461 Works

Soil gas monitoring for identifying potential ground movements and earthquakes in the frame of mine flooding - Requirements, methods and developments

Olaf Ukelis , Roman Zorn & Detlev Rettenmaier
European Institute for Energy Research, Germany(1);Soil gas surveys (e.g. 222Rn, CO2, O2 etc.) are very well known in diverse backgrounds such as the detection of geological faults, prediction of earthquakes or monitoring of gas contamination risks at building sites. Risk monitoring using soil gases in the frame of mine flooding is a quite new field of application currently investigated in the frame of the German BMBF funded project FloodRisk. Analogies to some of the classical...

Nephelinites from the Gregory Rift

Michael Marks, Michelle Siegel , Mika Henzler , Thomas Binder , Simon Braunger, Thomas Wenzel , Anatoly Zaitsev , Andrei Arzamastsev & Gregor Markl
Nephelinites are strongly SiO2-undersaturated volcanic rocks that are often associated with phonolites and carbonatites. In the Gregory Rift in East Africa several major nephelinitic-phonolitic volcanoes occur, with some of them being associated with carbonatitic rocks (e.g., Oldoinyo Lengai, Kerimas, Mosonik, Shombole, Meru), while others lack carbonatites (e.g, Sadiman, Essimingor, Burko). We characterize the magmatic evolution of the Burko volcano and compare our results with published data from spatially associated nephelinite-phonolite±carbonatite associations in the Gregory Rift...

Cyclic loading of magnetite bearing rocks: modifications of structure, magnetic and elastic properties

Helena Fuchs , Boris Reznik , Agnes Kontny & Frank Schilling
Repeated seismic activity can cause progressive failure of rock masses due to material fatigue [1]. To simulate induced seismic loading, an iron ore with alternating quartz- and magnetite-rich layers from the Sydvaranger mine (Finnmark/Norway) was subjected to laboratory uniaxial compressional cyclic loading at low stresses in the range of elastic deformation (about 6 MPa static ±3 MPa dynamic pressure) and frequencies related to induced seismicity (10 – 100 Hz) [2]. Some of the experiments were...

Source of metals in ultramafic-hosted VMS deposits: insight from the Troodos ophiolite and ODP Hole 735B

Clifford Patten , Malte Junge & Alexandre Peillod
Volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) deposits associated with mafic-ultramafic rocks show strong structural control and are located at or in the vicinity of low angle detachment faults such as oceanic core complexes (OCC) in mid-ocean ridge environments. These ultramafic VMS deposits are variably enriched in precious (Au-Ag) critical (Co) and the base metals Cu, Zn, and Ni but the source of the metals remains poorly known. The Troodos ophiolite, Cyprus, and the ODP Hole 735B on...

Geothermal Reservoir Characterisation and Probability Analysis of Fractured Media at Grimsel Test Site, Switzerland

Selvican Türkdogan & Peter Achtziger
Exploitation of deep geothermal energy is considered as one of the most efficient renewable energy applications. In this sense, reservoir stimulation is established to extract geothermal energy from EGS (Enhanced Geothermal System) which is highly dependent on its in-situ structural properties: damage/shear zones, faults, fractures, its statistics and characteristics. In more detail, damage zones may behave like a conduit providing preferential pathways for fluid flow in otherwise impermeable rock such as granite or gneiss. To...

Molybdenum isotope evidence for forearc mantle recycling at the Tongan subduction zone

Qasid Ahmad , Martin Wille , Stephan König , Carolina Rosca , Angela Hensel , Thomas Pettke & Jörg Hermann
Molybdenum isotope ratios (δ98/95Mo) of marine sediments constitute an important tracer for paleoredox reconstructions of the ancient ocean. Due to its redox-sensitivity, significant mass-dependent Mo isotope fractionation is induced in present-day low temperature environments leading to distinct Mo concentrations and isotope compositions in different marine lithologies. Subduction and recycling of such fractionated material can thus be potentially traced in arc magmas. Indeed, Mo isotope variations are observed in mafic arc lavas that are attributed to...

