4,682 Works

Development of an Atlas-Based Segmentation of Cranial Nerves Using Shape-Aware Discrete Deformable Models for Neurosurgical Planning and Simulation

Twelve pairs of cranial nerves arise from the brain or brainstem and control our sensory functions such as vision, hearing, smell and taste as well as several motor functions to the head and neck including facial expressions and eye movement. Often, these cranial nerves are difficult to detect in MRI data, and thus represent problems in neurosurgery planning and simulation, due to their thin anatomical structure, in the face of low imaging resolution as well...

A Hybrid Tabu/Scatter Search Algorithm for Simulation-Based Optimization of Multi-Objective Runway Operations Scheduling

Bulent Soykan
As air traffic continues to increase, air traffic flow management is becoming more challenging to effectively and efficiently utilize airport capacity without compromising safety, environmental and economic requirements. Since runways are often the primary limiting factor in airport capacity, runway operations scheduling emerge as an important problem to be solved to alleviate flight delays and air traffic congestion while reducing unnecessary fuel consumption and negative environmental impacts. However, even a moderately sized real-life runway operations...

A Retrospective Study of Amusement Ride Restraint and Containment Systems: Identifying Design Challenges for Statistically Rare Anthropometric Cases

Paula M. Stenzler
The intent of this project was to conduct a retrospective study of amusement ride restraint and containment systems’ failures to identify the challenges associated with existing design criteria to safely accommodate statistically rare groups that fall outside amusement industry standards. Innovations in ride technology provide an opportunity for injuries to occur if restraint and containment systems cannot properly accommodate unique patron anthropometry. It is paramount to understand how anthropometric features contribute to the patron’s ability...

Civic Crowdfunding and Local Government: An Examination into Projects, Scope, and Implications for Local Government

Martin Mayer
Recently, through the development of online technology, civic crowdfunding has emerged as a way in which to connect citizens to community problems and projects. The growth and early success of the field underscores the importance of better understanding civic crowdfunding, how it works, and how it may impact local government. Through a mixed-methods design, this study investigates the growing field of civic crowdfunding in an effort to better understand what types of projects are proposed,...

Reconceptualizing the Work of a Content Provider for an Online Audience: A Case Study for How Pedagogical Strategies Can Provide Models of Engagement for Producers of Entertainment

Diane Cooke
With the interconnectivity of the Internet, and the availability of affordable media compositional tools, the proliferation of online media continues to grow exponentially. However, each day is still comprised of a fixed 24 hours, with far fewer hours spent in active media consumption. Considering the global potential for content to be found (Moreville), discovered (Cormier) or spread (Jenkins), content providers are looking for ways to attract, cultivate and hopefully expand their audiences amid all this...

Evaluation of 4h-Sic Photoconductive Switches for Pulsed Power Applications Based on Numerical Simulations

Rajintha Tiskumara
Since the early studies by Auston, photoconductive semiconductor switches (PCSSs) have been investigated intensively for many applications owing to their unique advantages over conventional gas and mechanical switches. These advantages include high speeds, fast rise times, optical isolation, compact geometry, and negligible jitter. Another important requirement is the ability to operate at high repetition rates with long device lifetimes (i.e., good reliability without degradation). Photoconductive semiconductor switches (PCSSs) are low-jitter compact alternatives to traditional gas...

Computational Modeling of Facial Response for Detecting Differential Traits in Autism Spectrum Disorders

Manar D. Samad
This dissertation proposes novel computational modeling and computer vision methods for the analysis and discovery of differential traits in subjects with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) using video and three-dimensional (3D) images of face and facial expressions. ASD is a neurodevelopmental disorder that impairs an individual’s nonverbal communication skills. This work studies ASD from the pathophysiology of facial expressions which may manifest atypical responses in the face. State-of-the-art psychophysical studies mostly employ naive human raters to...

Methods for Analyzing Attribute-Level Best-Worst Discrete Choice Experiments

Amanda Faye Working
Discrete choice experiments (DCEs) have applications in many areas such as social sciences, economics, transportation research, health systems, and clinical decisions to mention a few. Usually discrete choice models (DCMs) focus on predicting the product choice; however, these models do not provide information about what attributes of the products are impacting consumers’ choices the most. Today, it is common to record the best and worst features of a product (or profile), also called attribute levels,...

