458 Works

Consistently dated Atlantic sediment cores

Claire Waelbroeck, Bryan C Lougheed, Natalia Vázquez Riveiros, Lise Missiaen, Joel B Pedro, Trond Dokken, Irka Hajdas, Lukas Wacker, Peter M Abbott, Jean-Pascal Dumoulin, François Thil, Frédérique Eynaud, Linda Rossignol, Wiem Fersi, Ana Luiza Spadano Albuquerque, Helge Wolfgang Arz, William EN Austin, Rosemarie E Came, Anders Eskil Carlson, James A Collins, Bernard Dennielou, Stéphanie Desprat, Alex Dickson, Mary Elliot, Christa Farmer … & Martin Ziegler
Rapid changes in ocean circulation and climate have been observed in marine-sediment and ice cores over the last glacial period and deglaciation, highlighting the non-linear character of the climate system and underlining the possibility of rapid climate shifts in response to anthropogenic greenhouse gas forcing. To date, these rapid changes in climate and ocean circulation are still not fully explained. One obstacle hindering progress in our understanding of the interactions between past ocean circulation and...

Epibenthos of the North-western Shelf of the Black Sea, supplement to: Stevens, Tim; Mee, Laurence; Friedrich, Jana; Aleynik, Dmitry; Minicheva, Galina (2019): Partial Recovery of Macro-Epibenthic Assemblages on the North-West Shelf of the Black Sea. Frontiers in Marine Science, 6

Tim Stevens, Laurence Mee, Jana Friedrich, Dmitry Aleynik & Galina Minicheva
The dataset contains information about density (ind.m2) and percent cover of epibenthic organisms on the north-western shelf of the black sea, sampled in summer 2006 and spring 2008. Data are derived from video tows at 29 and 36 stations, respectively, at depths from 13 to 122m. Data is in the form of excel files with 2 sheets, one for each year. Each sheet contains co-ordinates and station names.

Absolute counts and concentrations of pollen and non-pollen palynomorphs from the sediment core XBWu-46 extracted from Bosten Lake (Bosten Hu) covering the last 8540 years and a clay sample from mud coffin BM28 from the Xiaohe cemetery in western China, supplement to: Tarasov, Pavel E; Demske, Dieter; Leipe, Christian; Long, Tengwen; Müller, Stefanie; Hoelzmann, Philipp; Wagner, Mayke (2018): An 8500-year palynological record of vegetation, climate change and human activity in the Bosten Lake region of Northwest China. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology

Dieter Demske & Pavel E Tarasov
The palynological data of the XBWu-46 sediment core extracted from Bosten Lake at the south-eastern end of the Tian Shan represents the regional moisture evolution, which can be divided into three major intervals comprising a period of aridification (ca. 8540-4000 cal. yr BP), a driest phase spanning from ca. 4000 to 2000/1500 cal. yr BP, followed by an interval of increasing moisture levels towards the core top (ca. 60 cal. yr BP). Correlation with other...

Late Glacial to Holocene trace metal isotope, (bio-)geochemical, tephrochronologic, and chronologic data from the DEEP sediments of Lake Ohrid (Macedonia, Albania), supplement to: Francke, Alexander; Dosseto, Anthony; Panagiotopoulos, Konstantinos; Leicher, Niklas; Lacey, Jack H; Kyrikou, Styliani; Wagner, Bernd; Zanchetta, Giovanni; Kouli, Katerina; Leng, Melanie J (2019): Sediment residence time reveals Holocene shift from climatic to vegetation control on catchment erosion in the Balkans. Global and Planetary Change, 177, 186-200

Alexander Francke, Anthony Dosseto, Konstantinos Panagiotopoulos, Niklas Leicher, Jack H Lacey, Styliani Kyrikou, Bernd Wagner, Giovanni Zanchetta, Katerina Kouli & Melanie J Leng
This dataset presents Uranium isotope, sediment residence, (bio-)geochemical, tephrochronologic, and chronologic data for the uppermost (<5.52 m composite depth (mcd)) part of the ICDP (International Continental Drilling Program) core “DEEP” (5045-1) from Lake Ohrid (Macedonia, Albania). Uranium isotopes ((²³⁴U/²³⁸U) activity ratios) were analyzed at 16 cm resolution by means of multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry after sequential leaching to remove any non-detrital matter, sample dissolution and column exchange chromatography to isolate Uranium from the...

