532 Works

Recrystallization and deformation mechanisms in the NEEM deep ice core, Greenland

Ernst-Jan Kuiper, Martyn Drury, Gill Pennock, Hans de Bresser & Ilka Weikusat
Utrecht University, The Netherlands (1); Alfred Wegener Institute, Bremerhaven, Germany (2)

Understanding the evolution of lower latitude climate from the most recent glacial period of the latest Pleistocene to post glacial warmth in the continental tropical regions has been obstructed by a lack of continuous time series. Here we present results from a lacustrine record from tropical North America. Specifically, we examine sediments from Lake Chalco, located in the Valley of Mexico, central Mexico...

Milankovitch-scale paleoclimatic variability recorded in Permian loessite (south-central France)

Lily S.r Pfeifer, Linda Hinnov, Christian Zeeden, Christian Rolf & Christian) Laag
University of Oklahoma, USA (1); Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic, and Earth Sciences, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA, USA (2); Leibniz Institute for Applied Geophysics, Hanover, Germany (3); Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris (IPGP), CNRS, Université de Paris, Paris, France (4)

We present the findings from our recent paper wherein rock magnetic data record discernible Milankovitch-scale paleoclimatic variability through the Permian Salagou Formation loessite (south-central France). Analysis and modeling of this stratigraphic...

North Atlantic sea surface temperature evolution across the Eocene–Oligocene transition

Ilja Japhir Kocken, Kasper van der Veen, Inigo R. Müller, Anna Nele Meckler & Martin Ziegler
Utrecht University, The Netherlands (1); Unviersity of Bergen, Norway (2)

The Eocene–Oligocene Transition (EOT, ~34 Ma), is marked by the rapid development of semi-permanent Antarctic ice-sheet1. Foraminiferal stable oxygen isotopes (δ18O) as well as Mg/Ca and other indicators (e.g. ice-rafted debris) indicate the development of permanent glaciation that potentially coincides with ~2.5 °Cdeep-sea cooling2. However, due to the nature of the δ18O proxy, uncertainties in the Mg/Ca concentrations of the palaeo-seawater, and calibration...

An anatectic model for albite-spodumene pegmatites from the Austroalpine Unit (Eastern Alps)

Tanja Knoll, Benjamin Huet, Ralf Schuster & Heinrich Mali
Geological Survey of Austria, Austria (1); Department of Applied Geosciences and Geophysics, Montanuniversität Leoben (2)

Albite-spodumene pegmatite are considered to be the product of extreme fractionation of melts or fluids deriving from large alkaline granite intrusions. Anatectic melts deriving from partially molten metasediments are in contrast not believed to be a possible source for such pegmatite. In the Austroalpine Unit of the Eastern Alps, albite-spodumene pegmatite are associated with simple pegmatite and relatively...

TRAGULID FAUNA OF NAPAK

Sarah Musalizi & Gertrud E. Rössner
Bayerische Staatssammlung für Paläontologie und Geologie, München Department für Geo- und Umweltwissenschaften, Ludwig- Maximilians-Universität München, Uganda

Chevrotains or mouse-deer (Tragulidae, Mammalia) are non-pecoran ruminant artiodactyls that are considered to have branched off the Ruminantia stem lineage during the late Eocene or Oligocene to Early Miocene. Extant tragulids live in central Africa (Hyemoschus) and South to Southeast Asia (Moschiola, Tragulus).The fossil record is reported to have been more diverse in phenotypes with a wider Afro-Eurasian...

Landslide susceptibility mapping on the country scale with data mining techniques in Armenia

Agnieszka Ledworowska, Anika Braun, Hans-Balder Havenith & Tomás Manuel Fernández-Steeger
Engineering Geology, Technische Universität Berlin, Germany (1); Department of Geology, University of Liège, Belgium (2)

Armenia is a country strongly affected by landslides, but still not enough research has been done on landslide susceptibility in this area. Therefore, the main goal of the study was to create one of the first landslide susceptibility zonation maps covering the entire territory of Armenia. Two different data mining techniques for landslide susceptibility analysis were applied: artificial...

