9,953 Works

Dissolved and dissolvable iron concentrations and ligand characteristics in samples taken during POLARSTERN expedition ARK-XXII/2 to the Arctic Ocean, supplement to: Thuróczy, Charles-Edouard; Gerringa, Loes J A; Klunder, Maarten B; Laan, Patrick; Le Guitton, M; de Baar, Hein J W (2011): Distinct trends in the speciation of iron between the shallow shelf seas and the deep basins of the Arctic Ocean. Journal of Geophysical Research, 116(C10), C10009

Charles-Edouard Thuróczy, Loes J A Gerringa, Maarten B Klunder, Patrick Laan, M Le Guitton & Hein J W de Baar
The speciation of iron was investigated in three shelf seas and three deep basins of the Arctic Ocean in 2007. The dissolved fraction (<0.2 µm) and a fraction < 1000 kDa were considered here. In addition, unfiltered samples were analyzed. Between 74 and 83% of dissolved iron was present in the fraction < 1000 kDa at all stations and depth, except at the chlorophyll maximum (42-64%). Distinct trends in iron concentrations and ligand characteristics were...

Fatty acid composition of tissue samples from Arctic walruses (Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus) and their prey, supplement to: Skoglund, Eli G; Lydersen, Christian; Grahl-Nielsen, Otto; Haug, Tore; Kovacs, Kit Maureen (2010): Fatty acid composition of the blubber and dermis of adult male Atlantic walruses (Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus) in Svalbard, and their potential prey. Marine Biology Research, 6(3), 239-250

Eli G Skoglund, Christian Lydersen, Otto Grahl-Nielsen, Tore Haug & Kit Maureen Kovacs
Blubber biopsies were collected from 18 adult male walruses from Svalbard, Norway. The biopsies were taken vertically through the skin and the entire blubber layer down to, but not including, the muscle layer. Fatty acid (FA) compositions of inner blubber, outer blubber and dermis of the walruses and of potential prey organisms were determined. The three layers differed significantly from one another in FA composition. Generally, the inner blubber contained more long-chained monounsaturated, saturated and...

Site characteristics and ice speed at four sites on Kangiata Nunata Sermia glacier, southwest Greenland, supplement to: Sole, Andrew J; Mair, D W F; Nienow, P W; Bartholomew, I D; King, MA; Burke, M J; Joughin, Ian (2011): Seasonal speedup of a Greenland marine-terminating outlet glacier forced by surface melt–induced changes in subglacial hydrology. Journal of Geophysical Research, 116(F3), F03014

Andrew J Sole, D W F Mair, P W Nienow, I D Bartholomew, MA King, M J Burke & Ian Joughin
We present subdaily ice flow measurements at four GPS sites between 36 and 72 km from the margin of a marine-terminating Greenland outlet glacier spanning the 2009 melt season. Our data show that >35 km from the margin, seasonal and shorter-time scale ice flow variations are controlled by surface melt-induced changes in subglacial hydrology. Following the onset of melting at each site, ice motion increased above background for up to 2 months with resultant up-glacier...

Radiocarbon dates, accumulation rates, δ¹³C and July temperature of profiles obtained from Selwyn and Misaw Lake, subarctic Canada, supplement to: Kaislahti Tillman, Päivi; Holzkämper, Steffen; Kuhry, Peter; Sannel, A Britta K; Loader, Neil J; Robertson, Iain (2010): Long-term climate variability in continental subarctic Canada: A 6200-year record derived from stable isotopes in peat. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 298(3-4), 235-246

Päivi Kaislahti Tillman, Steffen Holzkämper, Peter Kuhry, A Britta K Sannel, Neil J Loader & Iain Robertson
The rapid warming of arctic regions during recent decades has been recorded by instrumental monitoring, but the natural climate variability in the past is still sparsely reconstructed across many areas. We have reconstructed past climate changes in subarctic west-central Canada. Stable carbon and oxygen isotope ratios (d13C, d18O) were derived from a single Sphagnum fuscum plant component; alpha-cellulose isolated from stems. Periods of warmer and cooler conditions identified in this region, described in terms of...

