145 Works

Supplementary data, code, and information for ‘The Influence of Climate State Variables on Atlantic Tropical Cyclone Occurrence Rates’ (Sabbatelli and Mann 2007)

T.A. Sabatelli & M.E. Mann
We analyzed annual North Atlantic tropical cyclone (TC) counts from 1871-2004, considering three climate state variables—the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO), peak (August-October or ‘ASO’) Sea Surface Temperatures (SST) over the main development region (‘MDR’: 6-18N latitude, 20-60W), and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO)—thought to influence variations in annual TC counts on interannual and longer timescales. The unconditional distribution of TC counts is observed to be inconsistent with the null hypothesis of a fixed rate random...

Supplementary data, code, and information for ‘Robustness of Proxy-Based Climate Field Reconstruction Methods’ (Mann et al. 2007)

M.E. Mann, S. Rutherford, E. Wahl & C. Ammann
We present results from continued investigations into the fidelity of covariance-based climate field reconstruction (CFR) approaches used in proxy-based climate reconstruction. Our experiments employ synthetic ‘‘pseudoproxy’’ data derived from simulations of forced climate changes over the past millennium. Using networks of these pseudoproxy data, we investigate the sensitivity of CFR performance to signal-to-noise ratios, the noise spectrum, the spatial sampling of pseudoproxy locations, the statistical representation of predictors used, and the diagnostic used to quantify...

Supplementary data, code, and information for ‘Assessing Climate Change Impacts on Extreme Weather Events: The Case For an Alternative (Bayesian) Approach’ (Mann et al. 2017)

M.E. Mann, E.A. Lloyd & N. Oreskes
The conventional approach to detecting and attributing climate change impacts on extreme weather events is generally based on frequentist statistical inference wherein a null hypothesis of no influence is assumed, and the alternative hypothesis of an influence is accepted only when the null hypothesis can be rejected at a sufficiently high (e.g., 95% or p = 0.05) level of confidence. Using a simple conceptual model for the occurrence of extreme weather events, we show that...

Supplementary data, code, and information for ‘Long-term variability in the El Niño/Southern Oscillation and associated teleconnections’

M.E. Mann, R.S. Bradley & M.K. Hughes
We analyze global patterns of reconstructed surface temperature for insights into the behavior of the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and related climatic variability during the past three centuries. The global temperature reconstructions are based on calibrations of a large set of globally distributed proxy records, or “multiproxy” data, against the dominant patterns of surface temperature during the past century. These calibrations allow us to estimate large-scale surface temperature patterns back in time. The reconstructed eastern...

Model Input, Analysis Code, and Select Model Output for the Murdzek et al. (2021) Inflow Layer Study

S. Murdzek, P. Markowski, Y.P. Richardson & M.R. Kumjian
This dataset contains all relevant Cloud Model 1 (CM1) input files, python analysis code, and select CM1 output for the Murdzek et al. (2021, JAS) study that examines whether reversible or pseudoadiabatic convective inhibition should be used when determining the effective inflow layer of a convective storm. Enough CM1 output is provided to recreate all the figures from Murdzek et al. (2021), and the rest of the output can be recreated using the supplied input...

Investigating axisymmetric and asymmetric signals of secondary eyewall formation using observations-based modeling of the tropical cyclone boundary layer

C. Yu, A.C. Didlake,Jr. , J.D. Kepert & F. Zhang
This study examines axisymmetric and asymmetric aspects of secondary eyewall formation (SEF) in tropical cyclones (TCs) by applying a nonlinear boundary layer model to tangential wind composites of observed TCs with and without SEF. SEF storms were further analyzed at times prior to and after SEF, as defined by the emergence of a secondary maximum in axisymmetric tangential wind. The model is used to investigate the steady-state boundary layer response to the free-tropospheric pressure forcing...

TEC - Anthea Coster, MIT/Haystack Observatory. (2013)

L. R. Dinsmore
Our raw global Global Positioning System (GPS) data were taken and archived at MH. The GPS-Total Electron Content (TEC) dataset contains the time of observation, the slant-path TEC (sTEC) in TECU (10^16 e-/m^2), and the longitude and latitude of the propagation path pierce point at 325 km in altitude. The GPS-TEC dataset effectively detects F region activity, since the peak electron density in the F region and ionosphere is also around 300 km. Using the...

Simulation Data of Early-Warning of Binary Neutron Star Systems

Sk, J. Rana & C. Hanna
Binary neutron stars will spend ~ 10-15 minutes in the sensitivity band of Advanced LIGO and Virgo detectors as they achieve their design sensitivity. Time-domain filtering of gravitational-wave data could, in principle, accumulate enough signal-to-noise ratio to identify an imminent event tens of seconds before the companions collide and merge. Early warning alerts can be produced for sources that are close enough so that the accumulated signal-to-noise ratio from the time the signal enters the...

