242 Works

The Orinoco low-level jet WRF simulation

Giovanni Jiménez-Sánchez, Paul Markowski, Valerian Jewtoukoff, George Young & David Stensrud
The structure and evolution of the low-level jet over the Orinoco River basin is characterized using finer horizontal, vertical, and temporal resolution than possible in previous studies via dynamical downscaling. The investigation relies on a 5-month-long simulation (November 2013­–March 2014) performed with the Weather Research and Forecasting model, with initial and boundary conditions provided by the Global Forecast System analysis. Dynamical downscaling is demonstrated to be an effective method to better resolve the horizontal and...

Sedimentary Geology Outcrop Terrestrial Lidar Data

Elizabeth Hajek
Terrestrial lidar digital outcrop models collected during research in PI Hajek’s lab. Folders in this dataset are from projects made with RiScan Pro software, which was used to visualize, align, and interpret terrestrial lidar scans. Each project contains a digital outcrop model for a portion of outcrop labeled by locality. Merged, 3D models are not explicitly georeferenced but were merged to maximize internal scaling and consistency. https://sites.psu.edu/hajek/data-sets-and-outreach/datasets/

Development and Application of Assessment Protocols for Determining the Ecological Condition of Wetlands in the Juniata River Watershed, 1998-2004

R. P. Brooks & D. H. Wardrop
The Juniata Wetland Monitoring Project is 2-year pilot study to assess the ecological condition of wetlands in the Juniata River watershed of central Pennsylvania. The Juniata River is a major tributary of the Susquehanna River and lies within the headwaters region of the Chesapeake Bay ecosystem. The objective of the Juniata Wetland Monitoring Project is to define the ecological health of wetland resources, thereby providing a scientific context for resource managers to plan future protection...

Pennsylvania Gap analysis program, Mammal habitat models -30meter

W. L. Myers, R. P. Brooks & J. A. Bishop
This layer represents a potential habitat model for Mammals in Pennsylvania at 90 meter resolution. The model associates occurrence of suitable habitat with key environmental factors that can be mapped over the entire region. These key factors include vegetative land cover, presence of human activity, elevation, topographic position, wetland characteristics and stream size and proximity. Areas of potential species presence were tabulated based on current and historical information and a series of conditional statements proceeded...

Pennsylvania Gap analysis program, Avian habitat models -30meter

W. L. Myers, R. P. Brooks & J. A. Bishop
This layer represents a potential habitat model for birds in Pennsylvania at 30 meter resolution. The model associates occurrence of suitable habitat with key environmental factors that can be mapped over the entire region. These key factors include vegetative land cover, presence of human activity, elevation, topographic position, wetland characteristics and stream size and proximity. Areas of potential species presence were tabulated based on current and historical information and a series of conditional statements proceeded...

Effects of BCG vaccination against Bovine Tuberculosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis Date

V. Srikrishnan, A. Conlan, L. Easterling, C. Herrara, P. Dandapat, M. Veerasami, G. Ameni, D. Bakker, M. Vordermeier & V. Kapur
Despite the effective control of Bovine Tuberculosis (bTB) in many countries using test-and-slaughter, more than 50 million cattle are still likely to be infected worldwide, highlighting the urgent need for alternative interventions such as vaccines to reduce disease burden and control spread of bTB. Vaccination may be particularly important in regions where the disease is endemic, and test-and-slaughter is neither practical nor acceptable socio-economically. Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) has been in experimental use in cattle for...

Title Shale Network – Statewide Surface Water (Five Analytes: Cl, Ba, Br, Mg, Na) in Pennsylvania as of February 2018

T. Wen
This data set is a subset of the Shale Network database (https://doi.org/10.4211/his-data-shalenetwork) and has been discussed in the following publication “Agarwal, A., Wen, T., Chen, A., Zhang, A., Niu, X., Zhan, X., Xue, L., Brantley, S., 2019. Using a New Geospatial Tool to Detect Contamination Incidents in Stream Chemistry Networks: A Case Study for Shale Gas Development. XXXXXXXXX”. The Shale Network (http://www.shalenetwork.org/) is a project funded by the National Science Foundation to help scientists and...

Nonlinear Impacts of Surface Exchange Coefficient Uncertainty on Tropical Cyclone Intensity and Air-Sea Interactions

R.G. Nystrom, X. Chen, F. Zhang & C.A. Davis
Tropical cyclone maximum intensity is believed to result from a balance between the surface friction, which removes energy, and a temperature/moisture (enthalpy) difference between the sea surface and the air above it, which adds energy. The competing processes near the air-sea interface are controlled by both the near surface wind speed and the surface momentum (Cd) and enthalpy flux (Ck) coefficients. Unfortunately, these coefficients are currently highly uncertain at high wind speeds. Tropical cyclone winds...