A profile through ancient fast-spreading oceanic crust in the Wadi Gideah, Oman ophiolite – reference frame for the crustal drillings within the ICDP Oman Drilling Project

Jürgen Koepke , Dieter Garbe-Schönberg , Dominik Mock & Samuel Müller
The Oman Ophiolite is the largest and best-investigated piece of ancient oceanic lithosphere on our planet. This ophiolite was target of the Oman Drilling Project (OmanDP) within the frame of ICDP (International Continental Scientific Drilling Program) which aimed to establish a comprehensive drilling program in order to understand essential processes related to the geodynamics of mid-ocean ridges, as magmatic formation, cooling/alteration by seawater-derived fluids, and the weathering with focus on the carbonatisation of peridotites. Over...

Virtual field trip to Late Jurassic Hanifa Formation of the Central Saudi Arabia

Pankaj Khanna , Ahmad Ihsan Ramdani , Teyyuba Adigozalova , Gaurav Gariola & Volker Vahrenkamp
Tuwaiq Mountain Escarpment in the Central Saudi Arabia exposes the Late Jurassic carbonates, which are one of the world’s most prolific oil-producing strata in the subsurface. The outcrops provide a window of opportunity to study the architecture of these strata that is found usually complex due to heterogeneous lateral and vertical facies. These heterogeneities are sub-seismic in scale, thus, the information from outcrops bridge the gap between seismic and core data. This virtual field trip...

Cliff coast collapses driven by nested biological, astronomical and meteorological activity cycles

Michael Dietze , Kristen L. Cook , Luc Illien , Oliver Rach & Niels Hovius
Cliffs line many erosional coastlines. Localized failures can cause land loss and hazard, and impact ecosystems and sediment routing. Links between cliff erosion and forcing mechanisms are poorly constrained, due to limitations of classic approaches. Combining multi-seasonal seismic and drone surveys, wave, precipitation and groundwater data we study drivers and triggers of 81 failures along the chalk cliffs on Germany’s largest island, Rügen. We have found that marine processes are negligible in triggering failures but...

Cenozoic evolution of the Icelandic Plume and its influence upon the topographic evolution of Northwest Europe

Nicky White
The Icelandic mantle plume is probably the largest convective upwelling on Earth. It is generally agreed that its growth and evolution have had a significant influence on the geologic and oceanographic evolution of both the North Atlantic Ocean and Northwest Europe during Cenozoic times. At the present day, three significant observations testify to the existence and size of this plume. First, residual depth anomalies prevail in the oceanic lithosphere surrounding Iceland. These anomalies show that...

Occurrences and mineralogy of lithium pegmatite in eastern Canada and for example the Georgia Lake pegmatite in more detail

Stephan Peters , Florian Lowicki , Ernst-Bernhard Teigler , Torsten Gorka , Florian Beier & Jana Rechner
Eastern Canada hosts several occurrences of lithium pegmatite, which have recently come into the focus of exploration activities and detailed studies. Driven by the current and expected future demand for Li, the mineral occurrences are targeted by exploration companies. This area in Canada is currently in the focus for targeting the mineral occurrences of lithium pegmatite. The majority of the pegmatite are hosted in metasediments or biotite-rich granite. In the more northern part the host...

Relict permafrost features identification in landscape and deposits of Borisoglebsk Upland, Central European Russia

Ekaterina V. Garankina , Vasily A. Lobkov , Ilya G. Shorkunov & Vladimir R. Belyaev
Relict permafrost features (RPF) indicated by specific patterns of soil, sedimentary and landform structure are characteristic of Central Russian Plain watersheds. Paleocryogenic polygonal networks appear in a pattern of semi-regular spots, blocks and polygons on the surface usually associated with pseudomorphs of ice wedges or sand casts in correlated deposits. This research aimed at distinguishing RPF in sedimentary structure and its correlation with the modern and paleolandscape structure of 3 ha watershed area exposed in...