Geoethics and the responsibility of Geoscientist in society: from research to teaching and outreach

Clara Vasconcelos (1) & Nir Orion (2)
Porto University, Portugal (1); Weizmann Institute of Science, Israel (2)

Geoethics emerged as the discipline that studies and reflects upon the values that underpin appropriate human behaviors and practices, whenever humans interact with the Earth. The foundations of geoethics are traced back to three main elements: the importance of geological culture as an essential part of the geoscientist’s background, the concept of responsibility (individual and social), and the definition of an ethical criterion...

Virtual Fieldtrips in Learning & Development: Geology 4 Non-Geologists - North Sea petroleum systems and reservoir geology, Dorset coast, UK

Jürgen Grötsch, Young Kon Yong & Maren Kleemeyer


Training courses in industry are being moved from face-to-face events to virtual equivalents for cost reasons but also for convenience, ie availability of online training where and when needed. This effort also comprises geological fieldtrips which in addition pose significant safety risks. On the other hand, acquiring 3D panoramic images, as well as drone footage in geological outcrops is nowadays inexpensive and easy to process due to hard- and software developments during the last...

Postnatal growth rates of the dwarf hippo Phanourios minor from the Pleistocene of Cyprus

Anneke H. van Heteren & P. Martin Sander
Cyprus, in the Pleistocene, was extremely isolated from a geological and biogeographical point of view. Only two macromammals successfully colonised the island before the Holocene: Elephas cypriotes, approximately 1.4 metres tall at the withers, and Phanourios minor. The latter is the smallest dwarfed hippo ever found; it stood 70 centimetres at the withers and weighed an estimated 200 kilograms, approximately 10% of its mainland ancestor’s weight. The main objective of this study was to determine...

Roots of the post-collisional Eocene magmatism in NE Turkey: Insights from ultramafic-mafic Yıldızdağ Gabbroic Intrusion

Gönenç Göçmengil (1), Zekiye Karacık (2) & Namık Aysal (3)
(1) Acıbadem, Kadıköy, İstanbul-Turkey; (2) İstanbul Teknik University, Geological Engineering Department, Turkey ; (3) Istanbul University- Cerrahpaşa, Geological Engineering Department, Turkey

Ultramafic-mafic cumulate rocks often situated at deep root zones of the magmatic systems when they intruded into continental crustal areas. In rare occurrences, they can also intrude at the middle to upper portion of the crust and record the MASH processes developed within the crust. Yıldızdağ Gabbroic Intrusion (YGI) represents one of the...

Volcanites of MORB and WPB character in the evaporitic Permian Haselgebirge Formation (Eastern Alps, Austria) and possible tectonic implications

Christoph Leitner, Friedrich Finger & Albert Gilg
The evaporitic Haselgebirge Formation hosts in many places small occurrences of basaltic rocks. The geochemistry of these basalts can potentially provide information about the tectonic setting of the Haselgebirge Formation and the evolution of the Meliata ocean, respectively. XRD analysis and thin sections give hints to the original geochemistry, however the basalts altered significantly in contact with brines. Therefore, we present here 70 new XRF analyses of these basaltic rocks from various localities (Pfennigwiese, Annaberg,...

Collecting, sharing, and visualising harmonised data on European raw materials occurrences and mines – success or failure?

Špela Kumelj , Lisbeth Flindt Jørgensen , Frands Schjøth , Andrej Vihtelič , Blaž Bahar & Katarina Hribernik
Geological Survey of Slovenia, Slovenia(1);Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, Denmark(2);Easy web access to useful and reliable mineral information for the whole of Europe is the main objective of the extension of the M4EU base in the GeoERA project Mineral Intelligence for Europe (MINTELL4EU). The foundation has been laid by previous projects such as Minerals4EU, ProSUM, SCRREEN, EuRare, ORAMA, and new ones have been added in collaboration with ongoing projects such as RESEERVE. Europe's geological...

