80 Works

Inuit Sea Ice Use and Occupancy Project (ISIUOP)

Claudio Aporta, Chris Furgal, , Igor Krupnik, Mark Kapfer, Roger De Abreu, Shari Gearheard, Tom Hirose & Trevor Phillips
ISIUOP undertook extensive field research corresponding to the gathering of Inuit sea ice use and knowledge data. The numerous community visits were also used for verification of data previously mapped and documented. The data we collected include: (a) a characterization of seasonal sea ice conditions; (b) the extent and areas of sea ice use; (c) the nature and location of notable sea ice hazards; (d) key harvesting areas; (e) traditional and current ice (and land)...

Paleo-perspectives on environmental change in the high Arctic: the Canadian Contribution

Jocelyne Bourgeois, Christian Zdanowicz, David Burgess, David Fisher, David Lean, , Michael Krachler, Roy Koerner & William Shotyk
Background: The snow and ice of the polar regions contain a wealth of information on the variability of the Earth¿s climate, past and present, and atmospheric composition. Many of the chemical compounds and aerosols found in the atmosphere find their way to the Arctic and are retained by the snow. Within large ice caps and ice sheets, annual snow layers accumulate. At depth, these layers are transformed into ice; preserving in the process much of...

A Canadian Arctic SOLAS Network

Maurice Levasseur, , , Jon Abbatt, Michael Scarratt, Richard Leaitch, Richard Rivkin, Yves Gratton & Martine Lizotte
We are seeking answers to two key questions regarding the influence of marine processes on Arctic climate: 1) How will the increased flow of Pacific waters through the Canadian Archipelago affect the dynamics of climate-active gases in the ocean, and 2) How will these gases be affected by a reduction of sea-ice cover, and increased areas of open water? These questions have been addressed by our multidisciplinary team during two expeditions on the Canadian research...

Dynamic Inuit social strategies in changing environment: A long term perspective

Max Friesen, Arthur Dyke, Daniel Gendron, James Savelle, Julie Ross, Lauren Norman, Lisa Hodgetts, Peter Dawson & Sarah Finkelstein
For the IPY project Dynamic Inuit Social Strategies in Changing Environments: A Long-Term Perspective, archaeologists and other scientists from across Canada collaborated with Inuit community and heritage organizations to better understand how Inuit culture developed and changed over the past 1,000 years. Six research teams brought together Inuit traditional knowledge, excavation of important archaeological sites, and information about changing Arctic environments. The research took place across the Canadian Arctic, with fieldwork occurring in Nunavut near...

The Polar Environment Atmospheric Research Laboratory (PEARL) and the International Arctic Systems for Observing the Atmosphere (IASOA)

James Drummond, Alan Manson, Bruce McArthur, David Hudak, Gordon Shepherd, Marianna Shepherd, Norman O'Neill, Thomas Duck & Thomas McElroy
Year-round (365/24) operation of the PEARL complex has been achieved with more than 25 operating instruments and associated data downloads and archiving. A particular strength of PEARL is the ability to collect data during the winter when there are few other measurements but the atmosphere undergoes important changes. This project encompassed eight sub-projects: Project 1: Validation of space-based cloud properties and precipitation characteristics. The measurements and studies at PEARL have enabled better understanding of current...

Thermal State of Permafrost (TSP) - a Canadian contribution to the International Permafrost Association's International Polar Year project

Antoni Lewkowicz, Chris Burn, Delia Berrouard, , , , , Philip Bonnaventure & Sharon Smith
Many new ground temperature measurement boreholes have been established, and data were collected at more than 100 monitoring sites. To examine change in the recent past, we are collecting records and assembling databases concerning permafrost sites which had been examined by industrial and government partners during the past two decades. An indication of recent permafrost change was the loss of permafrost at half of the sites that we examined in August 2007 and 2008 along...

