiolite, the VMS system is covered by thick, Fe- rich altered caps, known as gossans, which are likely due to weathering of the VMS under oxidizing conditions. However, the conditions for their formation remain largely debated,...

The Saxothuringian “Wrench-and-Thrust Zone” – the connecting link between the Peri-Gondwana shelf and the Variscan orogen.

Franz Müller & Uwe Kroner
The Saxothuringian Zone of the Central European Variscides preserves the sedimentary record of the post-Cadomian shelf and an Early Carboniferous synorogenic basin. Thus, this area reflects the transition from a passive continental margin setting to an active plate boundary zone. Particularly the record of the so called “Wrench-and-Thrust Zone” (WTZ) can be regarded as the connecting link between the Peri-Gondwana shelf and the Variscan orogen. The WTZ separates the complex metamorphic stack of the Erzgebirge-Fichtelgebirge...

Hydrothermal Synthesis of Low Layer Charge Trioctahedral Smectite

Liu Yi-Yu , Nils Schewe , Peter Thissen & Katja Emmerich
Smectites are widely used in (geo-) technical applications and are important components of soils. A definition gap exists between the uncharged non-swellable pyrophyllite and talc (ξ = 0) and the low charged swellable clay minerals (smectites) with 0.2 ≤ ξ ≤ 0.6. Furthermore, no reliable measurement method exists for ξ < 0.2. A recent theoretical study on the hydration of smectites (Emmerich et al. 2018) based on the density functional theory (DFT) indicates the existence...

Metal sources in the actively forming seafloor massive sulfide deposit of the Kolumbo volcano: Insight from the basement rocks

S. Hector , C. G. C. Patten, S. P. Kilias , D. Papanikolaou & C. G. C. Kolb
The shallow submarine Kolumbo volcano , located in the 5 Ma-to-present Aegean volcanic arc in Greece, hosts an active hydrothermal system currently forming polymetallic seafloor massive sulfide (SMS) mineralization on the seafloor, with high As, Ag, Au, Hg, Sb and Tl contents. It is one of the few known SMS deposits associated with continental margin volcanism. The hydrothermal system of the Kolumbo volcano represents an active hybrid analogue style of epithermal and VMS mineralization. The...

Solid Earth applications of global gravity data: from submarines to satellites

Bart Root
Prof. Vening Meinesz opened up the oceans for high precision gravimetric observations. Today, his submarine adventures are an inspiration to my science and education in gravimetric research. We will follow him along his voyage aboard the K18, along which I will discuss several applications using global gravity field models. The theory of isostasy allows us the use the static gravity field to study GIA processes in Fennoscandia and North America. Also, observed crustal structure from...

Si isotope thermometry in silicified carbonate

Michael Tatzel , Marcus Oelze , Moritz Liesegang , Maria Stuff & Michael Wiedenbeck
Cherts, including silicified carbonates, are one of the most detailed and alteration resistant archives of near-surface environments. Yet, the information disclosed in form of stable isotope ratios of Si and O cannot be confidently translated into conditions prevailing at the Earth surface in deep time. Thermometry based on δ18O is compromised by the lack of knowledge about the fluid’s δ18O value and attempts to determine Si sources or temperatures from δ30Si remain unsatisfying. We investigated...

Compositions of hydrothermal vent fluids as a guide to subseafloor mineralization processes

Wolfgang Bach & Alexander Diehl
Studying active hydrothermal systems in the deep-sea provides unique opportunities for furthering our understanding of how polymetallic seafloor massive sulfide accumulations form. The possibility of sampling the ore-forming fluids that are emitted through sulfide-sulfate chimneys is particularly powerful. The use of gas-tight samplers in collecting hydrothermal vent fluids facilitates measurements of the contents of dissolved gases and metals and allows for accurate reconstructions of in situ pH and redox conditions. Metal transport in seafloor hydrothermal...

Long-term mechanical behavior of claystone

Sibylle Irene Mayr
For decades, claystone is investigated as a likely host rock material for the deep geological disposal of highly radioactive waste. To ensure safe operation, knowledge about the long-term (thermo-hydro-) mechanical behavior of clay rock is of significant relevance: How will the excavation induced differential stresses gradually dissipate while causing convergence? Laboratory triaxial tests on the mechanical behavior allow for the controlling of major and minor principal stress (differential stress), pore pressure (effective stress), saturation, temperature...

Methods for the extraction of rarer metals and base chemicals from geothermal brines

Hans - Jürgen Friedrich
Geothermal brines may contain a plenty of chemical elements in a wider range of concentrations ranging from trace to bulk concentration level. This makes such brines interesting for the winning of metals as well as of bulk chemicals. Main constraints are the high temperatures and pressures that should be maintained during processing, the accompanying gases like Methane and/or Hydrogen Sulfide and the enrichment of naturally occuring radionuclides during processing. This can make such processes troublesome....

