606 Works

Plant biomass determination and stability metrics calculations analysed during the Jena Expermint from 2012 to 2015

Sofia J van Moorsel, Terhi Hahl, Owen L Petchey, Anne Ebeling, Nico Eisenhauer, Bernhard Schmid & Cameron Wagg
The present study was conducted at the Jena Experiment field site from 2011 to 2015. The 48 experimental plant communities included twelve monocultures (of which one was removed from all analyses because it was planted with the wrong species), twelve 2-species mixtures, twelve 4-species mixtures and twelve 8-species mixtures. We used two community-evolution treatments (plant histories); plants with eight years of co-selection history in different plant communities in the Jena Experiment (communities of co-selected plants)...

Saharan dust transported Quartz grains in sediment cores GIK13289-1/-2 and GIK13291-1, off Senegal (NW Africa)

Harald Hommers & Michael Sarnthein
Two deep-sea cores, GIK13891 and GIK13291, retrieved off Mauretania (NW Africa) from the top of a ca. 250 m high seamount and from the seamount's foot were studied. Planktonic foraminifera oxygen isotope records in conjunction with 14C ages in the upper core sections were used to establish a stratigraphy. Sedimentological studies of both cores focused on the occurrence and abundance of giant grains of up to 1500 µm. Three possible transport ways for those giant...

Evolution of the upper ocean stratification in the Japan Sea since the last glacial

Yonghua Wu, Xuefa Shi, Xun Gong, Zhimin Jian, Jianjun Zou, Yanguang Liu, Gerrit Lohmann, Sergey A Gorbarenko, Ralf Tiedemann & Lester Lembke-Jene
Paleoceanographic evidence commonly indicates that Last Glacial Maximum surface temperatures in the Japan Sea were comparable to modern conditions, in striking difference to colder neighboring regions. Here, based on a core from the central Japan Sea, our results show similar UK′37- and TEXL86-derived temperatures between 24.7-16.3 ka BP, followed by an abrupt divergence at ~16.3 ka BP and a weakening of divergence after ~ 8.7 ka BP. We attribute this process to a highly stratified...

Hyperspectral underwater light field measured during the cruise MSM56 with RV MARIA S. MERIAN

Anna Friedrichs, Kai Schwalfenberg, Daniela Voß, Jochen Wollschläger & Oliver Zielinski
Data presented here were collected during the cruise MSM56 with MARIA S MERIAN from Longyearbyen, Svalbard to Reykjavik, Iceland (July 2nd, 2016 - July 25th, 2016). In total, 133 underwater light profiles were collected at 68 stations (with at least three repititions), using a free-falling hyperspectral light profiler. The system used was a SEABIRD HyperPro II (SN 143, former Satlantic), equipped with a irradiance sensor to measure downwelling irradiance (Ed, SN 392) and a radiance...

Miocene glacial dynamics recorded by variations in magnetic properties in the ANDRILL AND-2 drill core, supplement to: Jovane, Luigi; Florindo, Fabio; Acton, Gary D; Ohneiser, Christian; Sagnotti, Leonardo; Strada, Eleonora; Verosub, Kenneth Lee; Wilson, Gary S; Iacoviello, Francesco; Levy, Richard H; Passchier, Sandra (2019): Miocene Glacial Dynamics Recorded by Variations in Magnetic Properties in the ANDRILL‐2A Drill Core. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 124(3), 2297-2312

Jovane Luigi, Fabio Florindo, Gary D Acton, Christian Ohneiser, Leonardo Sagnotti, Eleonora Strada, Kenneth Lee Verosub, Gary S Wilson, Francesco Iacoviello, Richard H Levy & Sandra Passchier
During the 2007 ANDRILL campaign in the Ross Sea, Antarctica, the AND-2A core was recovered through a stratigraphic succession spanning 1138.54 m of Neogene sedimentary rocks that include an expanded Early to Middle Miocene sequence. The study reported here focuses on the magnetic properties of the interval from 778.63 meters below sea floor (mbsf) to 1138.54 mbsf, which comprises a time interval spanning 1.5 Myr, from ~18.7 to ~20.2 Ma. We recognise three main pulses...