Arctic freshwater systems: Hydrology and ecology

Fred Wrona, Al Pietroniro, Allen Curry, Barrie Bonsal, Bruce Davison, Donald Baird, Joseph Culp, Robert Bailey, Sean Carey & Spyros Beltaos
The project is divided into four themes: 1. "Freshwater Flux and Prediction" aims to investigate the importance of water to Canadian polar regions and how availability of water may change in the future. These goals will be achieved via field observations in polar locations which are currently instrumented as well as remote locations which have limited or no observational capabilities. Modelling studies will complement the field observations and aid in interpretation of the collected data....

The Viral Hepatitis Northern Network: A Platform for Addressing Viral Hepatitis in the Canadian North

Gerald Y. Minuk, Carla Osiowy, Issac Sobol, John Morse, Julia Uhanova, Jutta Krista Preiksaitis &
An internet-based software program on Viral Hepatitis care in the North was developed, implemented, distributed, and is being regularly updated. The program allows healthcare providers to learn about HBV and diagnose/manage infected persons more effectively. The various forms of hepatitis B can be divided into more aggressive forms (subtypes B2-5) that frequently result in cirrhosis/liver cancer and more "benign" forms (subtypes B1 or B6) that rarely do so. Team members analyzed samples from Northern Canadians...

Engaging northern communities in the monitoring of country food safety and wildlife health

Manon Simard, Alvin A. Gajadhar, Andria Jones, Antoni Jerzy Rokicki, Brett Elkin, Burton Blais, Frederick Leighton, Lorry B. Forbes & Ole Nielsen
This project has proven the benefits of having northern laboratories and by training several northerners for wildlife sampling and laboratory techniques. In collaboration with the scientists working at the Canadian Food Inspection Agency and Gdansk University, we achieved the following: 1) Development of two diagnostic tests, adapted for northern conditions, for the presumptive presence of E.coli 0157:H7 and Salmonella sp., 2) results were negative for all samples (n=129) and 2 community freezers, 3) all family...

URQSUK: An integrated research program on arctic marine fat and lipids

Eric Dewailly, Chris Furgal, Eva Lonn, Grace Egeland, Paul Poirier, Philippe Rouja & Susie Bernier
Preliminary results indicate that marine fatty acids increase cardiac variability and then decrease the risk of sudden death. Until now, we have not been able to show any protective effects of n-3 fatty acids on the reduction of arterial thickness. Finally marine lipids seem to be a good protector against mental disorders especially psychological distress. Inuit hunters and other experts identify a variety of observable changes in fat composition and amount in key Arctic country...

The Kwäday Dän Ts'inchi Discovery: Expanding Our Understanding Through Linked Scientific and Community Studies

Sheila Greer, , , Frances Oles, , Kate Helwig, , Sheila Joe-Quock & Valery Monahan
The Kwäday Dän Ts'inchi Discovery project is one of two confirmed projects within the IPY Activity #435 titled "Recovery Research and Stabilization of Culturally and Scientifically Significant Specimens From Melting Ice and Cryosols." This activity involves science and social science research that has been initiated as a result of the recent melting of glaciers and alpine ice patches. Melting of these scientific "deep freezes" is providing unanticipated data sources that are giving us insight into...

Feeding ecology of the Greenland shark under different ice conditions

Aaron Fisk, Bailey McMeans, Brian Fryer, Carlos Idrobo, Fikret Berkes, Michael Arts, Steven Campana & Susan Dennard
To date, five sampling trips to Cumberland Sound have been completed, three during times of open water (July-August 2007, 2008, 2009) and two during times of ice cover (April 2008, 2009). Preliminary results indicate that the Greenland shark is feeding at a high trophic position and on benthic and pelagic resources, based on chemical tracers. The Greenland shark appears to feed on seal during both open water and ice cover, and does not appear to...

Ocean freshwater fluxes through the Canadian archipelago (CAT)

, Andreas Münchow, Helen Johnson, Jim Hamilton, Kelly Falkner, Kumiko Azetzu-Scott, Michelle Johnston, Paul Myers & Simon Prinsenberg
The objectives of the CAT study are to acquire the first complete observations of Canadian Arctic through-flow, to understand why it occurs and to predict how it may change as climate changes. The study is based long-term observations of ocean current and ice drift which can only be acquired in remote Arctic areas by submerged autonomous instruments. During expeditions on several icebreakers in August 2007, such instruments were moored within the three principal gateways for...