Establishment, expansion and regeneration of aspen (Populus tremula) in the Torneträsk area, subarctic Sweden, supplement to: Van Bogaert, Rik; Jonasson, Christer; De Dapper, Morgan; Callaghan, Terry V (2010): Range expansion of thermophilic aspen (Populus tremula L.) in the swedish Subarctic. Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research, 42(3), 362-375

Rik Van Bogaert, Christer Jonasson, Morgan De Dapper & Terry V Callaghan
In subarctic Sweden, recent decadal colonization and expansion of aspen (Populus tremula L.) were recorded. Over the past 100 years, aspen became c. 16 times more abundant, mainly as a result of increased sexual regeneration. Moreover, aspen now reach tree-size (>2 m) at the alpine treeline, an ecotone that has been dominated by mountain birch (Betula pubescens ssp. czerepanovii) for at least the past 4000 years. We found that sexual regeneration in aspen probably occurred...

Osmium, and stable carbon and oxygen isotope record accross the PETM, supplement to: Ravizza, Gregory E; Norris, R N; Blusztajn, Jerzy S; Aubry, Marie-Pierre (2001): An osmium isotope excursion associated with the Late Paleocene thermal maximum: Evidence of intensified chemical weathering. Paleoceanography, 16(2), 155-163

Gregory E Ravizza, R N Norris, Jerzy S Blusztajn & Marie-Pierre Aubry
In the latest Paleocene an abrupt shift to more negative d13C values has been documented at numerous marine and terrestrial sites (Bralower et al., 1997, doi:10.1130/0091-7613(1997)025<0963:HRROTL>2.3.CO;2; Cramer et al., 1999; Kaiho et al., 1996, doi:10.1029/96PA01021; Kennett and Stott, 1991, doi:10.1038/353225a0; Koch et al., 1992, doi:10.1038/358319a0; Stott et al., 1996; Thomas and Shackleton, 1996, doi:10.1144/GSL.SP.1996.101.01.20; Zachos et al., 1993). This carbon isotope event (CIE) is coincident with oxygen isotope data that indicate warming of surface waters...

Snow melt monitoring near the Polish Polar Station in Hornsund, Svalbard, using Automatic Camera Systems

Bartłomiej Luks, Tomasz Wawrzyniak & Sebastian Westermann
On Svalbard, the long-lasting snow cover and the timing of the snowmelt is a crucial factor in the yearly cycle of all land ecosystems. To monitor the timing and patterns of snow melt, automatic camera systems have been set up at two locations overlooking key research areas near the Polish Polar Station in Hornsund, Svalbard. All images are provided in daily resolution, and the date coded in the filename as yyyy-MM-dd.This work was funded by...

Age determination and sedimentology of sediment core Lz1101 from the Melles Lake, supplement to: Klug, Martin; Bennike, Ole; Wagner, B (2009): Repeated short-term bioproductivity changes in a coastal lake on Store Koldewey, northeast Greenland: an indicator of varying sea-ice coverage? The Holocene, 19(4), 653-663

Martin Klug, Ole Bennike & Bernd Wagner
A lacustrine sediment core from Store Koldewey, northeast Greenland, was biogeochemically, biologically and sedimentologically investigated in order to reconstruct long- and short-term climatic and environmental variability. The chronology of the uppermost 189 cm of the record is based on ten 14C AMS age determinations of aquatic mosses. The record covers almost the entire Holocene and revealed changes on multidecadal to centennial scales. Dating of the oldest mosses shows that lacustrine biogenic productivity already began at...

Radiocarbon age, and sedimentation and accumulation rate of core JM05-G001 obtained during Jan Mayen cruise JM050704 to the Barents Sea, supplement to: Wilson, Laurie J; Hald, Morten; Godtliebsen, Fred (2011): Foraminiferal faunal evidence of twentieth-century Barents Sea warming. The Holocene, 21(4), 527-537

Laurie J Wilson, Morten Hald & Fred Godtliebsen
Instrumental monitoring of the climate at high northern latitudes has documented the ongoing warming of the last few decades. Climate modelling has also demonstrated that the global warming signal will be amplified in the polar region. Such temperature increases would have important implications on the ecosystem and biota of the Barents Sea. This study therefore aims to reconstruct the climatic changes of the Barents Sea based on benthic foraminifera over approximately the last 1400 years...

Age models for sediment cores in the eastern tropical Pacific, supplement to: Pichevin, Laetitia; Ganeshram, Raja S; Francavilla, Stephen; Arellano-Torres, Elsa; Pedersen, Thomas F; Beaufort, Luc (2010): Interhemispheric leakage of isotopically heavy nitrate in the eastern tropical Pacific during the last glacial period. Paleoceanography, 25(1), PA1204

Laetitia Pichevin, Raja S Ganeshram, Stephen Francavilla, Elsa Arellano-Torres, Thomas F Pedersen & Luc Beaufort
We present new high-resolution N isotope records from the Gulf of Tehuantepec and the Nicaragua Basin spanning the last 50-70 ka. The Tehuantepec site is situated within the core of the north subtropical denitrification zone while the Nicaragua site is at the southern boundary. The d15N record from Nicaragua shows an 'Antarctic' timing similar to denitrification changes observed off Peru-Chile but is radically different from the northern records. We attribute this to the leakage of...