GNSS Measurements Inuvik-Tuktoyaktuk-Highway (ITH) and Trail Valley Creek (TVC) 2018

Stephan Lange, William L Cable, Inge Grünberg & Julia Boike

Lower to middle Eocene astronomically-tuned Ca/Fe-ratios and bulk stable isotopes of IODP Site 369-U1514

Maximilian Vahlenkamp, David De Vleeschouwer, Sietske J Batenburg, Kirsty M Edgar, C E Hanson, Mathieu Martinez, Heiko Pälike, Kenneth G MacLeod, Yong-Xiang Li, Carl Richter, Kara A Bogus, Richard W Hobbs, Brian T Huber &
The geologic time scale for the Cenozoic Era has been notably improved over the last decades by virtue of integrated stratigraphy, combining high-resolution astrochronologies, biostratigraphy and magnetostratigraphy with high-precision radioisotopic dates. However, the middle Eocene remains a weak link. The so-called "Eocene time scale gap" reflects the scarcity of suitable study sections with clear astronomically-forced variations in carbonate content, primarily because large parts of the oceans were starved of carbonate during the Eocene greenhouse. International...

Multiple drivers of production and particle export in the western tropical North Atlantic

Laura F Korte, Geert-Jan A Brummer, Michèlle van der Does, Catarina V Guerreiro, Furu Mienis, Chris I Munday, Leandro Ponsoni, Stefan Schouten & Jan-Berend W Stuut
To assess the impacts of Amazon River discharge, Saharan dust deposition, N2‐fixation and mixed‐layer deepening on the biological carbon pump, sediment traps were moored from October 2012 to November 2013 at two sites in the western tropical North Atlantic (49°W,12°N/57°W,12°N). Particle exports interpreted along with satellite‐ and Argo‐float data show peak fluxes in biogenic silica (31 mg m**−2 d**−1) and organic carbon (25 mg m**−2 d**−1) during the fall of 2013 that were ten to...

Paleomagnetic data and rock magnetic data of IODP Site 361-U1475

Janna Just &
Detailed alternating field (AF) demagnetization of Natural Remanent Magnetization (NRM) were conducted on discrete samples of IODP Site U1475, complemented by Anhysteretic Remanent Magnetization acquisition measurements (ARM_acq) and subsequent demagnetization (ARM_demag). AF demagnetization data of NRM were analyzed using anchored Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to obtain the Characteristic Remanent Magnetization (ChRM).

In-situ reference data for aboveground vegetation traits of pre-Alpine grasslands in southern Germany

Anne Schucknecht, Alexander Krämer, Sarah Asam, Abraham Mejia Aguilar, Noelia Garcia Franco, Max A Schuchardt, Anke Jentsch & Ralf Kiese
The data package compiles vegetation data of ten temperate pre-Alpine managed grasslands in southern Germany. The first dataset originates from a sampling campaign in April 2018. A 30 m x 30 m homogenous flat plot was selected at each of the ten grasslands and sampled at nine to twelve 0.25 m x 0.25 m subplots. After determining the bulk canopy height of the subplot, the vegetation was cut at 0.03 m. Afterwards the following parameters...

Stable isotope and trace element ratios of bulk sediment and planktic foraminifera in ODP Hole 121-758A and IODP Hole 353-U1443A

James S K Barnet
The early Paleogene represents the most recent interval in Earth's history characterized by global greenhouse warmth on multi-million year timescales, yet our understanding of long-term climate and carbon cycle evolution in the low latitudes, and in particular the Indian Ocean, remains very poorly constrained. Here we present the first long-term sub-eccentricity-resolution stable isotope (δ13C and δ18O) and trace element (Mg/Ca and B/Ca) records spanning the late Paleocene–early Eocene (~58–53 Ma) from a surface–deep transect of...

Continuous water level observations within DynaCom experimental islands and saltmarsh enclosed plots at different elevation levels (2019), Spiekeroog, Germany, 2019-01 to 2019-12

Daniela Meier, Claudia Thölen, Helmut Hillebrand, Michael Kleyer, Kertu Lõhmus & Oliver Zielinski
Data presented here were collected between January 2019 to December 2019 within the research unit DynaCom (Spatial community ecology in highly dynamic landscapes: From island biogeography to metaecosystems, https://uol.de/dynacom/ ) of the Universities of Oldenburg, Göttingen, and Münster, the iDiv Leipzig and the Nationalpark Niedersächsisches Wattenmeer. Experimental islands and saltmarsh enclosed plots were created in the back barrier tidal flat and in the saltmarsh zone of the island of Spiekeroog.To measure groundwater level at different...