Redox conditions during deserpentinization in western Elba Island, Italy.

Malte Kalter & Wolfgang Bach
The observation of oxidized arc melts has led to a discussion about the redox conditions during the dehydration reactions of serpentinites in subduction zones. The discussed range of oxygen fugacities (fO2) between+5 and -2 log units relatively to the QFM buffer allows sulfur to be present either as oxidized or reduced species. This work investigates the development of the fO2 with serpentines form the western part of the island Elba in Italy. We compared observations...


Gillian R. Foulger
The potential for the extraordinary island of Iceland to resolve seemingly intransigent problems in Earth Science has long been recognized. Alfred Wegener correctly surmised that his theory of continental drift could be tested there, and the necessary geodetic measurements were started as early as 1938. This, and other geophysical work often produced unexpected results. For example, observations reported before the acceptance of Wegener's hypothesis apparently supported it, while observations reported after its widespread acceptance seemed...

A virtual field tour of the Wren's Nest National Nature Reserve, part of the Black Country Unesco Geopark, UK

David Hodgetts
The Wren's Nest National Nature Reserve, situated in the West Midlands, UK, is well known for its exposures of Silurian (Wenlock and Ludlow Series) carbonates. The Wren’s Nest was first recognised as a nature reserve in 1965, and in 2020 it became recognised as part of the part of the Black Country Unesco Geopark. The area has significant geological importance due to the superb preservation of its fossils, with more than 700 macro fossil species...

Sequence stratigraphy of the Moodies Group (3.2 Ga), Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa

Deon J. Janse van Rensburg , Christoph Heubeck & Sebastian Reimann
The Moodies Group (~3.2 Ga) of the Barberton Greenstone Belt is one of the oldest and best-preserved shallow-water siliciclastic sequences. It also harbors one of the largest occurrences of Paleoarchean microbial mats and the oldest record of early Earth-Moon dynamics. The extent (ca. 40 km * 70 km), lithologic and alluvial-to-prodeltaic facies diversity (incl. paleosols, pedogenic concretions and microbial mats etc.) , good outcrop, and excellent preservation of Moodies strata allows the recognition of mappable...

The data publication chain of the EPOS Multi-scale Laboratories

Geertje ter Maat & the MSL Team
EPOS (the European Plate Observing System) is a pan-European e-infrastructure framework with the goal of improving and facilitating the access, use, and re-use of Solid Earth science data. The EPOS Thematic Core Service Multi-scale Laboratories (TCS MSL) represents a community of European Solid Earth sciences laboratories including rock and magma high-temperature and high-pressure experimental facilities, electron microscopy, micro-beam analysis, analogue modelling of tectonic, geodynamic, and volcanological processes, paleomagnetism, and analytical laboratories. Experimental data from these...

Industrial revolution 4.1 - Critical raw materials and their role in the shift towards renewable energy generation and e-mobility

Ernst Bernhard Teigler , Stephan Peters & Torsten Gorka
Most countries are by now committed to the Paris Agreement, which deals mainly with the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and financing thereof. Crucial pillars driving this greenhouse gas diminution are renewable energies and e-mobility. As in any industrial revolution, this fundamental shift from “fossil energy” towards renewable energies and e-mobility, requires new technologies and associated new suite of raw materials, without which this shift will not be possible or at least significantly delayed. Energy...

Reassessing evidence of Moon-Earth dynamics: No evidence of shorter lunar months from tidal bundles at 3.2 Ga (Moodies Group, Barberton Greenstone Belt)

Christoph E. Heubeck & Tom Eulenfeld
The sole Archean data point to reconstruct past orbital parameters of the Earth’s moon is from the Moodies Group (ca. 3.22 Ga) of the Barberton Greenstone Belt. From time-series analysis of tidal bundles of a subaqueous sand wave, Eriksson and Simpson (2000) suggested that the Moon’s anomalistic month at 3.2 Ga was closer to 20 days than the present 27.5 days. This is in apparent accordance with models of orbital mechanics which place the Archean...