Stickleback F2 generation transgenerational plasticity experiment: egg and body size data, supplement to: Shama, Lisa N S; Wegner, K Mathias (2014): Grandparental effects in marine sticklebacks: transgenerational plasticity across multiple generations. Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 27(11), 2297-2307

Lisa N S Shama & K Mathias Wegner
Nongenetic inheritance mechanisms such as transgenerational plasticity (TGP) can buffer populations against rapid environmental change such as ocean warming. Yet, little is known about how long these effects persist and whether they are cumulative over generations. Here, we tested for adaptive TGP in response to simulated ocean warming across parental and grandparental generations of marine sticklebacks. Grandparents were acclimated for two months during reproductive conditioning, whereas parents experienced developmental acclimation, allowing us to compare the...

Vegetation composition of herbaceous and tree layer of seven dominating vegetation types in the Aguima Catchment, Benin

Bettina Orthmann
Species data of herb and tree layer are necessary in order characterise the seven dominant vegetation types and to analyse for differences between the vegetation types. Species composition of the herb layer is also relevant as base for grazing quality. Tree species composition is especially important for silvicultural interest. Species composition of the herb and tree layer was recorded and cover of each species estimated. Datasets created by IMPETUS subproject A3. IMPETUS data set ID:...

Measured and modelled river runoff at three runoff gauges in the Central High Atlas Mountains

Oliver Schulz
River runoff at three runoff gauges in the Central High Atlas Mountains was modelled with the Snowmelt Runoff Model (SRM). Input was air temperature, precipitation and snow cover fraction in difined altitudinal zones at a time step of one day. Dataset created by IMPETUS subproject B2. . IMPETUS data set ID: 556

Initial vegetation, and spore density, diversity and evenness of different arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi morphotaxa 29,36 and 39 months after experimental vegetation removal, central Argentina, supplement to: Urcelay, Carlos; Díaz, Sandra; Gurvich, Diego E; Chapin, F Stuart; Cuevas, Elvira; Domínguez, Laura S (2009): Mycorrhizal community resilience in response to experimental plant functional type removals in a woody ecosystem. Journal of Ecology, 97(6), 1291-1301

Carlos Urcelay, Sandra Díaz, Diego E Gurvich, F Stuart Chapin, Elvira Cuevas & Laura S Domínguez
1. Dominant plant functional types (PFTs) are expected to be primary determinants of communities of other above- and below-ground organisms. Here, we report the effects of the experimental removal of different PFTs on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) communities in a shrubland ecosystem in central Argentina.2. On the basis of the biomass-ratio hypothesis and plant resource use strategy theory, we expected the effect of removal of PFTs on AMF colonization and spores to be proportional to...

Palaeoceanographic data of sediment core MD01-2416, supplement to: Maier, Edith; Chapligin, Bernhard; Abelmann, Andrea; Gersonde, Rainer; Esper, Oliver; Ren, Jian; Friedrichsen, Hans; Meyer, Hanno; Tiedemann, Ralf (2013): Combined oxygen and silicon isotope analysis of diatom silica from a deglacial subarctic Pacific record. Journal of Quaternary Science, 28(6), 571-581

Edith Maier, Bernhard Chapligin, Andrea Abelmann, Rainer Gersonde, Oliver Esper, Jian Ren, Hans Friedrichsen, Hanno Meyer & Ralf Tiedemann
We present an SiF4 separation line, coupled to a laser fluorination system, which allows for an efficient combined silica d18O and d30Si analysis (50 min per sample). The required sample weight of 1.5-2.0 mg allows for high-resolution isotope studies on biogenic opal. Besides analytical tests, the new instrumentation set-up was used to analyse two marine diatom fractions (>63 µm, 10-20 µm) with different diatom species compositions extracted from a Bølling/Allerød-Holocene core section [MD01-2416, North-West (NW)...