Globigerinoides ruber sediment trap data in the Gulf of Mexico, supplement to: Richey, Julie N; Thirumalai, Kaustubh; Khider, D; Reynolds, Caitlin E; Partin, Judson W; Quinn, Terrence Michael (2019): Considerations for Globigerinoides ruber (White and Pink) Paleoceanography: Comprehensive Insights From a Long‐Running Sediment Trap. Paleoceanography and Paleoclimatology, 34(3), 353-373

Julie N Richey, Kaustubh Thirumalai, D Khider, Caitlin E Reynolds, Judson W Partin & Terrence Michael Quinn
We present results here from a high-resolution (1-2 weeks) and long-running sediment trap time series from the northern Gulf of Mexico which allows for a detailed assessment of the seasonal distribution, size, morphological variability and geochemistry of co-occurring pink and white chromotypes of Globigerinoides ruber. The flux of both chromotypes is highly correlated, and both represent mean annual conditions in the surface mixed-layer. Under modern climatic conditions in the Gulf of Mexico, we find no...

Monthly and annual coral Barium/Calcium, δ18O, and δ13C records from a macro-tide dominated nearshore reef environment, Kimberley region of northwestern Australia, supplement to: Chen, Xuefei; Deng, Wenfeng; Wei, Gangjian; McCulloch, Malcolm T (2020): Terrestrial signature in coral Ba/Ca, δ18O, and δ13C records from a macro‐tide dominated nearshore reef environment, Kimberley region of northwestern Australia. Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences

Xuefei Chen, Wenfeng Deng, Gangjian Wei & Malcolm T McCulloch
Near monthly and annual records of Ba/Ca, 18O, and 13C for a Porites coral from the naturally extreme reef environment in the nearshore Kimberley region of northwestern Australia. The monthly records cover from 1995 to 2015, and the annual records cover from 1919 to 2015.

Eco-physiological data on Laminaria solidungula and Saccharina latissima from Kongsfjorden, Spitsbergen, during the polar night 2016/17, supplement to: Scheschonk, Lydia; Becker, Stefan; Hehemann, Jan-Hendrik; Diehl, Nora; Karsten, Ulf; Bischof, Kai (2019): Arctic kelp eco-physiology during the polar night in the face of global warming: a crucial role for laminarin. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 611, 59-74

Lydia Scheschonk, Stefan Becker, Jan-Hendrik Hehemann, Nora Diehl, Ulf Karsten & Kai Bischof
Kelps, perennial brown seaweeds of the order Laminariales, are foundational species in Arctic coastal ecosystems. Presently, their ability to persist under polar night conditions might be significantly affected by increasing winter temperatures. We assessed physiological parameters (photosynthesis, pigment content, respiration, carbohydrate storage) in two species of Arctic kelp, the boreal-temperate Saccharina latissima and the Arctic-endemic Laminaria solidungula, during the polar night 2016/17. Algae were sampled from Kongsfjorden, Svalbard, 78° 55' N, shortly before the onset...

Abundance and biomass of macrozoobenthos in surface sediments sampled during POLARSTERN cruises PS82 and PS96, supplement to: Pineda-Metz, Santiago E A; Isla, Enrique; Gerdes, Dieter (2019): Benthic communities of the Filchner Region (Weddell Sea, Antarctica). Marine Ecology Progress Series, 628, 37-54

Santiago E A Pineda-Metz & Dieter Gerdes
Due to extreme pack ice, the Filchner Region in the southern Weddell Sea is one of the least studied regions on the planet. Here, we provide a detailed description of the benthic communities of this high-Antarctic ecosystem, and assess the relationship between environmental factors and benthic distribution patterns. Fieldwork was performed in the austral summers of 2013-14 and 2015-16 during the R/V 'Polarstern' cruises PS82 and PS96. Using a combination of multibox corer (MBC) and...

