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Master tracks in different resolutions during POLAR 2 campaign EPICA_VI

Daniel Steinhage
This dataset was created via processing of raw position data acquired by the GPS sensor for scientific equipment on Polar 6/Polar 5 to receive a validated master track which is used as reference of further expedition data.

Master tracks in different resolutions during POLAR 6 campaign CryoVEx_ANT_2014

Daniel Steinhage
This dataset was created via processing of raw position data acquired by the GPS sensor for scientific equipment on Polar 6/Polar 5 to receive a validated master track which is used as reference of further expedition data.

Master tracks in different resolutions during POLAR 2 campaign EPICA_I

Daniel Steinhage
This dataset was created via processing of raw position data acquired by the GPS sensor for scientific equipment on Polar 6/Polar 5 to receive a validated master track which is used as reference of further expedition data.

Limestone petrography and geochemical composition at ROV station GeoB12353-11, supplement to: Himmler, Tobias; Bayon, Germain; Wangner, David Johannes; Enzmann, Frieder; Peckmann, Jörn; Bohrmann, Gerhard (2016): Seep-carbonate lamination controlled by cyclic particle flux. Scientific Reports, 6, 37439

Tobias Himmler, Germain Bayon, David Johannes Wangner, Frieder Enzmann, Jörn Peckmann & Gerhard Bohrmann
Authigenic carbonate build-ups develop at seafloor methane-seeps, where microbially mediated sulphate-dependent anaerobic oxidation of methane facilitates carbonate precipitation. Despite being valuable recorders of past methane seepage events, their role as archives of atmospheric processes has not been examined. Here we show that cyclic sedimentation pulses related to the Indian monsoon in concert with authigenic precipitation of methane-derived aragonite gave rise to a well-laminated carbonate build-up within the oxygen minimum zone off Pakistan (northern Arabian Sea)....

Results of four halocarbon inversions over Europe for the year 2011, supplement to: Brunner, Dominik; Arnold, Tim; Henne, Stephan; Manning, Alistair; Thompson, Rona L; Maione, Michela; O'Doherty, Simon; Reimann, Stefan (2017): Comparison of four inverse modelling systems applied to the estimation of HFC-125, HFC-134a and SF6 emissions over Europe. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 17, 10651-10674

Dominik Brunner, Stephan Henne, Tim Arnold, Alistair Manning & Rona L Thompson
In the European project InGOS, four research groups from Empa, NILU and UKMO conducted a joint exercise to estimate the emissions of three synthetic gases with large global warming potentials (HFC-125 and HFC-134a and SF6) over Europe for the year 2011 using inverse modelling.

Oxygen isotopes of Globigerinoides ruber and grain-size distribution of terrigenous sediments of sediment core GeoB12624-1, supplement to: Liu, Xi-Ting; Rendle-Bühring, Rebecca; Henrich, Rüdiger (2016): Climate and sea-level controls on turbidity current activity on the Tanzanian upper slope during the last deglaciation and the Holocene. Quaternary Science Reviews, 133, 15-17

Xi-Ting Liu, Rebecca Rendle-Bühring & Rüdiger Henrich
Turbidity current is one of the most important mechanisms for rapid transportation of terrigenous sediments from the continental margin to the deep sea. Although extensive work on turbidite systems has been carried out globally, the Tanzanian margin, off East Africa, is poorly understood. This paper will therefore use a well-dated high-resolution marine core (GeoB12624-1), obtained during RV Meteor Cruise M75/2, from the upper Tanzanian continental slope, offshore the Rufiji River delta, to demonstrate which environmental...

Coccolithophore productivity of sediment core GeoB12613-1 from the western Indian Ocean (off Tanzania), supplement to: Tangunan, Deborah N; Baumann, Karl-Heinz; Pätzold, Jürgen; Henrich, Rüdiger; Kucera, Michal; De Pol-Holz, Ricardo; Groeneveld, Jeroen (2017): Insolation forcing of coccolithophore productivity in the western tropical Indian Ocean over the last two glacial-interglacial cycles. Paleoceanography, 32(7), 692-709

Deborah N Tangunan, Karl-Heinz Baumann, Jürgen Pätzold, Rüdiger Henrich, Michal Kucera, Ricardo De Pol-Holz & Jeroen Groeneveld
We present a new coccolithophore productivity reconstruction spanning the last 300 ka in core GeoB12613-1 retrieved from the western tropical Indian Ocean (IO), an area that mainly derives its warm and oligotrophic surface waters from the eastern IO. Application of a calibrated assemblage-based productivity index indicates a reduction in estimated primary productivity (EPP) from 300 ka to the present, with reconstructed EPP values ranging from 91 to 246 g C/m2/yr. Coccolithophore assemblages and coccolith fraction...