X-ray fluorescence (XRF) scannings and grain size analysis at sites in the Gulf of Cádiz, supplement to: Bahr, André; Jiménez-Espejo, Francisco Jose; Kolasinac, Nada; Grunert, Patrick; Hernandéz-Molina, Francisco Javier; Röhl, Ursula; Voelker, Antje H L; Escutia, Carlota; Stow, Dorrik A V; Alvarez Zarikian, Carlos A; Hodell, David A (2014): Deciphering bottom current strength and paleoclimate signals from contourite deposits in the Gulf of Cádiz during the last 140 kyr: an inorganic geochemical approach. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, 15(8), 3145-3160

André Bahr, Francisco Jose Jiménez-Espejo, Nada Kolasinac, Patrick Grunert, Francisco Javier Hernandéz-Molina, Ursula Röhl, Antje H L Voelker, Carlota Escutia, Dorrik A V Stow, Carlos A Alvarez Zarikian & David A Hodell
Contourites in the Gulf of Cádiz preserve a unique archive of Mediterranean Outflow Water (MOW) variability over the past 5.3 Ma. In our study we investigate the potential of geochemical data obtained by XRF scanning to decipher bottom current processes and paleoclimatic evolution at two different sites drilled through contourite deposits in the northern Gulf of Cadiz: Site U1387, which is bathed by the upper MOW core, and Site U1389, located more proximal to the...

Stable carbon isotopic composition of biomarker lipids of DSDP Hole 31-302, supplement to: Schoon, Petra L; Sluijs, Appy; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S; Schouten, Stefan (2011): Stable carbon isotope patterns of marine biomarker lipids in the Arctic Ocean during Eocene Thermal Maximum 2. Paleoceanography, 26(3), PA3215

Petra L Schoon, Appy Sluijs, Jaap S Sinninghe Damsté & Stefan Schouten
The middle Paleocene through early Eocene long-term gradual warming was superimposed by several transient warming events, such as the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) and Eocene Thermal Maximum 2 (ETM2). Both events show evidence for extreme global warming associated with a major injection of carbon into the ocean-atmosphere system, but the mechanisms of carbon injection and many aspects of the environmental response are still poorly understood. In this study, we analyzed the concentration and stable carbon...

High resolution isotope and Mg/Ca record of sediment core GeoB12615-4, supplement to: Romahn, Sarah; Mackensen, Andreas; Groeneveld, Jeroen; Pätzold, Jürgen (2014): Deglacial intermediate water reorganization: new evidence from the Indian Ocean. Climate of the Past, 10(1), 293-303

Sarah Romahn, Andreas Mackensen, Jeroen Groeneveld & Jürgen Pätzold
The importance of intermediate water masses in climate change and ocean circulation has been emphasized recently. In particular, Southern Ocean Intermediate Waters (SOIW), such as Antarctic Intermediate Water and Subantarctic Mode Water, are thought to have acted as active interhemispheric transmitter of climate anomalies. Here we reconstruct changes in SOIW signature and spatial and temporal evolution based on a 40 kyr time series of oxygen and carbon isotopes as well as planktic Mg/Ca based thermometry...

Grain-size distributions and bulk chemistry of sediment core MD00-2361, supplement to: Stuut, Jan-Berend W; Temmesfeld, Felix; De Deckker, Patrick (2014): A 550 ka record of aeolian activity near North West Cape, Australia: inferences from grain-size distributions and bulk chemistry of SE Indian Ocean deep-sea sediments. Quaternary Science Reviews, 83, 83-94

Jan-Berend W Stuut, Felix Temmesfeld & Patrick De Deckker
The terrigenous fraction of sediments from a deep-sea sediment core recovered from the northwestern Western Australian continental slope offshore North West Cape, SE Indian Ocean, reveals a history of Western Australian climate throughout the last 550 ka. End-member modelling of a data set of grain-size distributions (n = 438) of the terrigenous sediment fraction allows to interpret the record in terms of aeolian and fluvial sediment deposition, both related to palaeo-environmental conditions in the North...

Chemical and mineral compositions of recent and ancient sediments and sedimentary rocks from the Mariana Trench, supplement to: Skornyakova, Nadezhda S; Gorbunova, Zinaida N; Kruglikova, Svetlana B; Kuz'mina, Tatyana G; Rudakova, Alevtina N; Ushakova, Maola G (1978): Sediments and sedimentary rocks from the Mariana Trench. Litologiya i Poleznyye Iskopaemyye (Lithology and Mineral Resources), 13(5), 18-32

Nadezhda S Skornyakova, Zinaida N Gorbunova, Svetlana B Kruglikova, Tatyana G Kuz'mina, Alevtina N Rudakova & Maola G Ushakova
On the bed and on the ocean slope of the southern latitudinal part of the Mariana Trench ancient sediments, as well as sedimentary and igneous rocks are exposed. In the lower part of the sampled part of the studied section Late Oligocene to Early Miocene chalk-like limestones and marls occur. Upward marly tuffites and tuffs (apparently alternating with carbonate rocks) occur. These rocks are overlain by Early Miocene tuffaceous clays and siliceous-clayey muds. In the...