TAWEPI - Thorpex Arctic Weather and Environment Prediction Initiative

, Greg Flato, Jocelyn Mailhot, Louis Garand, Mark Buehner, Pierre Pellerin, Saroja Palovarapu, &
TAWEPI's research activities started in April 2007 and large progress has been made in the development of Polar-GEM since then. A new version of the CMC regional NWP model became operational in the spring of 2009, including a northward extension of its high-resolution domain, which now covers most of the Arctic and shares various features with Polar-GEM. A research version of the model is being used to study the representation of radiative and cloud processes...

Starting the clock on the CARMA Network: Global change impacts on human/Rangifer systems in the CircumArctic

Don Russell, Jan Adamczewski, Marsha Branigan, Brad Griffith, Anne Gunn, Gary Kofinas, Susan Kutz, Wendy Nixon & Robert White
CARMA is an international network of researchers, habitat specialists, climate specialists, veterinarians and disease ecologists, community representatives and management agencies who are concerned about the impacts of global change on the world's wild reindeer and caribou herds. Through the support of the International Polar Year (IPY), much of the CARMA Network monitoring activity has been focussed on health and body condition, population trends, and habitat changes of caribou in selected herds across the Arctic. An...

Climate change and permafrost impacts on High Arctic watershed fluxes: Cape Bounty, Melville Island, experimental watershed observatory

Scott Lamoureux, Andre Simpson, Linda Lamoureux, Melissa Lafrenière, Myrna Simpson, Neal Scott, Paul Treitz & Pierre Francus
Research at the Cape Bounty Arctic Watershed Observatory (CBAWO), Melville Island, Nunavut (74º54' N, 109º35' W) is investigating how climate change will affect High Arctic rivers, soils and vegetation to provide an unprecedented understanding of the hydrological and ecosystem processes that are sensitive to climate change, and also to predict and anticipate future effects. Climate can change the amount of water available through the amount of snowfall that is present during the spring. During the...

Community Adaptation and Vulnerability In Arctic Regions (CAVIAR) [Canada]

Barry Smit, Ben Bradshaw, Derek Armitage, Frank Duerden, James Ford, Mark Andrachuk, Ralph Matthews, Trevor Bell & Wayne Pollard
This project represents the Canadian component of the international IPY CAVIAR consortium. The research is designed to systematically assess the vulnerability of communities across the circumpolar north to changing environmental conditions, including climate change, and to identify opportunities to enhance the adaptive capacities of communities to sustain their natural resources, livelihoods and well-being. The project involves case studies, using a common methodology, to document exposures and adaptive strategies to deal with changing conditions. Exposures are...

Global Warming and Arctic Marine Mammals (GWAMM)

Steven H Ferguson, Andrew Derocher, Elisabeth Peacock, Jeff W. Higdon, Lena Measures, Magaly Chambellant, Nick Lunn, Tara Bortoluzzi & Trish Kelley
The GWAMM project has developed a Community-Based Monitoring (CBM) network within the greater Hudson Bay region. Our goal was to monitor marine ecosystem change using apex predators but also to understand the drivers of change. Results provided policy information required to allow northerners the ability to adapt to the environmental changes. During the Inuit subsistence hunts of 2007, the network relied on Arviat and Sanikiluaq community involvement. In 2008 and 2009, we expanded the network...

Variability and change in the Canadian cryosphere (snow and ice) - A Canadian contribution to \"State and Fate of the Cryosphere\"

Anne Walker, Barrie Bonsal, David Clausi, Ed Chan, Monique Bernier, Paul Bartlett, Ross Brown, Tom Agnew & Tom Carrieres
New satellite-derived observations of the cryosphere are being developed by Canadian scientists to contribute a snapshot of the current state of the cryosphere in northern Canada and to generate new information, data sets and monitoring capabilities for tundra and alpine snow cover, seasonal frozen ground, lake ice, albedo, land cover and phenology, snow melt characteristics over ice caps, sea ice fluxes through the Arctic islands, and river ice monitoring in northern Québec. Field campaigns are...