Environmental parameters and morphological parameters of Globigerinoides ruber, Globigerina bulloides and Orbulina universa sampled during the MedSea2013 cruise, supplement to: Mallo, Miguel; Ziveri, Patrizia; Mortyn, P Graham; Schiebel, Ralf; Grelaud, Michaël (2017): Low planktic foraminiferal diversity and abundance observed in a spring 2013 west-east Mediterranean Sea plankton tow transect. Biogeosciences, 14, 2245-2266

Miguel Mallo, Patrizia Ziveri, P Graham Mortyn, Ralf Schiebel & Michaël Grelaud
Planktic foraminifera were collected with 150 µm BONGO nets from the upper 200 m water depth at 20 stations across the Mediterranean Sea between 02 May and 02 June, 2013. The main aim is to characterize the species distribution and test the covariance between foraminiferal area density (rho-A) and seawater carbonate chemistry in a biogeochemical gradient including ultraoligotrophic conditions. Average foraminifera abundances are 1.42 ±1.43 ind 10^-3 (ranging from 0.11 to 5.20 ind 10^-3), including...

Quantitative genetic traits of eight grassland species from three regions of Germany (Schwäbische Alb, Hainich-Dün, Schorfheide Chorin), supplement to: Völler, Eva; Bossdorf, Oliver; Prati, Daniel; Auge, Harald (2017): Evolutionary responses to land use in eight common grassland plants. Journal of Ecology

Eva Völler, Oliver Bossdorf, Daniel Prati & Harald Auge
This study was carried out within the Biodiversity Exploratories (www.biodiversity-exploratories.de), a large-scale and long-term project for investigating relationships between land use, biodiversity and ecosystem processes (Fischer et al. 2010, doi: 10.1016/j.baae.2010.07.009). The core of this project is a network of standardized field plots in grasslands and forests in three different regions of Germany - Schwäbische Alb, Hainich-Dün and Schorfheide-Chorin. Within each region, there are 50 grassland plots covering a wide range of land-use types and...

Hydroclimate proxy data from the eastern tropical Indian Ocean

Mahyar Mohtadi, Matthias Prange, Enno Schefuß & Tim C Jennerjahn
Mg/Ca-based SST and thermocline temperatures with 1Sigma error at different sites, their difference (DeltaT), and the average DeltaT values for different periods with 95% confidence interval (CI). Also shown are hydrogen isotope (dD) values of n-C31 alkanes relative to the standard mean ocean water (per mil SMOW) with the 95% CI (LGM values are corrected for ice-volume), the C31 n-alkane concentrations in nanogram per gram sediment (ng g-1), the Carbon Preference Index (CPI27-33) as a...

Organic biomarker records and dinoflagellate cyst concentrations from the Pliocene to earliest Quaternary of ODP Site 907, Iceland Sea, supplement to: Clotten, Caroline; Stein, Ruediger; Fahl, Kirsten; De Schepper, Stijn (2018): Seasonal sea ice cover during the warm Pliocene: Evidence from the Iceland Sea (ODP Site 907). Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 481, 61-72

Caroline Clotten, Kirsten Fahl, Ruediger Stein & Stijn De Schepper
Sea ice is a critical component in the Arctic and global climate system, yet little is known about its extent and variability during past warm intervals, such as the Pliocene (5.33-2.58 Ma). Here, we present the first multi-proxy (IP25, sterols, alkenones, palynology) sea ice reconstructions for the Late Pliocene Iceland Sea (ODP Site 907). Our interpretation of a seasonal sea ice cover with occasional ice-free intervals between 3.50-3.00 Ma is supported by reconstructed alkenone-based summer...