Data, analyses, and software for the 12 May 2010 tornadic supercell storm intercepted near Clinton, Oklahoma by VORTEX2

P. Markowski, T.P. Hatlee & Y.P. Richardson
This dataset contains the raw, edited, and gridded mobile radar data (DOW6, DOW7, NOXP) and dual-Doppler wind syntheses that were the subject of the Markowski et al. (2018) study. That study analyzed the Clinton, Oklahoma, tornadic supercell storm intercepted by the Second Verification of the Origins of Rotation in Tornadoes Experiment (VORTEX2). The dataset also includes mobile mesonet data and the analysis software used for the study (mostly FORTRAN and MATLAB code). Additional documentation is...

Is Tillage Beneficial or Detrimental for Invertebrate Pest Management? A Meta-Analysis Supplementary data

E. Rowen, K.H. Regan, M.E. Barbercheck & J.F. Tooker
Frequent and intensive tillage can have negative effects on soil, including increasing risk of erosion, oxidizing organic matter, and disrupting life cycles of soil organisms. Even though tillage can negatively influence soil, this practice is still used across much of the world to prepare fields for planting and to manage pests. Farmers who have adopted reduced-tillage systems can struggle with a suite of invertebrate pests; however, reducing the frequency and intensity of tillage may improve...

Dual Approach for Effective Potentials that Accurately Model Structure and Energetics

W. G Noid & K. Lebold
These simulations provide examples of a dual-potential approach to coarse-grained (CG) models. The approach combines force-matching and energy-matching to address the transferability and representability problems of CG models. The resulting models have energies faithful to the original, atomically detailed models and are temperature-transferable over modest ranges.

An HF Software-Defined Radar to Study the Ionosphere

S.M. Bostan, J.V. Urbina, J.D. Mathews, S.G. Bilén & J.K. Breakall
In this paper, a novel design and implementation of a software-defined high frequency ionospheric radar, the Penn State Ionospheric Radar Imager (PIRI), is described. Furthermore, preliminary results produced by the system (located at 40.71 ? ? N, 77.97 W) are presented. PIRI is designed to be a modest and low-cost radar system which is composed mostly of commercial-off-the-shelf products and utilizing open-source software to perform pulse generation, pulse coding, downconversion, data acquisition, and signal processing....

Shale Network – Mercer County Groundwater as of August 2018

Penn State Earth Tao Wen

Ensemble model output of North American atmospheric CO2 simulations for summer 2016, including transport, CASA and CT2017, and boundary condition ensembles

S. Feng, T. Lauvaux, C. Williams, K.J. Davis, Y. Zhou, I. Baker, Z.R. Barkley & D. Wesloh

Supplementary tropical-cyclone count data-set for ‘Stratified statistical models of North Atlantic basin-wide and regional tropical cyclone counts’ (Journal of Geophysical Research, Kozar et al. 2012)

M.E. Kozar, M.E. Mann, S.J. Camargo, J.P. Kossin & J.L. Evans
Using the historical Atlantic tropical cyclone record, this study examines the empirical relationships between climate state variables and Atlantic tropical cyclone counts. The state variables considered as predictors include indices of the El Niño/Southern Oscillation and Northern Atlantic Oscillation, and both “local” and “relative” measures of Main Development Region sea surface temperature. Other predictors considered include indices measuring the Atlantic Meridional Mode and the West African monsoon. Using all of the potential predictors in a...

Supplementary data, code, and other information for ‘Global Signatures and Dynamical Origins of the Little Ice Age and Medieval Climate Anomaly’ (Science, Mann et al. 2009)

M.E. Mann, Z. Zhang, S. Rutherford, R.S. Bradley, M.K. Hughes, D. Shindall, C. Ammann, G. Faluvegi & F. Ni
Global temperatures are known to have varied over the past 1500 years, but the spatial patterns have remained poorly defined. We used a global climate proxy network to reconstruct surface temperature patterns over this interval. The Medieval period is found to display warmth that matches or exceeds that of the past decade in some regions, but which falls well below recent levels globally. This period is marked by a tendency for La Niña–like conditions in...