Impacts of Severe Arctic Storms and Climate Change on Arctic Coastal Oceanographic Processes

William Perrie, John R. Gyakum, Steve Solomon & Charles Tang
In terms of verification of model results with field data, we have built and verified detailed coupled models with components for atmosphere, ice, snow, waves and ocean. These models have been used and tested for time-scales that are appropriate for individual Arctic storms, days, weeks, months, years and decadal scales. Baseline runs, and verification of these models use comparisons with internationally accepted Arctic data-sets, and climate reanalysis data. We have developed new collaborations with researchers...

Stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen from multiple species of invertebrates, teleosts, elasmobranchs, and marine mammals sampled in Cumberland Sound, 2007-2009

Aaron Fisk & Bailey McMeans
Samples of macroaglae (Fucus distichus), several zooplankton species (e.g. Calanus hyperboreus, Sagitta spp.), benthic invertebrates (e.g. scallop Chlamys islandica, snail Buccinum cyaneum, clam Hiatella arctica), teleosts (herring Clupea harengus, capelin Mallotus villosus, char Salvelinus alpines, sculpin Myoxocephalus scorpioides (adults and larvae), turbot Reinhardtius hippoglossoides), two elasmobranchs (arctic skate Amblyraja hyperborea, Greenland shark Somniosus microcephalus), two pinnipeds (harp seal Pagophilus groenlandicus, ringed seal Pusa hispida) and two cetacean (beluga whale Delphinapterus leucas , narwhal Monodon monoceros)...

Interviews with elders of the Lutsel K'e Dene First Nation on Pikes Portage, the trail to the barren lands, 2010

Cindy Dickson, Brenda Parlee & Florence Catholique
Data consists of interviews carried out with elders in the community of Lutsel K'e and a field visit to Teho Æa Tué Xak'ethé took place in 2010 that included elders, adults and youth.

Automated Ribosomal Inergenic Spacer Analysis (ARISA) of fungal Internal Transcribed Spacers region of 18S rRNA genes. Soil samples taken from Long-term Ecological Research (LTER) greenhouse treated and control plots at Toolik Lake, AK; 5 sampling da

Suzanne Simard, Julie R. Deslippe, , , Martin Hartmann & William Mohn
In the summer of 2006 and 2007, we collected soils treated with warming by greenhouses since 1989, which are maintained as part of the Arctic Long-term Ecological Research (LTER) site at Toolik Lake, AK (68o38'N, 149o34'W, elevation 760m). Total nucleic acids were extracted from soil samples allowing for the simultaneous assessment of the total and actively growing components of the soil microbial community. We used Automated Ribosomal Inergenic Spacer Analysis (ARISA) of the Internal Transcribed...

Inupiaq and Gwitch'in Plant Presence in Stories and Legends, 2007-2008

Suzanne Simard & Christopher J Mallon
The data were collected by searching written stories for nouns that correspond to plants or plant products. A quantitative assessment of the number of nouns that refer to plants within a select sample of Inupiaq and Gwitch'in stories was produced.

Concentration (fg/kg) of radioactive isotope Thorium-230 (230Th) in the Beaufort Sea at 3 stations in 2007 and at 4 stations in 2009

University Of British Columbia Roger Francois
The dataset consists of 230Th concentrations (fg/kg seawater) measured in the Beaufort Sea at three stations in 2007 (Sept 22-Oct 15) and four stations in 2009 (Aug 27 - Sep 12). 20L samples were collected and quickly filtered through an Acropak cartridge (0.45 um). The samples were then acidified to pH 2 with concentrated HCl and spiked with pre-weighed quantities of 229Th and FeCl3. Acidified samples were left to equilibrate for 12 to 24 hours...

Registration Year

  • 2012
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