Profile of vertical fish echo sounding with Simrad EK60 during Jan Mayen/Helmer Hanssen and James Clark Ross cruises from 2008-2014 with links to raw data files, supplement to: Veloso-Alarcón, Mario Enrique; Jansson, Pär; De Batist, Marc; Minshull, Tim A; Westbrook, Graham K; Pälike, Heiko; Buenz, Stefan; Wright, Ian C; Greinert, Jens (2019): Variability of Acoustically Evidenced Methane Bubble Emissions Offshore Western Svalbard. Geophysical Research Letters, 46(15), 9072-9081

Mario Enrique Veloso-Alarcón, Pär Jansson, Marc De Batist, Tim A Minshull, Graham K Westbrook, Heiko Pälike, Stefan Buenz, Ian C Wright & Jens Greinert
Hydroacoustic evidence of submarine gas emissions was repeatedly acquired on a seepage area offshore Prins Karl Forland, Svalbard. The data set was collected with EK60 scientific echosounders during 11 surveys conducted between 2008 and 2014 on board the RV Helmer Hanssen and the RRS James Clark Ross. This information contains large amount of acoustic flares, which are the hydroacoustic expression in echograms of underwater bubble release. The acquisition and compilation of this information is a...

Falkland Islands Peatland carbon data

Richard J Payne
These data describe peat initiation and development in the Falkland Islands, South Atlantic. The datasets presented represent a combination of primary data collection and our compilation of previously-published data. The 'falklands_basal_dates' file lists radiocarbon dates which can be considered to represent peat initiation. Data are for: site name, location (northing/easting), radiocarbon date details (labID/age/error), basal depth, data source (reference given where data is secondary) and a brief description of the basal stratigraphy. The 'falklands_core_properties' dataset...

Porewater geochemistry of sediment cores during METEOR cruise M141/1, Terceira Rift, Azores, supplement to: Schmidt, Christopher; Hensen, Christian; Wallmann, Klaus; Liebetrau, Volker; Tatzel, M; Schurr, S L; Kutterolf, Steffen; Haffert, Laura; Geilert, Sonja; Hübscher, Christian; Lebas, Elodie; Heuser, Alexander; Schmidt, Mark; Strauss, Harald; Vogl, Jochen; Hansteen, Thor H (2019): Origin of High Mg and SO4 Fluids in Sediments of the Terceira Rift, Azores‐Indications for Caminite Dissolution in a Waning Hydrothermal System. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, 20(12), 6078-6094

Christopher Schmidt, Christian Hensen & Thor H Hansteen
During R/V Meteor cruise 141/1, pore fluids of near surface sediments were investigated to find indications for hydrothermal activity in the Terceira Rift (TR), a hyper‐slow spreading center in the Central North Atlantic Ocean. To date, submarine hydrothermal fluid venting in the TR has only been reported for the D. João de Castro seamount, which presently seems to be inactive. Pore fluids sampled close to a volcanic cone at 2800 m water depth show an...

Doppler wind lidar plan position indicator scans and atmospheric measurements at the offshore wind farm \"Global Tech I\", supplement to: Schneemann, Jörge; Rott, Andreas; Dorenkämper, Martin; Steinfeld, Gerald; Kühn, Martin (2020): Cluster wakes impact on a far-distant offshore wind farm's power. Wind Energy Science, 5(1), 29-49

Jörge Schneemann, Stephan Voß, Andreas Rott & Martin Kühn
Scanning Doppler wind lidar scans and atmospheric measurements at the offshore wind farm "Global Tech I" in the German North Sea.Wakes of neighbouring wind farm clusters are present in the data.

Carbon and nitrogen turnover during a mesocosm experiment with addition of Palmaria decipiens and Desmarestia anceps to sediments from Potter Cove, supplement to: Braeckman, Ulrike; Pasotti, Francesca; Vázquez, Susana; Zacher, Katharina; Hoffmann, R; Elvert, Marcus; Marchant, Hannah K; Buckner, Caroline; Quartino, Maria Liliana; Mac Cormack, Walter; Soetaert, Karline; Wenzhöfer, Frank; Vanreusel, Ann (2019): Degradation of macroalgal detritus in shallow coastal Antarctic sediments. Limnology and Oceanography, 64, 1423-1441

Ulrike Braeckman, Francesca Pasotti, Susana Vázquez, Katharina Zacher, Ralf Hoffmann, Marcus Elvert, Hannah K Marchant, Caroline Buckner, Maria Liliana Quartino, Walter Mac Cormack, Karline Soetaert, Frank Wenzhöfer & Ann Vanreusel
To understand the fate of the increasing amount of macroalgal detritus in Antarctic shallow subtidal sediments, a mesocosm experiment was conducted to track 13C and 15N labelled macroalgal detritus into the benthic bacterial, meio- and macrofaunal biomass and respiration of sediments from Potter Cove (King George Island). We compared the degradation pathways of two macroalgae species: one considered palatable for herbivores (the red algae Palmaria decipiens), and one considered non-palatable for herbivores (the brown algae...