Mine water rebound in German hard coal mines – geochemical and petrophysical data support for an integrative monitoring plan

Henning Jasnowski-Peters, Barbara M.A. Teichert , Till Genth , Lisa Rose & Christian Melchers
Research Center of Post Mining, Technische Hochschule Georg Agricola University, Germany(1);Mine water rebound in German hard coal mine areas operated by RAG AG under the leadership of RAG Foundation is a showcase for post-mining associated research. It is a long-term, cost intensive and multidisciplinary project affecting highly populated urban areas like the Ruhr District. RAG is facing long-term liabilities as regulatory framework for the rebound process. Currently, mine water is pumped from levels down to...

FloodRisk: Earthquakes, uplift, and long-term liabilities – risk minimisation during mine flooding

Dennis Quandt , Michael Alber , Felix Allgaier , Benjamin Busch , Even Markus , Kasper Fischer , Wolfgang Friederich , Jonas Greve , Mathias Knaak , Birgit Müller , Thomas Niederhuber , Detlev Rettenmaier , Martina Rische , Thomas Röckel , Frank Schilling , Daniel Schröder , Olaf Ukelis , Malte Westerhaus , Roman Zorn & Benjamin Busch
Due to the cessation of coal mining in Germany, mine water management in the former coal districts is subject to change and of environmental and economic significance. Since there is no technical need to drain the abandoned coal mines, mine water levels rise. As a result, subsurface rock pore pressures rise changing the subsurface effective stress regime. This may induce local ground movements and activate mining-related and natural fault zones. In order to develop a...

Permeability available for VMS source fluids in altered and fractured lavas in the oceanic crust, Semail ophiolite, Oman

Alannah C. Brett & Larryn W. Diamond
The distribution of permeability in the upper oceanic crust controls hydrothermal circulation and the water–rock interactions that feed seafloor mineralization. A prevailing view is that lavas behave as fractured aquifers whose permeability is dominated by major extensional faults flanked by damage zones. Comparatively little is known about the permeability of the km-wide blocks of crust that lie between major faults, yet such blocks constitute huge sources of leachable metals. Our field mapping of hydrothermal veins...

Biomineralization processes in low-temperature, shallow-water hydrothermal vent at Tagoro submarine volcano, El Hierro Island (Central East Atlantic)

Blanca Rincón-Tomás , Francisco Javier González , Luis Somoza , James R. Hein , Teresa Medialdea , Esther Santofimia, Egidio Marino & Pedro Madureira
A novel hydrothermal system was discovered at the summit of the underwater Tagoro volcano at 89–120 m depth after the 2011–2012 eruption, characterized by the low-temperature venting of Fe-rich fluids that produced a seafloor draped by extensive Fe-flocculate deposits. The basanite-hornitos are capped by mm- to cm-thick hydrothermally derived Fe-oxyhydroxide sediment and contain micro-cracks and degasification vesicles filled by sulfides (mostly pyrite) and covered by sulfur-oxidizing bacterial mats. Electron microprobe studies on Fe-oxyhydroxide crusts show...

Fracture network characterization and DFN modelling of the Upper Carboniferous, Ruhr Area, Germany

Felix Allgaier, Benjamin Busch , Dennis Quandt , Thomas Niederhuber , Birgit Müller & Christoph Hilgers
Since coal mining in the Ruhr Area has been ceased, mine water drainage is gradually reduced leading to the rise of formation water and groundwater levels. Rising mine water levels increase the pore pressure and induce stress changes in the subsurface, which may reactivate natural and/or mining-related faults and fractures. As part of the interdisciplinary FloodRisk project, which aims to enhance the understanding of the geomechanical coupling of increased pore pressure and heterogeneous ground movements,...

Dynamic as always – Sedimentary evolution of a coral reef island from the Spermonde Archipelago, Indonesia

Yannis Kappelmann , Hildegard Westphal , Dominik Kneer , André Wizemann & Thomas Mann
Leibniz Centre for Tropical Marine Research (ZMT), Fahrenheitstraße 6, Bremen, Germany(1);University of Bremen, Bibliothekstraße 1, Bremen, Germany(2);Bioplan GmbH, Strandstraße 32a, 18211 Ostseebad Nienhagen, Germany(3);Bundesanstalt für Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR), Stilleweg 2, Hannover, Germany(4);The effects of changing climate and environmental conditions on coral reef islands have received a lot of attention, and the findings are discussed broadly. The low elevation of such islands above mean sea level and the largely unconsolidated sediment is exposing them to...

