1,070 Works

Calcareous-nannofossil biostratigraphy at DSDP Leg 57 Holes

Bernard L Shaffer
As a continuation of the Japan Trench transect commenced by DSDP Leg 56, 10 holes were drilled and 273 cores were recovered while occupying Sites 438, 439, 440, and 441 during Leg 57. At Sites 438 and 439, near the top of the trench inner wall, a principal biostratigraphic objective was to establish a Neogene reference section overlying a pronounced acoustic basement thought to represent continental crust extending outward to this slope environment. At Sites...

Planktonic foraminifera of sediment trap samples

Brittney J Marshall, Robert C Thunell, Michael J Henehan, Yrene Astor & Katherine Wejnert
Biweekly sediment trap samples and concurrent hydrographic measurements collected between March 2005 and October 2008 from the Cariaco Basin, Venezuela, are used to assess the relationship between [CO3]2- and the area densities (ho A) of two species of planktonic foraminifera (Globigerinoides ruber (pink) and Globigerinoides sacculifer). Calcification temperatures were calculated for each sample using species-appropriate oxygen isotope (d18O) temperature equations that were then compared to monthly temperature profiles taken at the study site in order...

Zooplankton data of M83/1

Helena Hauss, Jasmin Franz, Thomas Hansen, Ulrich Struck & Ulrich Sommer
Oxygen-deficient waters in the ocean, generally referred to as oxygen minimum zones (OMZ), are expected to expand as a consequence of global climate change. Poor oxygenation is promoting microbial loss of inorganic nitrogen (N) and increasing release of sediment-bound phosphate (P) into the water column. These intermediate water masses, nutrient-loaded but with an N deficit relative to the canonical N:P Redfield ratio of 16:1, are transported via coastal upwelling into the euphotic zone. To test...

Biogeochemistry of mesocosm experiments in the tropical Pacific and Atlantic Ocean

Jasmin Franz, Helena Hauss, Ulrich Sommer, Thorsten Dittmar & Ulf Riebesell
Oxygen-deficient waters in the ocean, generally referred to as oxygen minimum zones (OMZ), are expected to expand as a consequence of global climate change. Poor oxygenation is promoting microbial loss of inorganic nitrogen (N) and increasing release of sediment-bound phosphate (P) into the water column. These intermediate water masses, nutrient-loaded but with an N deficit relative to the canonical N:P Redfield ratio of 16:1, are transported via coastal upwelling into the euphotic zone. To test...

Bulk composition and clay mineralogy at DSDP Legs 56 and 57

Ulrich Mann & German Müller
Altogether 513 samples from sediments of Cretaceous to Pleistocene age from DSDP Legs 56 and 57 were examined by x-ray methods. The main constituents are clay minerals, quartz, feldspar, opaline silica, and volcanic glass.The sediment composition reflects the position of the sites in relation to the main source area, the Japanese Island Arc. For example, relatively coarse-grained material rich in quartz and feldspar was deposited closest to the islands, whereas finer-grained material rich in clay...

Spatial and seasonal distribution of Thaumarchaeota in the water column and sediment of the southern North Sea

Nicole Jane Bale, Laura Villanueva, Ellen C Hopmans, Stefan Schouten & Jaap S Sinninghe Damsté
We have examined the spatial and seasonal distribution of Thaumarchaeota in the water column and sediment of the southern North Sea using the specific intact polar lipid (IPL) hexose, phosphohexose (HPH) crenarchaeol, as well as thaumarchaeotal 16S rRNA gene abundances and expression. In the water column, a higher abundance of Thaumarchaeota was observed in the winter season than in the summer, which is in agreement with previous studies, but this was not the case in...

Rare earth elements and some other trace elements in volcanic ashes and pelagic clays at DSDP Leg 59 Holes

Areg A Migdisov, Albert Z Miklishanski, B V Saveliev, N V Bredanova, Yury P Girin, V I Pavlutskaya, Y V Yakovlev & V I Vernadsky
Published data on trace- and dispersed-element distributions, including rare-earth elements (REE), in volcanic rocks of the Mariana island-arc system are very limited (Taylor, 1968) and are virtually unavailable for sediments. Thus determinations of trace-element abundances in the volcanic and sedimentary rocks penetrated by drilling during DSDP Leg 59 is of significant interest. Rock samples from the sedimentary sequence in the southern part of the Philippine Sea were obtained from six holes at five drill sites...

Geochemistry of the Japan Trench sediments at DSDP Legs 56-57 Holes

Ivar O Murdmaa, Viacheslav V Gordeev, Tatyana G Kuzmina, Natalya V Turanskaya & Mark Mikhailov
The main objective of this investigation was to study distribution of main chemical constituents and several minor elements in sediment sections drilled during DSDP Legs 56 and 57 in the Japan Trench, in order to infer geochemical features of different lithologic types of sediments, and to find out how the geochemistry is associated with major lithologic constituents, such as terrigenous detrital matter, clay, volcanic ash, and biogenic particles. The geochemical data may help to indicate...