Strontium, carbon, and oxygen isotopes in Triassic dolomites - Travenanzes Formation (Italy), supplement to: Rieder, Maximilian; Wegner, Wencke; Horschinegg, Monika; Klackl, Stefanie; Preto, Nereo; Breda, Anna; Gier, Susanne; Klötzli, Urs; Bernasconi, Stefano M; Arp, Gernot; Meister, Patrick (2019): Precipitation of dolomite from seawater on a Carnian coastal plain (Dolomites, northern Italy): evidence from carbonate petrography and Sr isotopes. Solid Earth, 10(4), 1243-1267

Maximilian Rieder, Wencke Wegner, Monika Horschinegg, Stefanie Klackl, Nereo Preto, Anna Breda, Susanne Gier, Urs Klötzli, Stefano M Bernasconi, Gernot Arp & Patrick Meister
We present Sr-isotope data (87Sr/86Sr ratios) from dolomites of the Triassic Travenanzes Formation (Fm.), Northern Italy. The goal of this study was to determine if ionic solutions conducive to dolomite formation are derived from a continental or a marine source. Results clearly show a marine source.Sr-isotope data are shown in Table 1. Extensive leaching experiments were performed using sequential extractions (labelled "seq") to test for extraction efficiency of each solvent. Solvent and extraction procedure are...

High-resolution surface global solar radiation and the diffuse component dataset over China

Hou Jiang & Ning Lu
Surface solar radiation drives the water cycle and energy exchange on the earth's surface, and its diffuse component can promote carbon uptake in ecosystems by increasing the plant productivity. The accurate knowledge of their spatial distribution is of great importance to many studies and applications, such as the estimation of agricultural yield, carbon dynamics of terrestrial systems, site selection of solar power plants, as well as trends of regional climate changes. Therefore, we produce the...

Abundance and morphometry of Daphnia lumholtzi in Lake Texoma, OK, USA in 2010-2011, supplement to: Beyer, Jessica E; Hambright, K David (2019): The niche and morphology of the invasive Daphnia lumholtzi in a subtropical reservoir, 20 years after invasion. Journal of Plankton Research, 41(2), 90-100

Jessica E Beyer & K David Hambright
In Lake Texoma, OK, USA, we measured the abundance and morphometry of Daphnia lumholtzi. Samples were collected at five pelagic sites (see below for coordinates) over the course of fourteen months (June 2010-July 2011). Zooplankton were collected using vertical tow over the full water column (depth-integrated) with a Wisconsin-type net (350-μm mesh, aperture diameter 10.5 cm). Zooplankton were enumerated and morphology of Daphnia lumholtzi was measured using a dissecting microscope. Water quality parameters, including water...

Effect of salinity and burial on protein metabolism and muscle capacity in the soft shell clam Mya arenaria, supplement to: Haider, Fouzia; Sokolov, Eugene; Timm, Stefan; Hagemann, Martin; Blanco-Rayon, Esther; Marigomez, Ionan; Izagirre, Urtzi; Sokolova, Inna M (2019): Interactive effects of osmotic stress and burrowing activity on protein metabolism and muscle capacity in the soft shell clam Mya arenaria. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Molecular & Integrative Physiology, 228, 81-93

Fouzia Haider, Eugene Sokolov, Stefan Timm, Martin Hagemann, Esther Blanco-Rayon, Ionan Marigomez, Urtzi Izagirre & Inna M Sokolova
Bioturbators such as sediment-dwelling marine bivalves are ecosystem engineers that enhance sediment-water exchange and benthic-pelagic coupling. In shallow coastal areas, bivalves are exposed to frequent disturbance and salinity stress that might negatively affect their activity and physiological performance; however, the mechanisms underlying these effects are not fully understood. We investigated the effects of osmotic stress (low and fluctuating salinity) and repeated burrowing on aerobic and contractile capacity of the foot muscle (assessed by the activity...