Composition of organic matter from black shales drilled in the Cape Verde Basin in DSDP Hole 41-367, supplement to: Bartashevich, O V; Bogolyubova, L I (1979): Geochemistry of organic matter from black shales of the Cape Verde Basin (East Atlantic) and their oil-source potential. Litologiya i Poleznyye Iskopaemyye (Lithology and Mineral Resources), 14(2), 37-54

O V Bartashevich & L I Bogolyubova
Results of geochemical studies of organic matter in black shales from the Cape Verde Basin are reported. Based on these results, in combination with data of petrographic analysis, conclusions are made about sapropelic nature of their organic matter and low degree of its coalification. It corresponds to the proto-catagenetic substage of sedimentary rocks. Black shales of the Cape Verde Basin are classified as potential oil source strata.

Geochemistry of Walvis Ridge basalts, supplement to: Salters, Vincent J M; Sachi-Kocher, Afi (2010): An ancient metasomatic source for the Walvis Ridge basalts. Chemical Geology, 273(3-4), 151-167

Vincent J M Salters & Afi Sachi-Kocher
The proposed origins for the Enriched Mantle I component are many and various and some require an arbitrary addition of an exotic component, be it pure sediment or an enriched melt from the subcontinental lithosphere. With Pitcairn, Walvis Ridge is the 'type-locality' for the Enriched Mantle I (EMI) component. We analyzed basalts from DSDP Site 525A, Site 527 and Site 528 on the Walvis Ridge with the aim to constrain the history of its source....

Planktonic foraminifera of IODP Site 306-U1314, supplement to: Alonso-Garcia, Montserrat; Sierro, Francisco Javier; Flores, José-Abel (2011): Arctic front shifts in the subpolar North Atlantic during the Mid-Pleistocene (800–400 ka) and their implications for ocean circulation. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 311(3-4), 268-280

Montserrat Alonso-Garcia, Francisco Javier Sierro & José-Abel Flores
Surface water conditions at the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Site U1314 (Southern Gardar Drift, 56° 21.8' N, 27° 53.3' W, 2820 m depth) were inferred using planktic foraminifer assemblages between Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 19 and 11 (ca. 800-400 ka). Factor analysis of the planktic foraminifer assemblages suggests that the assemblage was controlled by three factors. The first factor (which explained 49% of the variance) is dominated by transitional and subpolar species and points...

Minerals of bulk and fine-grained (2 µm) samples from DSDP Leg 60, supplement to: Latouche, Claude; Maillet, Noelle; Blanchet, R (1982): X-ray mineralogy studies, Deep Sea Drilling Project Leg 60. In: Hussong, DM; Uyeda, S; et al. (eds.), Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project (U.S. Govt. Printing Office), 60, 437-453

Claude Latouche, Noelle Maillet & R Blanchet
A bulk-sediment and clay-fraction X-ray diffraction study of samples from Deep Sea Drilling Project Leg 60 shows an abundance of the following minerals: plagioclase feldspar, zeolite, smectite, Fe-Mg chlorite, attapulgite, and serpentine. Amorphous compounds are also abundant.The variations in abundance of the different components correspond to episodes of volcanic activity through time. Deposits from periods of great activity are composed of sediments very rich in amorphous matter and in "primary" minerals (e.g., plagioclase feldspars). During...

Geochemistry at DSDP Leg 60, supplement to: Desprairies, Alain (1982): Authigenic minerals in volcanogenic sediments cored during Deep Sea Drilling Project Leg 60. In: Hussong, DM; Uyeda, S; et al. (eds.), Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project (U.S. Govt. Printing Office), 60, 455-466

Alain Desprairies
Eocene to Pleistocene volcanogenic sediments from the Mariana Trough and the Mariana arc-trench system have been studied by X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, and atomic absorption, and with a scanning electron microscope with an X-ray-energy-dispersive attachment. The mineralogical composition of the volcaniclastic sediments (tuffs) is the same as that of the other associated sediments (mudstones). Diagenetic alterations are significant and seem to result from two processes. The first (low-temperature alteration) develops with age and depth; it...

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