Numerical Studies and Optimization of Magnetron with Diffraction Output (MDO) Using Particle-in-Cell Simulations

Alireza Majzoobi
The first magnetron as a vacuum-tube device, capable of generating microwaves, was invented in 1913. This thesis research focuses on numerical simulation-based analysis of magnetron performance. The particle-in-cell (PIC) based MAGIC software tool has been utilized to study the A6 and the Rising-Sun magnetron structures, and to obtain the optimized geometry for optimizing the device performance. The A6 magnetron is the more traditional structure and has been studied more often. The Rising-Sun geometry, consists of...

GIS and 3D Analysis Applied to Sea Turtle Mortalities and Navigation Channel Dredging

Bradley A. Shellito & Keith B. Lockwood
Between 2000 and 2003 there were an increased number of documented sea turtle mortalities related to hopper dredging in the channels of the Chesapeake Bay. A pilot study was undertaken to create a bathymetric surface and three-dimensional model of the Cape Henry Channel using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) as a visualization tool to examine sea turtle mortalities in relation to the dredging. In Fall 2003, the US Army Corps of Engineers dredged the Thimble Shoals...

Characterization of Soundscapes in Shallow Water Habitats of the Florida Keys (USA) and Their Influence on the Settlement of Larval Fish and Invertebrates

John R. Butler
In recent decades, changes in climate and water quality in Florida Bay and the Florida Keys (FL, USA) caused expansive cyanobacteria blooms that in turn precipitated massive sponge die-offs that drastically altered sponge-dominated hard-bottom communities in south-central Florida Bay. This area served as a model system to explore the effect of ecosystem change and habitat restoration on underwater soundscapes and larval recruitment. I had four main objectives: (1) characterize the underwater soundscapes of three near-shore,...

Efficiency of Mechanical Harvest for Immature Vegetable Soybean Pods

Tadesse Mebrahtu & Chris Mullins
Since soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) is low in saturated fat and active in reducing blood cholesterol, it is gaining interest as a healthy snack food. Direct consumption of vegetable soybeans is very popular in the Orient. However, the cultivars used in Asia are not adapted to U.S. production systems. The objectives of this study were to determine the efficiency of mechanical harvest and to identify vegetable soybean cultivars adapted for a mechanical harvest system....

Correlation of Eastern Wild Turkey Poult: hen Ratios with Population Indices to Detect Reproductive Density Dependence

Jay D. McGhee & Jim Berkson
Knowledge of how density affects population growth is important for the harvest management of wild turkey. Unfortunately, available time-series are often too short for statistical detection of density dependence. The correlation between wild turkey recruitment and population size was assessed using data from 7 state wildlife agencies, circumventing the problem of short time-series by using multiple datasets. Correlation coefficients were calculated between surveyed poult:hen ratios and harvest-based population indices for 31 geographic or harvest management...

Abstracts of Papers, 85th Annual Meeting of the Virginia Academy of Science, May 24-26, 2007, James Madison University, Harrisonburg VA

Virginia Academy Of Science
Full abstracts of the 85th Annual Meeting of the Virginia Academy of Science, May 24-26, 2007, James Madison University, Harrisonburg VA

Crabbing System for an Electron-Ion Collider

Alejandro Castilla
As high energy and nuclear physicists continue to push further the boundaries of knowledge using colliders, there is an imperative need, not only to increase the colliding beams’ energies, but also to improve the accuracy of the experiments, and to collect a large quantity of events with good statistical sensitivity. To achieve the latter, it is necessary to collect more data by increasing the rate at which these pro- cesses are being produced and detected...

“For The Homeland”: Die Deutsche Hausfrau and Reader Responses to World War I

Julie Sliva Davis
When the Great War broke out in the summer of 1914, many German Americans living in the United States expressed renewed support and loyalty for Germany in the German-language press. While scholars have thoroughly examined the collective experiences and sentiments of German Americans in the U.S. during World War I, particularly in their press, German-American women and their press have remained largely underrepresented. Notably, however, as evidenced by the largest nationally circulated monthly women’s journal...

Trees on K-12 School Campuses in Virginia

, & John R. Seiler
Trees and saplings growing on K-12 school campuses were investigated in 105 school districts across Virginia. There were 2812 trees (>12.5 cm stem diameter at 1.4 m above ground level) inventoried across all campuses. The mean and median campus tree population was 27 and 18, respectively. Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) was the most abundant species, accounting for 11% of all inventoried trees. Red maple (Acer rubrum L.) was the most frequently inventoried species, present...