Records of Neogene ocean carbonate chemistry using the boron isotope pH proxy, supplement to: Sosdian, Sindia M; Greenop, Rosanna; Hain, Mathis P; Foster, Gavin L; Pearson, Paul N; Lear, Caroline H (2018): Constraining the evolution of Neogene ocean carbonate chemistry using the boron isotope pH proxy. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 498, 362-376

Sindia M Sosdian, Rosanna Greenop, Mathis P Hain, Gavin L Foster, Paul N Pearson & Caroline H Lear
Over the course of the Neogene, the Earth underwent profound climatic shifts from the sustained warmth of the middle Miocene to the development of Plio-Pleistocene glacial-interglacial cycles. Major perturbations in the global carbon cycle have occurred alongside these shifts, however the lack of long- term carbonate system reconstructions currently limits our understanding of the link between changes in CO2, carbon cycling, and climate over this time interval. Here we reconstruct continuous surface ocean pH, CO2,...

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the continental shelf of the Korea Strait, supplement to: Guerra, Roberta; Pasteris, Andrea; Righi, Serena; Ok, Gon (2019): Historical record of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the continental shelf of the Korea Strait. Chemosphere, 237, 124438

Roberta Guerra, Andrea Pasteris, Serena Righi & Gon Ok
The vertical distribution of PCBs concentration and fluxes were documented over the ~100 years in a single sedimentary sequence collected in the continental shelf of the Korea Strait. Pb-210 ages and accumulation rates were estimated with the Constant Flux (CF) model and uncertainties with the Monte Carlo method. Sedimentation accumulation rates (SAR) found in the core YS varied from 0.2 to 1.8 cm/yr, whereas mass accumulation rates ranged from 0.2 to 1.4 g/cm2 yr1.The historical...

Groundwater noble gas isotope measurements from various sites in California, supplement to: Seltzer, Alan; Ng, Jessica; Danskin, Wesley; Kulongoski, Justin T; Gannon, Riley; Stute, Martin; Severinghaus, Jeffrey P (2019): Deglacial water-table decline in Southern California recorded by noble gas isotopes. Nature Communications

Alan Seltzer, Jessica Ng, Wesley Danskin, Justin T Kulongoski, Riley Gannon, Martin Stute & Jeffrey P Severinghaus
Kr and Xe isotope measurements (raw and corrected), sample information, well information, and inverse model output for groundwater samples from 36 wells across California spanning three regions: 1) San Diego, 2) Fresno, 3) Mojave Desert.

Percentage cover of coral, sponges, substrates with environmental variables and coordinates per 25 m video subtransect at the Tisler Reef, supplement to: De Clippele, Laurence Helene; Huvenne, Veerle A I; Orejas, Covadonga; Lundälv, Tomas; Fox, Alan; Hennige, S J; Roberts, J Murray (2018): The effect of local hydrodynamics on the spatial extent and morphology of cold-water coral habitats at Tisler Reef, Norway. Coral Reefs, 37(1), 253-266

Laurence Helene De Clippele, Veerle A I Huvenne, Covadonga Orejas, Tomas Lundälv, Alan Fox, S J Hennige & J Murray Roberts
This data was used in a study that demonstrates how cold-water coral morphology and habitat distribution are shaped by local hydrodynamics, using high-definition video from Tisler Reef, an inshore reef in Norway. A total of 334 video frames collected on the north-west (NW) and south-east (SE) side of the reef were investigated for Lophelia pertusa coral cover and morphology and for the cover of the associated sponges Mycale lingua and Geodia sp. Our results showed...