Tectonic and environmental perturbations at the Permian-Triassic boundary: insights from the Blue Nile River Basin in central Ethiopia

Maryam Mansouri , Matthias Hinderer , Laura Stutenbecker , Guido Meinhold , Enkurie L. Dawit , Jasper Berndt & Robert Bussert
The Blue Nile River Basin contains a thick fluvio-lacustrine sediment succession of Permian to Jurassic age. Its evolution is linked to extensional tectonics during break-up of Pangea in the aftermath of the Carboniferous-Permian glaciation. We collected sandstone samples from several sections in order to study the tectonic evolution and possible impacts of environmental perturbation around the Permian-Triassic boundary. Based on thin-section petrography, bulk-rock geochemistry, heavy mineral spectra, and detrital zircon U-Pb ages we are able...

Numerical Modeling to Study the Impact of Pore Characteristics on the Electric Breakdown of Rock for Plasma Pulse Geo Drilling (PPGD)

Mohamed Ezzat , Daniel Vogler , Benjamin M. Adams & Martin O. Saar
Reducing the cost of drilling is crucial to economically extract deep geothermal energy as drilling costs can reach up to 70% of the total investment budget (Tester et al. 2006). Unfortunately, traditional mechanical rotary drilling is often far too expensive to enable economical geothermal energy extraction from many deep geologic settings due to the amount of energy rotary drilling requires and due to its significant drill bit wear, causing long, unproductive tripping times to exchange...

Assessment of High Temperature Aquifer Storage Potential in Depleted Oil-Reservoirs from the South German Molasse Basin

Ulrich Steiner , Florian Bauer , Katharina Schätzler , Kai Robin Stricker & Eva Schill
In the discussion about the future role of geothermal in the energy transition policy, the topic of underground heat storage became recently more and more prominent. High Temperature Aquifer Storage (HTAS) may make geothermal more efficient by extending it beyond its traditional usage as a base load with also covering middle and even peak load. Depleted oil reservoirs can provide this underground storage capacity and Stricker et. al (2021) have numerically described the thermal storage...

Sandbox – Creating and Analysing Synthetic Sediment Sections with R

Michael Dietze , Sebastian Kreutzer & Margret C. Fuchs
Geoscientific concepts and hypotheses are usually formulated based on empirical data from the field or the laboratory (induction). After translation into models they can be applied to case study scenarios (deduction). However, the other way around – expressing hypotheses explicitly by models and test these by empiric data – is a rarely touched trail. There are several models tailored to investigate the boundary conditions and processes that generate, mobilise, route and eventually deposit sediment in...

GisInfoService – A Web Application of German Aggregates Associations for their Members

Dagmar Kesten
More than 15 years ago the geographical information system GisInfoService was implemented as part of the project ‚GeoRohstoff‘ of the former Commission for Spatial Information Economics (GIW-Kommission). Sponsored by the German Aggregates Associations the purpose of this web application has ever since been to provide the companies of the quarrying industry with relevant spatial information, such as aerial photography, geological and hydrological data or information about land use or conservation areas. Fast access to these...

Multi-proxy, localised reconstructions of climate and weathering from cave speleothem samples

Christopher Day , Philip Pogge von Strandmann , Franziska Lechleitner & Heather Stoll
Speleothems (secondary calcium carbonate formations) offer significant potential for recording environmental processes above caves, an area increasingly referred to as the Critical Zone. Speleothems grow for hundreds to millions of years, with absolute chronology from U-Th and U-Pb chronometers. The solution properties of rainwater infiltrating the soil and underlying caves respond to environmental controls. These environmental signals can be preserved within speleothem carbonates. Recent efforts to calibrate, model and interpret this complex geochemistry has progressed...

Virtual Outcrop Models - Chances and Challenges for Geoscience School Education

Sylke Hlawatsch
Geoscience has a key role in adressing the challenges of sustainability, yet in German schools a regular subject such as Earth sciences does not exist. Teacher feel uncomfortable with teaching the content and unless an infrastructure for geoscience education - including educational research and systematic teacher training - is implemented in all 16 German states this situation is unlikely to change. Thus geoscience outreach activities play an important role in informing the society about the...

Importance of 3d model management to enable FAIR principles for geological models

Paul Gabriel , Daniel Buse , Björn Wieczoreck & Johannes Camin
A high number of 3d geological models are produced every year at mining companies, geological surveys, consulting offices and many other institutions. Many of these models are being created by different authors and usually have a slightly different purpose and need to meet different demands. Yet the underlying geology stays the same. While the data providers can publish a variety of 2d data sets 3d are lacking behind. This leads to a loss of knowledge,...

GEOWiki@LMU – an online platform for university and school education in geosciences

Magdalena Luise Plitz , Katrin Mühlberg , Donja Aßbichler , Laurin Lidl , Malte Junge & Eileen Eckmeier
GEOWiki@LMU is a constantly growing open platform for the promotion of practical and research-oriented knowledge acquisition elaborated by and for students of earth sciences. The contents are developed by students in courses or on their own initiative in interdisciplinary teams. All topics are discussed in weekly editorial online-meetings and revised in close collaboration with lecturers. One of the main goals is to provide information on methods relevant to geosciences. Focus is on field, preparation and...

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