An efficient bi-Gaussian ensemble Kalman filter for satellite infrared radiance data assimilation

M. Chan, J.L. Anderson & X. Chen
The introduction of infrared water vapor channel radiance ensemble data assimilation (DA) has improved numerical weather forecasting at operational centers. Further improvements might be possible through extending ensemble data assimilation methods to better assimilate infrared satellite radiances. Here, we will illustrate that ensemble statistics under clear-sky conditions are different from cloudy conditions. This difference suggests that extending the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) to handle bi-Gaussian prior distributions may yield better results than the standard EnKF....

Manure decreases herbivore performance but increases early-season damage on corn in the greenhouse and field

E. Rown & J.F. Tooker
Many farmers use manure as an alternative to inorganic fertilizer. Previous research has shown that manure can decrease plant susceptibility to herbivores, but the mechanisms remain unclear. To determine how manure affects herbivore performance in a greenhouse setting, we fertilized corn with stacked cow manure or an equivalent amount of NPK fertilizer and measured caterpillar development, plant nutritional content, and defenses. After four weeks of growth, we allowed fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) or black cutworm...

Island Rainfall Enhancement in the Maritime Continent

J.H. Ruppert & X. Chen
The hypothesis that the islands of the Maritime Continent (MC) enhance total rainfall and time-mean upward motion is tested using a convection-permitting regional model. Sensitivity experiments with the islands removed greatly diminish both rainfall and upward motion, supporting the hypothesis. We examine the individual factors in this enhancement, isolating the impacts of the diurnal cycle from those of basic-state (i.e., constant) forcing of orography and the land surface. We find that the basic-state forcing by...

Numerical Simulation Output for Markowski (2020) Study of Supercell Intrinsic Predictability

Paul Markowski
This dataset contains the numerical simulation output created and analyzed by Markowski (2020) in his study of supercell intrinsic predictability. A 25-member ensemble of relatively high-resolution (75-m horizontal grid spacing) numerical simulations of tornadic supercell storms was used to obtain insight on their intrinsic predictability. Small random temperature perturbations present in the initial conditions trigger turbulence within the boundary layers. The turbulent boundary layers are given 12 h to evolve to a quasi-steady state before...

A wave-relative framework analysis of AEW-MCS interactions leading to tropical cyclogenesis

K.M. Núñez Ocasio, J.L. Evans & G.S. Young
An African easterly wave and associated MCSs dataset has been created and used to evaluate the propagation of MCSs, AEWs, and especially, the propagation of MCSs relative to the AEW they are associated with (i.e., wave-relative framework). The thermodynamic characteristics of AEW-MCS systems are also analyzed. The analysis is done for both AEW-MCS systems that develop into at least a tropical depression and those that do not to quantify significant differences between waves that undergo...

Bedforms of Thwaites Glacier, West Antarctica: Character and Origin

R.B. Alley, N. Holschuh, D.R. MacAyea, B.R. Parizek, L. Zoet, K. Riverman, A. Muto, K. Christianson, E. Clyne, S. Anandakrishnan & N.T. Stevens
Bedforms of Thwaites Glacier, West Antarctica both record and affect ice flow. Thwaites Glacier flows across the tectonic fabric of the West Antarctic rift system with its bedrock highs and sedimentary basins. Swath radar and seismic surveys of the glacier bed have revealed soft-sediment flutes 100 m or more high extending 15 km or more across basins downglacier from bedrock highs, and ending at prominent hard-bedded moats on stoss sides of the next topographic highs....

Permian Basin: in-situ tower greenhouse gas data

V. Monteiro, N.L. Miles, S.J. Richardson, Z.R. Barkley, B.J. Haupt & K.J. Davis
The Permian Basin in-situ greenhouse gas network was designed to measure atmospheric mole fractions of methane to be used in conjunction with transport modeling to determine methane emissions from the Permian Basin oil and natural gas extraction area in Texas/New Mexico. The current network includes 5 measurement sites with continuous measurements of CH4, 4 sites with measurements of CO2, 2 sites with measurements of the isotopic ratio of methane, and 1 site with measurements of...

Gridded influence functions for NOAA tall towers for January 2010

D. Wesloh & T. Lauvaux
The data provides influence functions, also called tower concentration footprints, for nine towers in the NOAA Greenhouse Gas tall tower reference network. The influence functions are five dimensional arrays: the first two correspond to the mole fraction observations, the third to the time before the observation, and the last two to the spatial extent of the fluxes. Coordinates and transform parameters are provided to express the spatial locations of the fluxes in latitude and longitude...

Favorable monsoon environment over eastern Africa for subsequent tropical cyclogenesis of African easterly waves

K.M. Núñez Ocasio, A. Brammer, J.L. Evans, G.S. Young & Z.L. Moon

Meteorological fields over Indianapolis, IN from the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF v3.5.1)

A. Deng, T. Lauvaux, N.L. Miles & K.J. Davis
The data set contains hourly meteorological variables over Indianapolis, IN and its surroundings (nine counties around the metropolitan area) at 1-km horizontal resolution and 60 vertical levels (up to 50hPa), as simulated by the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF v3.5.1) using Four-Dimensional Data Assimilation (FDDA - observation nudging) of measurement stations from the World Meteorological Organization. Additional technical information about the model configuration have been documented in Deng et al. (2017). In short, the...

The Role of Landscape Context in Forests Recovering from Fire

J.L. Peeler & E.A. Smithwick
Distance to seed source is often used to estimate seed dispersal – a process needed for post-fire tree recovery. However, distance, especially in mountainous terrain, does not capture pattern (area and arrangement) or scale-dependent effects controlling seed supply and delivery. Measuring seed source pattern could provide insights on how these spatial dynamics shape recovery. Here we provide access to data collected at 71 plots in the Boulder and Bull Fires near Jackson, Wyoming, United States....

Archived Dataset for Wen et al. (2021) in Water Research

T. Wen & S.L. Brantley
This data set has been discussed in the following publication: “Wen, T., Liu, M., Woda, J., Zheng, G., Brantley, S., 2021. Detecting Anomalous Methane in Groundwater within Hydrocarbon Production Areas across the United States. Water Research.”. Parts of this dataset (i.e., groundwater chemistry in Pennsylvania) are a subset of the Shale Network database (https://doi.org/10.4211/his-data-shalenetwork). Colorado data were downloaded from COGCC website (https://cogcc.state.co.us/). Texas data were compiled from published literature (Darvari et al., 2017; Nicot et...

Supplementary data, code, and information for ‘Influence of Anthropogenic Climate Change on Planetary Wave Resonance and Extreme Weather Events’ (Nature Scientific Reports, Mann et al. 2017)

M.E. Mann, S. Rahmstorf, K. Kornhuber, B.A. Steinman, S.K. Miller & D. Coumou
Persistent episodes of extreme weather in the Northern Hemisphere summer have been shown to be associated with the presence of high-amplitude quasi-stationary atmospheric Rossby waves within a particular wavelength range (zonal wavenumber 6–8). The underlying mechanistic relationship involves the phenomenon of quasi-resonant amplification (QRA) of synoptic-scale waves with that wavenumber range becoming trapped within an effective mid-latitude atmospheric waveguide. Recent work suggests an increase in recent decades in the occurrence of QRA-favorable conditions and associated...

Supplementary data, code, and information for ‘Predictability of the recent slowdown and subsequent recovery of large-scale surface warming using statistical methods’ (Geophysical Research Letters, Mann et al. 2016)

M.E. Mann, B.A. Steinman, S.K. Miller, L.H. Frankcombe, M.H. England & A.H. Cheung
The temporary slowdown in large-scale surface warming during the early 2000s has been attributed to both external and internal sources of climate variability. Using semiempirical estimates of the internal low-frequency variability component in Northern Hemisphere, Atlantic, and Pacific surface temperatures in concert with statistical hindcast experiments, we investigate whether the slowdown and its recent recovery were predictable. We conclude that the internal variability of the North Pacific, which played a critical role in the slowdown,...

Supplementary data, code, and information for ‘Underestimation of volcanic cooling in tree-ringbased reconstructions of hemispheric temperatures’ (Nature Geoscience, Mann et al. 2012)

M.E. Mann, S. Rutherford & J.D. Fuentes
The largest eruption of a tropical volcano during the past millennium occurred in AD 1258–1259. Its estimated radiative forcing was several times larger than the 1991 Pinatubo eruption1 . Radiative forcing of that magnitude is expected to result in a climate cooling of about 2 ?C. This effect, however, is largely absent from tree-ring reconstructions of temperature, and is muted in reconstructions that employ a mix of tree-rings and other proxy data. This discrepancy has...

Supplementary data and code for ‘On smoothing potentially non-stationary climate time series’ (Geophysical Research Letters, Mann 2004)

M.E. Mann
A simple approach to the smoothing of a potentially non-stationary time series is presented which provides an optimal choice among three alternative, readily motivated and easily implemented boundary constraints. This method is applied to the smoothing of the instrumental Northern Hemisphere (NH) annual mean and coldseason North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) time series, yielding an objective estimate of the smoothed decadalscale variations in these series including long-term trends.

Supplementary data, code, and other information for ‘Discussion of: A Statistical Analysis of Multiple Temperature Proxies: Are Reconstructions of Surface Temperatures over the Last 1000 Years Reliable’

G.A. Schmidt, M.E. Mann & S. Rutherford
McShane and Wyner (2011) (henceforth MW) analyze a dataset of “proxy” climate records previously used by Mann et al. (2008) (henceforth M08) to attempt to assess their utility in reconstructing past temperatures. MW introduce new methods in their analysis, which is welcome. However, the absence of both proper data quality control and appropriate “pseudoproxy” tests to assess the performance of their methods invalidate their main conclusions.

Registration Year

  • 2022
  • 2021
  • 2020
  • 2019
  • 2018
  • 2017

Resource Types

  • Dataset
  • Text
  • Model


  • Pennsylvania State University
  • University of Massachusetts Amherst
  • Roger Williams University
  • University of Arizona
  • National Center for Atmospheric Research
  • Goddard Space Flight Center
  • Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research
  • Colorado State University
  • Yale University
  • University of Cambridge