Nature, origin, and petroleum source potential of organic matter at DSDP Leg 56-57 Holes

Deborah Gilbert, Colin P Summerhayes & David L Johnson
As part of a continuing program of organic-geochemistry studies of sediments recovered by the Deep Sea Drilling Project, we have analyzed the types, amounts, and thermal-alteration indices of organic matter in samples collected from the landward wall of the Japan Trench on Legs 56 and 57. The samples were canned aboard ship, enabling us to measure also their gas contents. In addition, we analyzed the heavy C15+ hydrocarbons, NSO compounds, and asphaltenes extracted from selected...

Interstitial water chemsitry at DSDP Leg 60 Holes

Joris M Gieskes & Jeff Johnson
Interstitial water data obtained during Leg 60 show complex gradients at Site 453 in a sediment pond on the west side of the Mariana Trough. Concentrations of Ca, Mg, Sr, as well as of K and Li, suggest that slightly altered sea water penetrates below the sediments, most likely through brecciated igneous and metamorphic rocks, mainly gabbros, lying at the base of the pond. Interstitial water concentration gradients suggest that reactions involving igneous matter lead...

Thermal conductivity at DSDP Leg 60 Holes

Ki-Iti Horai
A total of 1547 thermal conductivity values were determined by both the NP (needle probe method) and the QTM (quick thermal conductivity meter) on 1319 samples recovered during DSDP Leg 60. The NP method is primarily for the measurement of soft sedimentary samples, and the result is free from the effect of porewater evaporation. Measurement by the QTM method is faster and is applicable to all types of samples—namely, sediments (soft, semilithified, and lithified) and...

C1–C5 hydrocarbons from core gas pockets at DSDP Leg 56 Holes

Jean K Whelan & S Sato
C1-C5 hydrocarbons from DSDP Legs 56 and 57 sediment gas pockets were analyzed on board ship. Results suggest that the C2-C5 hydrocarbons accompanied biogenic methane and were generated at low temperatures - less than 50° C - either by microorganisms or by low-temperature chemical reactions. Neopentane, a rare constituent of petroleum, is the major C5 component (about 80%) in much of the sediment at Site 438. This compound, which appeared in smaller amounts at Sites...

Sulphur compounds, methane, and phytoplankton during SONNE cruise SO202/2 (Transbrom Sonne)

Cathleen Zindler, Astrid Bracher, Christa A Marandino, Bettina B Taylor, Elena Torrecilla, Annette Kock & Hermann Werner Bange
Here we present results of the first comprehensive study of sulphur compounds and methane in the oligotrophic tropical West Pacific Ocean. The concentrations of dimethylsuphide (DMS), dimethylsulphoniopropionate (DMSP), dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO), and methane (CH4), as well as various phytoplankton marker pigments in the surface ocean were measured along a north-south transit from Japan to Australia in October 2009. DMS (0.9 nmol/l), dissolved DMSP (DMSPd, 1.6 nmol/l) and particulate DMSP (DMSPp, 2 nmol/l) concentrations were generally low,...

Petrographic properties of tephras of DSDP Leg 56 Holes

Toshio Furuta & Fusao Arai
Examining volcanic materials in deep sea sediments may be one of the most important tasks of the Deep Sea Drilling Project. The investigation of volcanic ash near young source volcanoes is particularly helpful in enabling us to infer the history of volcanism in and around the island arcs. In the area of the Japanese islands volcanic deposits are usually distributed east of the source by prevailing westerly winds. It is also possible that some deep...

Geochemistry at DSDP Hole 57-439

Kantaro Fujioka
Acidic to intermediate volcanic rocks were obtained as boulders, pebbles, and clasts with intercalated matrix sediments near the Japan Trench. A 47.5-meter conglomerate bed unconformably overlies acoustic basement consisting of Upper Cretaceous siltstone and is overlain in turn by massive coarse-sandstone and siltstone beds with many fossil mollusks. The volcanic cobbles and boulders in the conglomerate show pronounced porphyritic texture. Their phenocrysts are plagioclase, hornblende, and biotite; the groundmass consists of plagioclase, K-feldspar, quartz, iron...

Organic geochemistry of sediments at DSDP Legs 56-57 Holes

Jürgen Rullkötter, C Cornford, Pierre Flekken & Dietrich Hugo Welte
The quantity, type, and maturity of the organic matter of Quaternary and Tertiary sediments from the Japan Trench (DSDP Leg 56, Sites 434 and 436; and Leg 57, Sites 438, 439 and 440) were determined. The hydrocarbons in lipid extracts were analyzed by capillary- column gas chromatography and combined gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry. Kerogen concentrates were investigated by microscopy, and vitrinite-reflectance values were determined. Measured organic-carbon values were in the range of 0.13 to 1.00...

