This dataset contains the numerical simulations used in the Wang et al. (2021) study of turbulence memory in idealized tornadoes. Surface friction contributes to tornado formation and maintenance by enhancing the convergence of angular momentum. The traditional lower boundary condition in atmospheric models typically assumes an instant equilibrium between the unresolved stress and the resolved shear. This assumption ignores the physics that turbulent motions are generated and dissipated at finite rates—in effect, turbulence has a...
Position-Specific Isotope Fractionation in Amino Acids Sorbed to Ice: Implications for the Preservation of Isotopologue BiosignaturesA.C. Fox, E. Martineau, G.S. Remaud & K. Freeman
Sorption to mineral surfaces is a key process that protects amino acids from oxidation and aids their polymerization into complex biomolecules. Sorption of neutral amino acids is driven by a combination of intermolecular forces, commonly through hydrogen bonds with surface functional groups. Substitutions of heavy isotopes are known to influence the strength of intermolecular interactions, but global (i.e., whole-molecule) C isotope fractionation associated with sorption is small (< 1 ‰). However, larger fractionation of C...
The Ensemble Mars Atmosphere Reanalysis System (EMARS) dataset version 1.0 contains hourly gridded atmospheric variables for the planet Mars, spanning Mars Year (MY) 24 through 33 (1999 through 2017). A reanalysis represents the best estimate of the state of the atmosphere by combining observations that are sparse in space and time with a dynamical model and weighting them by their uncertainties. EMARS uses the Local Ensemble Transform Kalman Filter (LETKF) for data assimilation with the...
Simple Simulation Model for Exploring the Effects of Solvent and Structure on Asphaltene AggregationN. J. H. Dunn, B. Gutama & W.G. Noid
Asphaltenes are operationally defined as the fraction of crude oil that is soluble in toluene but insoluble in n-heptane. According to the Yen–Mullins model, typical asphaltenes are relatively small molecules consisting of a single aromatic core flanked by aliphatic chains. The Yen–Mullins model posits that asphaltene aggregation proceeds via a hierarchical mechanism involving small nanoaggregates with stacked aromatic cores surrounded by a corona of aliphatic tails. In this work, we introduce a coarse-grained (CG) model...
The period of Incoherent Scatter Radar (ISR) observation extended between 12:42 UT May 6th and 19:47 UT May 8th, 2013. The Millstone Hill (MH) ISR system contains two radar dishes with one (the Zenith beam) having fixed pointing at an 88° beam elevation, and the other pointed parallel-B (MISA: the MH Steerable Antenna), with an azimuth angle of 165.8° and an elevation angle of 66.26°, at an altitude of 250 kilometers based on the IGRF...
Carbon isotope record of trace n-alkanes in a continental PETM section recovered by the Bighorn Basin Coring Project (BBCP)Francesca A. McInerney, llison A. Baczynski, K. H. Freeman & S. L. Wing
Continental sedimentary records of early Paleogene hyperthermals are typically limited to weathered, often discontinuous, outcrop exposures. In 2011, the Bighorn Basin Coring Project collected the first continuous terrestrial records of the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) in the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming. Organic matter preservation was poor during the PETM, even in core material. Concentrations of leaf waxes during the PETM are too low for compound-specific carbon isotope analysis by conventional means. However, the recent development of...
Analysis of BMP implementation, performance, and maintenance in Spring Creek, an agriculturally-influenced watershed in Pennsylvania, 2006-2009R. P. Brooks
Assessing the performance of conservation BMPs in agricultural watersheds across the U.S. is extraordinarily difficult because of the diversity of conservation practices, the variety of hydrogeomorphic (HGM) settings in which they are implemented, and the breadth of geographic regions involved. Spring Creek watershed, an intensively studied 11-digit HUC watershed in central Pennsylvania (see Figure 1), has the necessary long-term data on water quality for assessing a suite of BMPs in an agricultural watershed. Our investigative...
In 1991, we conducted a pilot study to test a method for sampling avian communities on a series of lakes in northeastern Pennsylvania and to determine whether differences between undisturbed and disturbed sites could be detected from a census period consisting of two surveys taken during the breeding season. At the time, we were seeking to determine whether birds could serve as adequate indicators of changes in the condition of a variety of aquatic resources,...
This study introduces the development of the Tracking Algorithm for Mesoscale Convective Systems (TAMS), an algorithm that allows for the identifying, tracking, classifying, and assigning of rainfall to mesoscale convective systems (MCSs). TAMS combines area-overlapping and projected-cloud-edge tracking techniques to maximize the probability of detecting the progression of a convective system through time, accounting for splits and mergers. The combination of projection on area overlapping is equivalent to setting the background flow in which MCSs...
This archive contains the data and code used by Ruppert et al. (2020) in their journal publication (DOI placeholder; "The role of cloud–infrared radiation feedback in tropical cyclone development"). It contains 1) the WRF model code and namelist files required to run the pre-processing and simulations of Typhoon Haiyan and Hurricane Maria, and 2) the forcing and circulation output from Sawyer–Eliassen equation computations. Gridded output files are in NetCDF format. Additional datasets required to conduct...
Pennsylvania State University132
Roger Williams University6
University of Massachusetts Amherst5
University of Arizona5
Goddard Space Flight Center4
National Center for Atmospheric Research4
Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research3
Colorado State University3
University of Cambridge2