Measurements in soil and air at Samoylov Station (2002-2018), supplement to: Boike, Julia; Nitzbon, Jan; Anders, Katharina; Grigoriev, Mikhail N; Bolshiyanov, Dimitry Yu; Langer, Moritz; Lange, Stephan; Bornemann, Niko; Morgenstern, Anne; Schreiber, Peter; Wille, Christian; Chadburn, Sarah; Gouttevin, Isabelle; Burke, Eleanor J; Kutzbach, Lars (2019): A 16-year record (2002–2017) of permafrost, active-layer, and meteorological conditions at the Samoylov Island Arctic permafrost research site, Lena River delta, northern Siberia: an opportunity to validate remote-sensing data and land surface, snow, and permafrost models. Earth System Science Data, 11(1), 261-299

Julia Boike, Jan Nitzbon, Katharina Anders, Mikhail N Grigoriev, Dimitry Yu Bolshiyanov, Moritz Langer, Stephan Lange, Niko Bornemann, Anne Morgenstern, Peter Schreiber, Christian Wille, Sarah Chadburn, Isabelle Gouttevin & Lars Kutzbach
Most of the world's permafrost is located in the Arctic, where its frozen organic carbon con-tent makes it a potentially important influence on the global climate system. The Arctic climate appears to be changing more rapidly than the lower latitudes, but observational data density in the region is low. Permafrost thaw and carbon release into the atmosphere is a positive feed-back mechanism that has the potential for climate warming. It is therefore particularly im-portant to...

Trace-element and U-Pb data of metapelitic apatite during progressive greenschist- to amphibolite-facies Barrovian metamorphism - Central Alps, supplement to: Henrichs, Isadora A; Chew, David M; O'Sullivan, Gary J; Mark, Chris; McKenna, Cora; Guyett, Paul (2019): Trace‐element (Mn‐Sr‐Y‐Th‐REE) and U‐Pb isotope systematics of metapelitic apatite during progressive greenschist‐ to amphibolite‐facies Barrovian metamorphism. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems

Isadora A Henrichs, David M Chew, Gary J O'Sullivan, Chris Mark, Cora McKenna & Paul Guyett
Supplement to: Trace‐element (Mn‐Sr‐Y‐Th‐REE) and U‐Pb isotope systematics of metapelitic apatite during progressive greenschist‐ to amphibolite‐facies Barrovian metamorphism. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, doi: https://doi.org/10.1029/2019GC008359.Sample description and locations are provided in Table 1. Whole-rock major and trace elements are presented in Table 2. Trace and U-Pb apatite data are provided in Table 3, and epidote SEM-EDS data are shown in Table 4.

Modern, pre-industrial and past (last 25 ka) carbon isotopic (δ13C) variability in the surface waters of the southwest Pacific, supplement to: Maxson, Charles; Bostock, Helen C; Mackintosh, Andrew; Mikaloff-Fletcher, Sara; McCave, I Nick; Neil, Helen L (2019): Modern, pre-industrial and past (last 25 ka) carbon isotopic (δ13C) variability in the surface waters of the southwest Pacific. Paleoceanography and Paleoclimatology, 34(4), 692-714

Charles Maxson, Helen C Bostock, Andrew Mackintosh, Sara Mikaloff-Fletcher, I Nick McCave & Helen L Neil
Carbon stable isotopes of Globigerina bulloides from 68 core tops and 19 cores (published and unpublished) were compiled for the SW Pacific to determine latitudinal changes in d13CG.bulloides for the Holocene and changes since the glacial (last 25 ka).

Stream organic matter exports from a montane peatland (2015-01-01 to 2018-01-01), supplement to: Rosset, Thomas; Gandois, Laure; Le Roux, Gaël; Teisserenc, Roman; Durantez Jimenez, Pilar; Camboulive, Thierry; Binet, S (2019): Peatland Contribution to Stream Organic Carbon Exports From a Montane Watershed. Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences, 124(11), 3448-3464

Thomas Rosset, Laure Gandois, Gaël Le Roux, Roman Teisserenc, Pilar Durantez Jimenez & Thierry Camboulive
High frequency (30 min) data of discharge, fluorescence of the organic matter and turbidity used to calculate respectively the exports of dissolved and particulate organic carbon from a mountainous watershed containing a peatland. Measurements were done both at the inlet and at the outlet of the peatland for three years from 2015, 1st January to 2018, 1st of January. This depository integrates low frequency organic carbon concentration data which were used for optical sensors calibrations...

Registration Year

  • 2019
    458

Resource Types

  • Collection
    458

Affiliations

  • University of Iowa
    2
  • Boston University
    1