Phosphate uptake in sub-euphotic continental margin waters, supplement to: Sokoll, Sarah; Ferdelman, Timothy G; Holtappels, Moritz; Goldhammer, Tobias; Littmann, Sten; Iversen, Morten Hvitfeldt; Kuypers, Marcel MM (2017): Intense biological phosphate uptake onto particles in sub-euphotic continental margin waters. Geophysical Research Letters, 44 (6), 2825–2834

Sarah Sokoll, Timothy G Ferdelman, Moritz Holtappels, Tobias Goldhammer, Sten Littmann, Morten Hvitfeldt Iversen & Marcel MM Kuypers
Elucidating the processes that affect particulate phosphorus (P) export from the euphotic zone and burial in sediments is important for models of global phosphorus, nitrogen, and carbon cycling. We investigated dissolved inorganic Pi incorporation into particles (>0.2 µm) in the subeuphotic zone and benthic boundary layer of high-productivity Mauritanian and Namibian shelf waters, using 33PO4^3- tracer experiments combined with a sequential chemical extraction analysis. Pi uptake (5.4 to 19.9 nmol P L^-1 d^-1) by particulate...

Sediment facies of a paleo-subglacial lake on the Antarctic continentral shelf, supplement to: Kuhn, Gerhard; Hillenbrand, Claus-Dieter; Kasten, Sabine; Smith, James A; Nitsche, Frank-Oliver; Frederichs, Thomas; Wiers, Steffen; Ehrmann, Werner; Klages, Johann Philipp; Mogollón, José M (2017): Evidence for a palaeo-subglacial lake on the Antarctic continental shelf. Nature Communications, 8, 15591

Gerhard Kuhn, Claus-Dieter Hillenbrand, Sabine Kasten, James A Smith, Frank-Oliver Nitsche, Thomas Frederichs, Steffen Wiers, Werner Ehrmann, Johann Philipp Klages & José M Mogollón
Subglacial lakes are widespread beneath the Antarctic ice sheet but their control on ice sheet dynamics and their ability to harbour life remain poorly characterised. Here we present the evidence for a palaeo-subglacial lake on the Antarctic continental shelf. A distinct sediment facies recovered from a bedrock basin in Pine Island Bay indicates deposition within a low-energy lake environment. Diffusive-advection modelling demonstrates that low chloride concentrations in the sediment pore water can only be explained...

Compilations and splined-smoothed calculations of continuous records of the atmospheric greenhouse gases CO2, CH4, and N2O and their radiative forcing since the penultimate glacial maximum, supplement to: Köhler, Peter; Nehrbass-Ahles, Christoph; Schmitt, Jochen; Stocker, Thomas F; Fischer, Hubertus (2017): A 156 kyr smoothed history of the atmospheric greenhouse gases CO2, CH4, and N2O and their radiative forcing. Earth System Science Data, 9(1), 363-387

Peter Köhler, Christoph Nehrbass-Ahles, Jochen Schmitt, Thomas F Stocker & Hubertus Fischer
Continuous records of the atmospheric greenhouse gases (GHGs) CO2, CH4, and N2O are necessary input data for transient climate simulations and their related radiative forcing important components in analyses of climate sensitivity and feedbacks. Since the available data from ice cores are discontinuous and partly ambiguous a well-documented decision process during data compilation followed by some interpolating post-processing are necessary to obtain those desired time series. Here we document our best-guess data compilation of published...

Collection of environmental data, soil water content, root water uptake, evapotranspiration, plant trait and root trait data of the Jena-Ecotron experiment, supplement to: Guderle, Marcus; Bachmann, Dörte; Milcu, Alexandru; Gockele, Annette; Bechmann, Marcel; Fischer, Christine; Roscher, Christiane; Landais, Damien; Ravel, Olivier; Devidal, Sébastien; Roy, Jacques; Gessler, Arthur; Buchmann, Nina; Weigelt, Alexandra; Hildebrandt, Anke (2017): Dynamic niche partitioning in root water uptake facilitates efficient water use in more diverse grassland plant communities. Functional Ecology

Marcus Guderle, Dörte Bachmann, Alexandru Milcu, Annette Gockele, Marcel Bechmann, Christine Fischer, Christiane Roscher, Damien Landais, Olivier Ravel, Sébastien Devidal, Jacques Roy, Arthur Gessler, Nina Buchmann, Alexandra Weigelt & Anke Hildebrandt
This data set contains environmental variables (imposed cumulative precipitation, measurements of radiation, air relative humidity and air temperature), measurements of soil water content, root water uptake estimated from soil moisture contents and community evapotranspiration derived from root water uptake as well as from weight changes, plant trait data (specific leaf area, leaf dry matter content, leaf water potential measured at predawn and midday, stomatal conductance, leaf greenness, height of species, aboveground biomass, species abundances, community...