Subduction initiation and arc evolution from a rear-arc perspective – A synthesis of results from IODP Exp. 351

Philipp A. Brandl
Subduction is a key process for the plate tectonic cycle and is responsible for the bimodal composition of the Earth’ crust. Whereas active subduction zones can be directly observed at many places, their initiation and the early evolution of the associated volcanic arc can only be studied from the geological record. One key location to study the geological processes related to subduction initiation and subsequent arc emergence and maturation is the Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) subduction zone...

Thermo-compositional models of the West Gondwana cratons

Nils-Peter Finger , Mikhail K. Kaban , Magdala Tesauro , Walter D. Mooney & Maik Thomas
When Western Gondwana broke apart into the South American and African continents ca.120 Ma ago, some of its cratons were broken apart as well. Following the isopycnic hypothesis, their long-term stability and often neutral to positive buoyancy can be explained by the counteracting effects of cooling (density increase) and iron depletion (density decrease). To separate these effects, we created the presented models following an iterative integrated approach using mainly seismic and gravity data. In the...

µ-EDXRF based classification of chromites. A quick approach for testing hand specimen and drill cores.

Dieter Rammlmair & Wilhelm Nikonow
Chromites from ophiolites and layered intrusions show a wide variety in Cr#, Mg# and Cr/Fe ratios. These ratios provide information on the genesis of the chromite deposits e.g. the place of formation. By means of µ-EDXRF this information can be obtained in a very quick way from cut hand specimen. Unfortunately, chromites show a number of very intensive diffraction signals due to the polychromatic beam of the µ-EDXRF system, which even after calculating the minimum...

Inverse modelling of transport distance to reduce ambiguities of microbial and chemical source tracking in karst catchments

Johannes Zirlewagen, Ferry Schiperski , Tobias Licha & Traugott Scheytt
The identification of contamination sources is vital for water protection, especially in highly vulnerable karst aquifers. Contamination sources might be distinguished by host-specific DNA markers of bacteria (Microbial Source Tracking, MST) or source-specific indicator compounds (Chemical Source Tracking, CST). These methods can help to identify a type of contamination source but fail to distinguish similar contaminant signals from different origins, e.g. multiple points of wastewater infiltration. Transport modelling can reduce these ambiguities by considering the...

The Museum Mineralogia München (SNSB), a geoscientific place of education

Melanie Kaliwoda, Malte Junge , Malte Hentschel & Wolfgang W. Schmahl
The Museum Mineralogia München represents the museum window of the Mineralogical State Collection Munich (SNSB). It shows constantly reprocessed geoscientific topics through diverse special and permanent exhibitions. In addition, there are numerous exhibitions that are particularly well suited to natural science school content. Topics such as volcanism, symmetry, metamorphosis or the chemistry of pigments are worth mentioning here. It is important to us that the projects can be attended by children and young people and...

Biogeographic patterns of benthic foraminifera in contourite drift systems of the Atlantic Ocean

Anna Saupe , Johanna Schmidt , Jassin Petersen , André Bahr & Patrick Grunert
Benthic foraminifera inhabit diverse marine environments, including areas of persistent bottom currents and contourite drift deposition. Certain highly adapted epibenthic foraminifera colonize contourite deposits as opportunistic suspension feeders. A correlation between these assemblages and high bottom current velocities has been highlighted in previous studies from the Iberian Margin (e.g. Schönfeld, 2002), suggesting their applicability as reliable proxy for reconstructing bottom currents. Our ongoing project aims to document biogeographic patterns of benthic foraminifera from extended contourite...

Release of beryllium (Be) and tungsten (W) from historical mine tailings and the environmental impact on epilithic water diatoms in downstream surface water

Lina Hällström
There is a potential risk that geochemical cycles of critical metals (e.g Be and W) will be affected in the pristine environment, when mining of these metals increases to meet the demand in green technology. To understand their geochemical behavior and environmental impact are of high importance to ensure a sustainable development of mine waste and water management. Beryllium and W are identified as elements of potential concern that can have adverse impact on humans...

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