Gas exchange estimates in the Peruvian upwelling regime biased by multi-day near-surface stratification, supplement to: Fischer, Tim; Kock, Annette; Arévalo-Martínez, Damian L; Dengler, Marcus; Brandt, Peter; Bange, Hermann Werner (2019): Gas exchange estimates in the Peruvian upwelling regime biased by multi-day near-surface stratification. Biogeosciences, 16(11), 2307-2328

Tim Fischer, Annette Kock, Damian L Arévalo-Martínez, Marcus Dengler, Peter Brandt & Hermann Werner Bange
The coastal upwelling regime off Peru in December 2012 showed considerable vertical concentration gradients of dissolved nitrous oxide (N2O) across the top few meters of the ocean. The gradients were predominantly downward, i.e., concentrations decreased toward the surface. Ignoring these gradients causes a systematic error in regionally integrated gas exchange estimates, when using observed concentrations at several meters below the surface as input for bulk flux parameterizations – as is routinely practiced. Here we propose...

Activities of total 234Th and dissolved 238U during cruises M136 and M138 from the Peruvian Oxygen Minimum Zone

Ruifang C Xie, Frédéric A C Le Moigne, Insa Rapp, Jan Lüdke, Beat Gasser, Marcus Dengler, Volker Liebetrau & Eric Pieter Achterberg
The eastern boundary region of the southeastern Pacific Ocean hosts one of the world's most dynamic and productive upwelling systems with an associated oxygen minimum zone (OMZ). The variability in downward export fluxes in this region, with strongly varying surface productivity, upwelling intensities and water column oxygen content, is however poorly understood. Thorium-234 (234Th) is a powerful tracer to study the dynamics of export fluxes of carbon and other elements, yet intense advection and diffusion...

Friction Measurements on Weak Materials at Plate Rate Velocities

Matt J Ikari & Achim J Kopf
Laboratory friction experiments are used on natural fault zone samples at cm/yr driving rates to demonstrate that there is abundant evidence of unstable slip behaviour which was not previously predicted, specifically for weak clay-rich fault samples. Samples are tested at 20°C and 10 MPa effective normal stress to approximate the in-situ condition, on powdered samples mixed with a 3.5% NaCl brine in a single-direct shear configuration.

Supplemental Data for Climate of the Past article \"Equatorial Pacific Carbonate cycles, 0-5 Ma: stratigraphy, dissolution, and paleoproductivity\", supplement to: Lyle, Mitchell W; Drury, Anna Joy; Tian, Jun; Wilkens, Roy H; Westerhold, Thomas (2019): Late Miocene to Holocene high-resolution eastern equatorial Pacific carbonate records: stratigraphy linked by dissolution and paleoproductivity. Climate of the Past, 15(5), 1715-1739

Mitchell W Lyle, Anna Joy Drury, Jun Tian, Roy H Wilkens & Thomas Westerhold
Coherent variation of CaCO3 burial is a feature of the Cenozoic eastern equatorial Pacific. Nevertheless, there has been a long-standing ambiguity whether changes in CaCO3 dissolution or changes in equatorial primary production might cause the variability. Since productivity and dissolution leave distinctive regional signals, a regional synthesis of data using updated age models and high-resolution stratigraphic correlation is an important constraint to distinguish between dissolution and production as factors that cause low CaCO3. Furthermore the...

Core description of sediment cores from Meteor cruise M149, 2018

Andre Hüpers
Core description data gathered from M149 expedition

Enzyme activities of digestive and metabolic enzymes of Calanus finmarchicus from Maria S. Merian cruise MSM26 in spring 2013

Tosia Schmithüsen, Barbara Niehoff & Holger Auel
The present study aimed to contribute to the knowledge on the intraspecific variations of enzyme activities in populations of Calanus finmarchicus from different longitudes across the North Atlantic Ocean and their relation to changing environmental conditions. C. finmarchicus was sampled across the North Atlantic in basins with decreasing temperature regimes from east to west (Iceland Basin, Irminger Basin and Labrador Basin) in late March/early April 2013. Potential maximum enzyme activities of digestive (proteinases and lipases/esterases)...