Track of GPS-Drifters from HEINCKE cruise HE496

Ruben Carrasco, Jens Floeter & Jochen Horstmann
The drifters were deployed within the German Bight of the North Sea from the FS Heincke during cruise HE 496, which was performed between 14. and 21. September 2017. The utilized drifters obtain their position via the Global Positioning System (GPS) and communicated their locations to the lab via Iridium (a global full ocean coverage bidirectional satellite communication network). Within the experiment, 10 Albatros drifters MD03i were used. The MD03i is a cylinder shaped drifter,...

Sea surface current deduced from Doppler-shift of high-frequency radar backscatter, 2010-10-29 to 2016-12-31

Jochen Horstmann, Thomas Schlick, Marius Cysewski, Peter Perthun, Juri Stell, Jan Boedewadt, Thomas Helzel, Jörg Seemann, Friedwart Ziemer, Klaus-Werner Gurgel, Jens Meywerk & Gisbert Breitbach
The HF-Radar network in the German Bight consist of three Wellen Radar (WERA) Systems, which are located on Sylt, Büsum and Wangerooge. All Systems transmit via a rectangular array of four antennae with an average power of 32 W. The Systems on Sylt and Büsum operate at 10.8 MHz with a linear receive array consisting of 12 antennae, while the Wangerooge radar operates at 12.1 MHz with a 16 antennae array. Each radar covers a...

A join of 85 physical oceanography CTD profiles with meteorological variables in Potter Cove, Carlini Station, King George Island (Isla 25 de Mayo) during 24 years German-Argentinian cooperation (1991-2015) compiled within IMCONet

Camila Neder, Kerstin Jerosch, Eduardo Mariano Ruiz Barlett & Irene R Schloss
FOR DOWNLOAD THE COMPLETE FILE PLEASE USE THE "OTHER VERSION".A joined data set of CTD profiles (conductivity, temperature, density, salinity, voltage and pressure) with metereological variables (daily mean, maximum and minimum air temperature; daily range temperature ?max-min); atmospheric pressure; relative humidity; precipitation; visibility; mean and max wind speed of day; wind gut; direction and cloud cover ) in Potter Cove, Carlini Station, King George Island (Isla 25 de Mayo). Stations have been merged within a...

Evidence for enhanced North Pacific Intermediate Water in the Bering Sea during extreme glacials over the past 1.2 Ma from records of stable isotopes analyzed at IODP Site 323-U1342 Holes A, C, and D, supplement to: Knudson, Karla P; Ravelo, Ana Christina (2015): North Pacific Intermediate Water circulation enhanced by the closure of the Bering Strait. Paleoceanography, 30(10), 1287-1304

Karla P Knudson & Ana Christina Ravelo
The Bering Strait provides a shallow connection that allows freshwater to flow from the North Pacific into the North Atlantic, but this passage was closed during past glacials when sea level was at least 50 m lower than at present. Climate models investigating Bering Strait closure predict that this mechanism increases the salinity in the North Atlantic and reduces the salinity in the North Pacific, inducing a Pacific-Atlantic seesaw in meridional overturning circulation and poleward...

Bering Sea nitrate utilization and stratification since 1.2 Ma analyzed at IODP Site 323-U1342 Holes A, C, and D, supplement to: Knudson, Karla P; Ravelo, Ana Christina (2015): Enhanced subarctic Pacific stratification and nutrient utilization during glacials over the last 1.2 Myr. Geophysical Research Letters, 42(22), 9870-9879

Karla P Knudson & Ana Christina Ravelo
The relationship between climate, biological productivity, and nutrient flux is of considerable interest in the subarctic Pacific, which represents an important high-nitrate, low-chlorophyll region. While previous studies suggest that changes in iron supply and/or physical ocean stratification could hypothetically explain orbital-scale fluctuations in subarctic Pacific nutrient utilization and productivity, previous records of nutrient utilization are too short to evaluate these relationships over many glacial-interglacial cycles. We present new, high-resolution records of sedimentary d15N, which offer...