Executive Dysfunction as a Trait Marker for Depression in Children and Adolescents

Emily Oettinger
Perinatal depression has been recognized as a public health problem in the United States, which is important because of the demonstrated wide-reaching negative effects of maternal depression on child outcomes. Some evidence suggests that maternal depression is a risk factor for executive dysfunction in children. By contrast, there is abundant evidence that maternal depression is a risk factor for later child depression. Therefore, this study focuses on executive dysfunction in children as a potential trait...

Defining the Competencies, Programming Languages, and Assessments for an Introductory Computer Science Course

Simon Sultana
The purpose of this study was to define the competencies, programming languages, and assessments for an introductory computer science course at a small private liberal arts university. Three research questions were addressed that involved identifying the competencies, programming languages, and assessments that academic and industry experts in California’s Central Valley felt most important and appropriate for an introduction to computer science course. The Delphi methodology was used to collect data from the two groups of...

The Relationship Between Trauma-Related Shame, Disordered Behaviors, and Contextual Factors of Sexual Trauma Beyond Trait-Shame and Sex-Guilt

Michele Laaksonen
Relatively little is known about the effect of contextual factors of sexual trauma (age at trauma, type of trauma, perpetrator gender, tactics, and relationship) and trauma-related shame and risk-taking motivations. Therefore, the current study aimed to examine this relationship among a sample of 360 undergraduate women with histories of sexual trauma, hypothesizing that trauma-related shame and motivations for participation in extreme sports, drinking games, and sex would differ based on the contextual factors of sexual...

A Daily Diary Investigation of Discrimination and Binge Eating Among Lesbian Women

Tyler Mason
Lesbian women may experience discrimination because of their gender and their sexual orientation termed sexism and heterosexism, respectively. Both sexism and heterosexism are associated with increased psychological distress and negative affect among lesbian women. Furthermore, preliminary evidence suggests that heterosexism is associated with binge eating among lesbian women. However, the relationship between discrimination and binge eating has received limited empirical examination. This study examined associations between sexism and heterosexism, negative affect, and binge eating using...

The Differential Effect of Anticipated Work-Family Conflict on the STEM Major Embeddedness of Men and Women

Dante P. Myers
It is nationally concerning that many students who begin as Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) majors do not complete their degrees. Of additional concern is that among the STEM students who do persist to degree completion, women are severely underrepresented. The present research investigates the extent to which anticipated conflicts between work and family life (AWFC) are negatively related to students’ embeddedness in their STEM majors, especially the STEM embeddedness of women. The hypothesized...

Juridical, Religious and Globalization Perspectives on the Constitutions of Egypt and Tunisia after the Arab Spring

Lora Hadzhidimova
This work examines the juridical aspects of the current Egyptian and Tunisian Constitutions adopted after the Arab Spring. Along with the legal analysis of these two manifestations one more element is also a subject of this commentary – possible political issues that can surface from the interpretation of some controversial articles. The second part of this study focuses on the compatibility between the premises of the Islamic Sharia, the Islamic culture and tradition, and the...

Online Social Capital: Social Networking Sites' Influence on Civic and Political Engagement

Charles L. Bush
This thesis examines how using social networking sites (SNS) is correlated with levels of civic and political engagement of college students at Old Dominion University. Past research has yielded mixed results on the link between online social capital and civic and political engagement. Major limitations of past research include grouping together social networking sites that are substantially different and not considering these sites’ impact on the different forms of social capital. This thesis first examines...

Using the Web Infrastructure for Real Time Recovery of Missing Web Pages

Martin Klein
Given the dynamic nature of the World Wide Web, missing web pages, or "404 Page not Found" responses, are part of our web browsing experience. It is our intuition that information on the web is rarely completely lost, it is just missing. In whole or in part, content often moves from one URI to another and hence it just needs to be (re-)discovered. We evaluate several methods for a \justin- time" approach to web page...

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  • Old Dominion University
  • //ror.org/04zjtrb98:Old Dominion University
  • Eastern Virginia Medical School
  • Christopher Newport University
  • Georgia Institute of Technology
  • Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility
  • Norfolk State University
  • University of Virginia
  • Los Alamos National Laboratory
  • Ionian University