Chemical and isotope composition of fossil chaetognath spines and conodonts from Poland, Spitsbergen and Sweden, and chemical composition of modern chaetognath spines

Hubert Wierzbowski, Hubert Szaniawski & Błażej Błażejowski

Stable isotope ratios, and trace elements from Pacific and S. Atlantic mid-latitudes across Eocene Thermal Maximum 2 and the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum, supplement to: Harper, Dustin T; Hönisch, Bärbel; Zeebe, Richard E; Shaffer, Gary; Haynes, Laura; Thomas, E; Zachos, James C (2020): The Magnitude of Surface Ocean Acidification and Carbon Release During Eocene Thermal Maximum 2 (ETM‐2) and the Paleocene‐Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM). Paleoceanography and Paleoclimatology, 35(2), e2019PA003699

Dustin T Harper, Bärbel Hönisch, Richard E Zeebe, Gary Shaffer, Laura Haynes, Ellen Thomas & James C Zachos
Eocene Thermal Maximum 2 (ETM‐2; 54.1 Ma) was the second largest Eocene hyperthermal. Like the Paleocene‐Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM), ETM‐2 was characterized by massive carbon emissions and several degrees of global warming and thus can serve as a case study for assessing the impacts of rapid CO2 emissions on ocean carbonate chemistry, biota, and climate. Marine carbonate records of ETM‐2 are better preserved than those of the PETM due to more subdued carbonate dissolution. As...

Methane measurements in sediments of the Danube Deep-Sea Fan, Western Black Sea

Thomas Pape, Janice Malnati & Gerhard Bohrmann

Gulf of Mexico Neogene astronomically-tuned time scale, supplement to: Bergen, James A; Truax III, S; de Kaenel, Eric P; Blair, Stacie A; Browning, Emily L; Lundquist, J; Boesiger, Todd; Bolivar, M; Clark, K (2019): BP Gulf of Mexico Neogene Astronomically-tuned Time Scale (BP GNATTS). Bulletin of the Geological Society of America, 131(11-12), 1871-1888

James A Bergen, S Truax III, Eric P de Kaenel, Stacie A Blair, Emily L Browning, J Lundquist, Todd Boesiger, M Bolivar & K Clark
This paper introduces an integrated Neogene microfossil biostratigraphic chart developed within post-merger BP for the Gulf of Mexico Basin and is the first published industrial framework "fully-tuned" to orbital periodicities. Astronomical-tuning was accomplished through a 15-year research program on ODP Leg 154 sediments (offshore NE Brazil) with sampling resolution for calcareous nannofossils and planktonic foraminifera about 20 k.y. and 40 k.y. (thousand year), respectively. This framework extends from the Late Oligocene (25.05 Ma) to Recent...

First automatic pH measurements in the bottom layer of the Ria de Vigo (NW Spain)

Ramiro A Varela, Juan Luis Herrera, Jose González, G Rosón & Fiz F Pérez
The project A.RIOS lists among its goals to establish an observation network of oceanic acidification in the Rías and the Galician shelf (NW Iberia). Included in that observation network, an autonomous instrument for spectrophotometric measurements of seawater pH was deployed at the Ría de Vigo during four periods between November 2017 and May 2019. We present here the pH data for those deployments along with temperature, salinity, and pressure data.

Low-temperature experiments of sediment core GeoB6229-6 at the South American continental margin off the Rio de la Plata estuary

Johanna Fredrika Luk Garming, Tilo von Dobeneck, Christine Franke & Ulrich Bleil
With various low-temperature experiments performed on magnetic mineral extracts of marine sedimentary deposits from the Argentine continental slope near the Rio de la Plata estuary, a so far unreported style of partial magnetic self-reversal has been detected. In these sediments the sulphate-methane transition (SMT) zone is situated at depths between 4 and 8 m, where reductive diagenesis severely alters the magnetic mineral assemblage. Throughout the sediment column magnetite and ilmenite are present together with titanomagnetite...

Sedimentology, geochemistry and winter se ice concentration reconstruction for sediment core PS69/274-1 from the western Amundsen Sea, Antarctica, supplement to: Lamping, Nele; Müller, Juliane; Esper, Oliver; Hillenbrand, Claus-Dieter; Smith, James A; Kuhn, Gerhard (2020): Highly branched isoprenoids reveal onset of deglaciation followed by dynamic sea-ice conditions in the western Amundsen Sea, Antarctica. Quaternary Science Reviews, 228, 106103

Nele Lamping, Juliane Müller, Oliver Esper, Claus-Dieter Hillenbrand, James A Smith & Gerhard Kuhn
We analysed: 1. TOC and CNS contents on sediment core PS69/274-1 and calculated the C/N-ratio and carbonate content of the individual sample depths. 2. a specific biomarker lipid called IPSO25 in sediment core PS69/274-1 from the western Amundsen Sea continental shelf, Antarctica, alongside a phytoplankton biomarker (dinosterol) for reconstructing palaeo-sea ice coverage. We further applied the PIPSO25 approach for semi-quantitative sea ice reconstructions. We analysed a specific biomarker lipid called IPSO25 in sediment core PS69/274-1...

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