Physical oceanography and meteorological measurements in Potter Cove, King George Island, West Antarctic Peninsula during austral summer 2010/2011, supplement to: Monien, Donata; Monien, Patrick; Brünjes, Robert; Widmer, Tatjana; Kappenberg, Arne; Silva-Busso, Adrian A; Schnetger, Bernhard; Brumsack, Hans-Jürgen (2017): Meltwater as a source of potentially bioavailable iron to Antarctica waters. Antarctic Science, 1-15

Donata Monien, Patrick Monien, Robert Brünjes, Tatjana Widmer, Arne Kappenberg, Adrian A Silva-Busso, Bernhard Schnetger & Hans-Jürgen Brumsack
Recent rapid retreat of glacial front lines and the loss of land ice along the Antarctic margins may play an important role in exporting suspended particulate matter (SPM) potentially rich in bioavailable (defined as ascorbate leachable) iron (FeA) to coastal areas of the Southern Ocean. Sediment ablation is an additional source of iron for this high-nutrient low-chlorophyll region. In Potter Cove, King George Island, meltwater streams discharge up to 18 000 mg/l (average 283 mg/l)...

Branched GDGT lipids, crenarchaeol and POC in the Yenisei River (2009-2010), supplement to: De Jonge, Cindy; Stadnitskaia, Alina; Hopmans, Ellen C; Cherkashov, Georgy A; Fedotov, Andrey; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S (2014): In situ produced branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers in suspended particulate matter from the Yenisei River, Eastern Siberia. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 125, 476-491

Cindy De Jonge, Alina Stadnitskaia, Ellen C Hopmans, Georgy A Cherkashov, Andrey Fedotov & Jaap S Sinninghe Damsté
Soil-derived branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs) in marine river fan sediments have a potential use for determining changes in the mean annual temperature (MAT) and pH of the river watershed soils. Prior to their incorporation in marine sediments, the compounds are transported to the marine system by rivers. However, emerging evidence suggests that the brGDGTs in freshwater systems can be derived from both soil run-off and in situ production. The production of brGDGTs in...

Upper air soundings during POLARSTERN cruise PS105 (ANT-XXXII/4)

Holger Schmithüsen
Upper air soundings onboard Polarstern are normally performed once a day to measure vertical profiles of air pressure, temperature, relative humidity and the wind vector. Helium filled balloons (TOTEX 600 g) were used to carry Vaisala RS92-SGP radiosondes. Whenever possible, the launches were carried out shortly before 11 UTC, in order to reach 100 hPa at 12 UTC. Condensed measurements (TEMP Format FM-35, BUFR) were transferred without delay into the Global Telecommunication System GTS, were...

Delta 13C hydrocarbon, geochemistry of pore water sediment and physical oceanography (CTD) off the Vesteralen coast, northern Norway, supplement to: Sauer, Simone; Knies, Jochen; Lepland, Aivo; Chand, S; Eichinger, Florian; Schubert, Carsten J (2015): Hydrocarbon sources of cold seeps off the Vesteralen coast, northern Norway. Chemical Geology, 417, 371-382

Simone Sauer, Jochen Knies, Aivo Lepland, S Chand, Florian Eichinger & Carsten J Schubert
We investigated active methane seeps in a water depth of 200 m in the Hola area off the coast of Vesteralen, northern Norway, to assess (1) hydrocarbon sources, (2) migration pathways and (3) the influence of hydrocarbon seepage on sediment pore water and water column chemistry. The seepage area is characterised by the presence of gas flares in the water column as revealed by hydro acoustic surveys and elevated methane concentrations of up to 42...

Solid-phase and porewater geochemistry from three stations of a seasonally-hypoxic coastal marine lake (Grevelingen), supplement to: Sulu-Gambari, Fatimah; Seitaj, Dorina; Behrends, Thilo; Banerjee, Dipanjan; Meysman, Filip J R; Slomp, Caroline P (2016): Impact of cable bacteria on sedimentary iron and manganese dynamics in a seasonally-hypoxic marine basin. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 192(19), 49-69

Fatimah Sulu-Gambari, Dorina Seitaj, Thilo Behrends, Dipanjan Banerjee, Filip J R Meysman & Caroline P Slomp
Cable bacteria have recently been identified in various sedimentary marine settings worldwide. These filamentous microbes mediate electrogenic sulphur oxidation (e-SOx) over centimetre-scale distances, leading to a distinct separation of oxygen- and sulphide-bearing sediment zones. Here we present results of a year-long monthly assessment of the impact of cable bacteria on sedimentary Fe and Mn dynamics at three sites located along a water depth gradient in a seasonally-hypoxic coastal marine lake (Grevelingen). Fluorescence In Situ Hybridisation...

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