Systematic analysis of precision, long-term stability and data processing of MC-ICP-MS 230Th/U-dating of secondary carbonates

Inga Kristina Kerber , Fabian Kontor , Jennifer Arps , René Eichstädter , Sophie Warken & Norbert Frank
MC-ICP-MS has become the clearly dominant technology in 230Th/U-dating over the last 20 years. The ongoing increase in measurement performance allows for ε-precision by now (Andersen et al., 2004; Cheng et al., 2013) and enabled the production of a large amount of datasets and insights covering a broad range of fields. Despite this large database, systematic studies on the impact of individual corrections on the raw data, long-term instrumental stability and on data processing routines...

Depletion, Density, and Deposits through the mantle transition zone (MTZ)

Thorsten Joachim Nagel , Anders Vesterholt & Christian Schiffer
We present phase diagrams of variously enriched and depleted mantle rocks down to 800 kilometers depth and explore density as the parameter governing convection and compositional stratification. Some results are surprising and not all are included in present concepts and models: (1) Primitive and enriched mantle compositions are buoyant in the uppermost lower mantle compared to depleted mantle, especially, when they are warmer, but also at identical temperatures. Hence, if the upper mantle is depleted...

3D Basin modelling of the northern Upper Rhine Graben : insights on geothermal fluid pathways

Gillian Bethune , Adriana Lemgruber-Traby , Claire Bossennec , Kristian Bär , Jeroen van der Vaart , Christine Souque & Renaud Divies
The area of the Upper Rhine Graben (URG) is known for its geothermal potential. However, the recent interest for lithium co-production from geothermal brines raises questions about the quantification and dynamics of fluid flow paths in the geothermal system at the basin scale. This study aims to better understand the impact of the fluid circulation on the temperature field evolution and on the fluid recharge by performing a 3D thermal basin modeling. The Buntsandstein group...

Towards a harmonised inventory for European mineral resources

Kari Aasly , Mark Simoni , Pasi Eilu & Lisbeth Flindt-Jørgensen
With the global increase in raw material demand there is a need for harmonized supporting tools for sustainable resource management in Europe. Europe needs to assess their resource potential, but the European countries do not have a common tool to aggregate information for continent-wide resource inventories. The United Nations Framework Classification for Resources (UNFC) is a system that may be used for this purpose. One of the specific tasks in the MINTELL4EU project under the...

Sediment production under semi-arid climatic conditions using heavy mineral and petrographical data – a case study from the recent Kunene river system, northern Namibia

Jonas Kraus, Ali Abbas Wajid, Laura Stutenbecker & Matthias Hinderer
Provenance techniques are widely applied in resolving the origin of ancient sediment successions. Petrographic signatures, however, are controlled by a complex interplay of rock type, weathering mode as well as sediment transport, thus making the interpretation of data often ambiguous. One way to improve our understanding on these mechanisms is to study modern drainage systems. We selected the Kunene River in northern Namibia as a case study. This river system is well suited for such...

Modelling the deposition of the phosphorite layers in Malta and reconstruction of the fauna

Lars Tischer, Emilia Jarochowska, Or Bialik, Fabian Jakob, Ray Zammit, Matthias López Correa & Christian Schulbert
There are several phosphorite layers within the sedimentary succession of the Maltese Islands. These are related to climatic and ocean circulation pattern changes in the Mediterranean through the late Cenozoic. To decipher the depositional environment and processes related to the emplacement of these layers, several samples were collected from Il-Blata tal-Melh, southern Malta. With the help of CT-scans of these samples, the organisms and clasts within the phosphorites could be reconstructed by segmentation. This enabled...

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  • 2022
  • 2021
  • 2020

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  • Karlsruhe Institute of Technology
  • Helmholtz Centre Potsdam - GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences
  • Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources
  • Technical University of Darmstadt
  • University of Bremen
  • RWTH Aachen University
  • University of Tübingen
  • Utrecht University
  • Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München
  • GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel