239 Works

Single-cell NDIR-based measurements of atmospheric C02 mole fractions measured at Ameriflux towers, 2006 - 2016

N.L. Miles, S.J. Richardson, B.J. Haupt, K.J. Davis, B. Stephens & A. Watt
Data collected via relatively low-cost, high-precision CO2 mixing ratio measurement systems, developed in collaboration with NCAR-ATD, are reported here. These data were collected to support inverse analyses of the terrestrial carbon balance at regional to continental scales. The systems use LICOR-820 non-dispersive infrared analyzers rather than the more expensive, but lower noise LICOR-6262 or LICOR-7000, since fast time response is not required for this application and the noise of the LICOR-820 can be reduced sufficiently...

Exploring the landscape of model representations

K. Kidder & W.G. Noid
The success of any physical model critically depends upon adopting an appropriate representation for the phenomenon of interest. Unfortunately, it remains generally challenging to identify the essential degrees of freedom or, equivalently, the proper order parameters for describing complex phenomena. Here we develop a statistical physics framework for exploring and quantitatively characterizing the space of order parameters for representing physical systems. Specifically, we examine the space of low-resolution representations that correspond to particle based coarse-grained...

High-resolution (1.3kmx1.3-km) WRF-Chem output driven with the Hestia, and two nightlight-based fossil fuel emission products over the LA basin from 5/15/2020-6/15/2020

S. Feng, T. Lauvaux, T. Oda, M.O. Román, Z. Wang, S. Maksyutov & V.L. Kalb
This high-resolution WRF-Chem model output is driven with three different fossil fuel emission products: Hestia (Gurney et al., 2018), and two nightlight-based CO2 emission data using the same setup as Feng et al (2016). The nightlight data products are based on DMSP (Oda and Maksyutov, 2011) and NASA’s Black Marble Nighttime Lights Product Suite (VNP46) (Román et al., 2018; Oda et al. 2020). This sensitivity atmospheric modeling experiment demonstrates the utility of CO2 mapping, helping...

Tungsten isotope composition of the Archean depleted mantle and implications for core-mantle evolution

J.R. Reimink, A. Mundl-Pietermeier, R.W. Carlson, S.B. Shirey, D.G. Pearson & R.J. Walker
Tungsten isotope composition of the Archean depleted mantle and implications for core-mantle evolution

Photodetachment of electrons due to lightning optical emissions as a source of plasma irregularities necessary for sprite streamer inception

R. Janalizadeh & V.P. Pasko
We investigate the rate of electron production due to the photodetachment effect of the lightning optical pulse on O-, O2-, OH-, and NO3- ions in the lower ionosphere. This is the first quantification of lightning effects on the lower ionospheric electron content through the photodetachment process. It is demonstrated that sufficient levels of plasma irregularities necessary for initiation of sprite streamers may be produced as a result of electron photodetachment from the negative ions in...

Data and Analysis Code for Examining SVCs in the 7 June 2009, 11 June 2009, and 26 May 2010 VORTEX2 Intercepts

S. Murdzek, P. Markowski & Y.P. Richardson
This dataset contains data and analysis code used to examine streamwise vorticity currents (SVCs) in three supercells intercepted by the Second Verification of the Origins of Rotation in Tornadoes Experiment (VORTEX2). The three supercell intercepts include 7 June 2009 near Maysville, MO, 11 June 2009 near La Junta, CO, and 26 May 2010 near Prospect Valley, CO. Raw data from mobile Doppler radars (primarily the Doppler on Wheels radars) and a mobile mesonet are included,...

Supplementary data, code, and information for ‘Atlantic and Pacific multidecadal oscillations and Northern Hemisphere temperatures’ (Science, Steinman et al. 2015)

B.A. Steinman, M.E. Mann & S.K. Miller
The recent slowdown in global warming has brought into question the reliability of climate model projections of future temperature change and has led to a vigorous debate over whether this slowdown is the result of naturally occurring, internal variability or forcing external to Earth’s climate system. To address these issues, we applied a semi-empirical approach that combines climate observations and model simulations to estimate Atlantic- and Pacific-based internal multidecadal variability (termed “AMO” and “PMO,” respectively)....

On bridging paired-end RNA-seq data

X. Li, Q. Shi & M. Shao
The widely-used high-throughput RNA-sequencing technologies (RNA-seq) usually produce paired-end reads. We explore if full fragments can be computationally reconstructed from the sequenced two ends—a problem here we refer to as bridging. Solving this problem provides longer, more informative RNA-seq reads, and hence benefits downstream RNA-seq analysis such as transcriptome assembly and expression quantification. However, bridging is a challenging and complicated task owing to alternative splicing, transcript noises, and sequencing errors. It remains unclear if the...

Organic fertility inputs synergistically increase denitrification-derived nitrous oxide emissions in agroecosystems

D. Saha, J.P. Kaye, A. Bhowmik, M. Bruns, J.M. Wallace & A.R. Kemanian
Organic fertility inputs synergistically increase denitrification-derived nitrous oxide emissions in agroecosystems.

Supplementary data, code, and information for ‘Smoothing of Climate Time Series Revisited’ (Mann 2008)

M.E. Mann
We present an easily implemented method for smoothing climate time series, generalizing upon an approach previously described by Mann (2004). The method adaptively weights the three lowest order time series boundary constraints to optimize the fit with the raw time series. We apply the method to the instrumental global mean temperature series from 1850 – 2007 and to various surrogate global mean temperature series from 1850 – 2100 derived from the CMIP3 multimodel intercomparison project....

Supplementary data, code, and information for ‘Atlantic hurricanes and climate over the past 1,500 years’ (Mann et al. 2009)

M.E. Mann
Atlantic tropical cyclone activity, as measured by annual storm counts, reached anomalous levels over the past decade. The short nature of the historical record and potential issues with its reliability in earlier decades, however, has prompted an ongoing debate regarding the reality and significance of the recent rise. Here we place recent activity in a longer-term context by comparing two independent estimates of tropical cyclone activity over the past 1,500 years. The first estimate is...

Partial Radiative Perturbation Calculations in the Time Domain

J.P. Clark, E.E. Clothiaux, S.B. Feldstein & S. Lee
Partial radiative perturbation calculations are performed to quantify the relative impacts of well mixed greenhouse gases, air temperature and water vapor on surface downwelling longwave irradiances from 1984 through 2017. The data herein contains the output of these radiative transfer calculations, and some of the input data, at a 6-hourly resolution. The data also contains upwelling longwave irradiances at the top of the atmosphere for the same radiative transfer calculations. More details are available in...

EnKF Analyses and Forecasts of Hurricane Harvey (2017)

Y. Zhang, S.B. Sieron, Y. Lu, X. Chen, R.G. Nystrom, M. Minamide, M. Chan, C.M. Hartman, Z. Yao, J.H. Ruppert, A. Okazaki, S.J. Greybush & E.E. Clothiaux
Ensemble-based data assimilation of radar observations across inner-core regions of tropical cyclones (TCs) in tandem with satellite all-sky infrared radiances across the TC domain improves TC track and intensity forecasts. This study further investigates potential enhancements in TC track, intensity, and rainfall forecasts via assimilation of all-sky microwave radiances using Hurricane Harvey (2017) as an example. Assimilating GPM constellation all-sky microwave radiances in addition to GOES-16 all-sky infrared radiances reduces the forecast errors in the...

Extreme hydroxyl amounts generated by thunderstorm-induced corona on grounded metal objects

W.H. Brune, J.M. Jenkins, G.A. Olson, P.J. McFarland, D.O. Miller, J. Mao & X. Ren
It has now been established that atmospheric electrical discharges generate unexpectedly large amounts of the atmosphere’s primary oxidant, hydroxyl (OH) in thunderstorm anvils, where lightning and weak electrical discharges are caused by atmospheric charge separation. The question is “Do other atmospheric electrical discharges also generate large amounts of oxidants?’ In this paper, we demonstrate that coronas formed on grounded metal objects produce extreme amounts of hydroxyl (OH), hydroperoxyl (HO2), and ozone (O3) when thunderstorms are...

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