6 Works

A model for oceanic melt rates under ice shelves using a balance-flux approach (CHICO)

D. Pollard & R. DeConto
A two-layer model of thermohaline ocean circulation under Antarctic ice shelves is described that predicts sub-oceanic ice-shelf melt rates given the basin geometries and ocean temperatures and salinities at the ice edges. The model builds on a series of similar models, using an upper plume layer and adding a balance-flux approach that enables it to be used for evolving land-ocean geometries without the need to pre-define individual basin outlines. Results are compared to Antarctic melt...

Supplementary data, code, and other information for ‘Global Signatures and Dynamical Origins of the Little Ice Age and Medieval Climate Anomaly’ (Science, Mann et al. 2009)

M.E. Mann, Z. Zhang, S. Rutherford, R.S. Bradley, M.K. Hughes, D. Shindall, C. Ammann, G. Faluvegi & F. Ni
Global temperatures are known to have varied over the past 1500 years, but the spatial patterns have remained poorly defined. We used a global climate proxy network to reconstruct surface temperature patterns over this interval. The Medieval period is found to display warmth that matches or exceeds that of the past decade in some regions, but which falls well below recent levels globally. This period is marked by a tendency for La Niña–like conditions in...

Supplementary data, code, and information for ‘Global-Scale Temperature Patterns and Climate Forcing Over the Past Six Centuries’ (Mann et al. 1998 – the first ‘Hockey Stick’ paper [MBH98])

M.E. Mann, R.S. Bradley & M.K. Hughes
Spatially resolved global reconstructions of annual surface temperature patterns over the past six centuries are based on the multivariate calibration of widely distributed high-resolution proxy climate indicators. Time-dependent correlations of the reconstructions with time-series records representing changes in greenhouse-gas concentrations, solar irradiance, and volcanic aerosols suggest that each of these factors has contributed to the climate variability of the past 400 years, with greenhouse gases emerging as the dominant forcing during the twentieth century. Northern...

Supplementary data, code, validation statistics, and other information for ‘Proxy-based reconstructions of hemispheric and global surface temperature variations over the past two millennia’ (PNAS, Mann et al. 2008)

M.E. Mann, Z. Zhang, M.K. Hughes, R.S. Bradley, S.K. Miller, S. Rutherford & F. Ni
Following the suggestions of a recent National Research Council report [NRC (National Research Council) (2006) Surface Temperature Reconstructions for the Last 2,000 Years (Natl Acad Press, Washington, DC).], we reconstruct surface temperature at hemispheric and global scale for much of the last 2,000 years using a greatly expanded set of proxy data for decadal-to-centennial climate changes, recently updated instrumental data, and complementary methods that have been thoroughly tested and validated with model simulation experiments. Our...

Supplementary data, code, and information for ‘Northern Hemisphere Temperatures During the Past Millennium: Inferences, Uncertainties, and Limitations’ (Mann et al. 1999 – the second ‘Hockey Stick’ paper [MBH99])

M.E. Mann, R.S. Bradley & M.K. Hughes
Building on recent studies, we attempt hemispheric temperature reconstructions with proxy data networks for the past millennium. We focus not just on the reconstructions, but the uncertainties therein, and important caveats. Though expanded uncertainties prevent decisive conclusions for the period prior to AD 1400, our results suggest that the latter 20th century is anomalous in the context of at least the past millennium. The 1990s was the warmest decade, and 1998 the warmest year, at...

Supplementary data, code, and information for ‘Long-term variability in the El Niño/Southern Oscillation and associated teleconnections’

M.E. Mann, R.S. Bradley & M.K. Hughes
We analyze global patterns of reconstructed surface temperature for insights into the behavior of the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and related climatic variability during the past three centuries. The global temperature reconstructions are based on calibrations of a large set of globally distributed proxy records, or “multiproxy” data, against the dominant patterns of surface temperature during the past century. These calibrations allow us to estimate large-scale surface temperature patterns back in time. The reconstructed eastern...

Registration Year

  • 2021

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • University of Massachusetts Amherst
  • Pennsylvania State University
  • University of Arizona
  • Roger Williams University
  • Goddard Institute for Space Studies
  • National Center for Atmospheric Research