Geochemistry of carbon at DSDP Legs 56-57 Holes

Karl S Schorno
Forty-three core sections from Sites 434, 435, 438, 439, and 440 on the landward side and six core sections from Site 436 on the seaward side of the Japan Trench were obtained through the JOIDES Organic Geochemistry Advisory Panel for study of the origin and state of genesis of the organic matter associated with these continental slope, accretionary wedge, and outer trench slope sediments of the Japan Trench. The lipid fraction of these sediments is...

Hyperspectral downwelling irradiance during POLARSTERN cruise ANT-XXVI/1

Martin Hieronymi, Andreas Macke & Oliver Zielinski
A Monte Carlo based radiative transfer model has been developed for calculating the availability of solar radiation within the top 100 m of the ocean. The model is optimized for simulations of spatial high resolution downwelling irradiance Ed fluctuations that arise from the lensing effect of waves at the water surface. In a first step the accuracy of simulation results has been verified by measurements of the oceanic underwater light field and through intercomparison with...

Stable-isotope evidence for the origin of secondary carbonate veins at DSDP Leg 58 Holes

Thomas F Anderson
The stable-isotope composition of carbonate minerals is a function of the temperature and isotopic composition of the materials from which they were precipitated or recrystallized. Because carbonates are among the most abundant secondary phases in oceanic volcanic rocks, information derived from their isotopic composition is useful in determining the environment(s) of seafloor alteration. Isotopic analyses of secondary carbonates in basalt recovered from numerous DSDP sites have been reported previously (Anderson and Lawrence, 1976; Brenneke, 1977;...

Sandstone and siltstone beds overlying conglomerate at DSDP Hole 59-439

Kantaro Fujioka, Eiichi Honza & Noriyuki Nasu
Massive sandstone and siltstone beds with many shallow-water megafossils overlie acidic volcanic conglomerates at DSDP Site 439. Smear-slides, thin sections from coarse fractions, and heavy minerals of the sandstone and siltstone beds were analyzed. The sandstones and siltstones are very rich in lithic fragments and are classified as lithic arenite and (or) lithic wacke. Hornblende and clinopyroxene are abundant, and zircon is present in most of the examined samples. The proportions of sandstone, chert, and...

Geochemistry at DSDP Leg 55 Holes

Ivar O Murdmaa, Viacheslav V Gordeev, Tatyana G Kuzmina, Natalya V Turanskaya & G P Avdeiko
The tops of the Emperor chain guyots, which were drilled during Leg 55, lie above the carbonate compensation depth (CCD), as well as above the foraminiferal dissolution level, i.e., lysocline. They are therefore the sites of accumulation of pelagic foraminiferal nannofossil ooze, such accumulation having taken place here since the moment of the seamounts' subsidence and the termination of shallow-water carbonate accumulation which was formerly developed on their tops. But the existence of strong bottom...

Trace-element geochemistry of tholeiitic basalts from DSDP Hole 55-433C

David A Clague & Frederick A Frey
Hole 433C, a multiple re-entry hole drilled in 1862 meters of water on Suiko Seamount in the central Emperor Seamounts, penetrated 387.5 meters of lava flows overlain by 163.0 meters of sediments. The recovered volcanic rocks consist of three flow units (1-3) of alkalic basalt underlain by more than 105 flows or flow lobes (Flow Units 4-67) of tholeiitic basalt. This study reports trace-element, including rare-earth element (REE), data for 25 samples from 24 of...

Petrography and chemical composition of the lava flows at DSDP Leg 55 Holes

G P Avdeiko, S A Khubunaja & J V Vande-Kirkov
During DSDP Leg 55, volcanic rocks were recovered at Sites 430, 432, and 433, on Ojin, Nintoku, and Suiko seamounts, respectively, in the Emperor Seamount chain. Of the five lava flows recovered at Hole 430A, the upper four flows are typical hawaiites and the lowest flow is tholeiite. Three lava flows of alkalic basalts recovered at Hole 432A on Nintoku Seamount are petrographically and chemically similar to the analogous rocks from the Hawaiian Islands. Ninety-six...

Neogene diatoms at DSDP Leg 55 Holes

Itaru Koizumi
Leg 55 of the Deep Sea Drilling Project started from Honolulu, Hawaii, on 23 July 1977 and terminated at Yokohama, Japan on 6 September, 1977. Eleven holes were drilled at 4 sites; a multiple re-entry hole was drilled on Suiko Seamount. As originally planned, Leg 55 had two objectives: (1) drilling at least two sites on the Emperor Seamount chain, and (2) drilling a third site in Mesozoic Pacific crust in anomaly M-l on the...

Mineralogy and geochemistry of sedimentary deposits at DSDP Leg 55 Holes

Anne Marie Karpoff
The four holes (including a re-entry hole) drilled at Site 433 allow determination of the sedimentary sequence of Suiko Seamount in the Emperor chain. The holes are in a small graben basin situated within a lateral lagoon on the seamount. The sedimentary deposits range from the Paleocene to the upper Pliocene and are not uniform and continuous. A major hiatus exists at the top of the lower Eocene reef sediment, below the lower and upper...

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