Supplementary data, code, and information for ‘Discrepancies between the modeled and proxy-reconstructed response to volcanic forcing over the past millennium: Implications and possible mechanisms(Journal of Geophysical Research, Mann et al. 2013)

M.E. Mann, S. Rutherford, A. Schurer, Simon F.B. Tett & J.D. Fuentes
We show that a systematic discrepancy between model simulations and proxy reconstructions of hemispheric temperature changes over the past millennium appears to arise from a small number of radiatively large volcanic eruptions. Past work has shown that accounting for this mismatch alone appears to reconcile inconsistencies between the overall amplitude of simulated and proxy-reconstructed temperature changes. We provide empirical support for the previously posited hypothesis that this discrepancy may arise from threshold growth effects in...

Supplementary data, code, and information for ‘Absence of internal multidecadal oscillations in climate model simulations’ (Nature Communications, Mann et al. 2020)

M.E. Mann, B.A. Steinman & S.K. Miller
For several decades the existence of interdecadal and multidecadal internal climate oscillations has been asserted by numerous studies based on analyses of historical observations, paleoclimatic data and climate model simulations. Here we use a combination of observational data and state-of-the-art forced and control climate model simulations to demonstrate the absence of consistent evidence for decadal or longer-term internal oscillatory signals that are distinguishable from climatic noise. Only variability in the interannual range associated with the...

Supplementary data, code, and information for ‘Global-Scale Temperature Patterns and Climate Forcing Over the Past Six Centuries’ (Mann et al. 1998 – the first ‘Hockey Stick’ paper [MBH98])

M.E. Mann, R.S. Bradley & M.K. Hughes
Spatially resolved global reconstructions of annual surface temperature patterns over the past six centuries are based on the multivariate calibration of widely distributed high-resolution proxy climate indicators. Time-dependent correlations of the reconstructions with time-series records representing changes in greenhouse-gas concentrations, solar irradiance, and volcanic aerosols suggest that each of these factors has contributed to the climate variability of the past 400 years, with greenhouse gases emerging as the dominant forcing during the twentieth century. Northern...

Supplementary code for ‘Greenhouse Warming and Changes in the Seasonal Cycle of Temperature: Model Versus Observations’ (Mann and Park 1996)

M.E. Mann & J. Park
Thomson [1995] argues that an enhanced green-house effect may be altering the seasonal cycle in temperature. We compare trends in the amplitude and phase of the seasonal cycle in observational temperature data in the northern hemisphere with the response of two general circulation models to increased CO2 concentrations. Sizeable amplitude decreases are observed in both models and observations. Significant phase delays (ie, later seasonal transitions) are found in the simulations, opposite to the phase advances...

Supplementary data and code for ‘Robust estimation of background noise and signal detection in climatic time series’ (Mann and Lees 1996)

M.E. Mann & J.M. Lees
We present a new technique for isolating climate signals in time series with a characteristic ‘red’ noise background which arises from temporal persistence. This background is estimated by a ‘robust’ procedure that, unlike conventional techniques, is largely unbiased by the presence of signals immersed in the noise. Making use of multiple-taper spectral analysis methods, the technique further provides for a distinction between purely harmonic (periodic) signals, and broader-band (‘quasiperiodic’) signals. The effectiveness of our signal...

Title Supplementary Data and Code for 'On The Estimation of Internal Climate Variability During the Preindustrial Past Millennium'

M.E. Mann, B.A. Steinman, D.J. Brouillette, A. Fernandez & S.K. Miller
We use an ensemble of simulations of a coupled model (NCAR Community Earth System Model) driven by natural radiative forcing estimates over the pre-industrial past millennium to test the efficacy of methods used previously to remove forced variability from proxy-based climate reconstructions and estimate residual internal variability (e.g. a putative "Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation"). Within the framework of these experiments, the forced component of surface temperature change can be estimated accurately from the ensemble mean, and...

Establishing an inexpensive, space efficient colony of Bemisia tabaci MEAM1 utilizing modeling and feedback control principle

N. Thompson, N. Waterton, A. Armaou, J.E. Polston & W. Curtis
A stable, synchronized colony of whitefly (Bemisia tabaci MEAM1 Gennadius) was established in a single ~30 cu.ft. reach-in incubator and supported on cabbage host plants which were grown in a 2x2’ mesh cage without the need for a greenhouse or dedicated growth rooms. The colony maintenance, including cage cleaning and rotation of plants, was reduced to less than 10 hr per week and executed by minimally experienced researchers. In our hands, this method was approximately...

Coarse-Grained Models for Local Density Gradients

M.R. DeLyser & W.G. Noid
Coarse-grained (CG) models provide superior computational efficiency for simulating soft materials. Unfortunately, CG models with conventional pair-additive potentials demonstrate limited transferability between bulk and interfacial environments. Recently, a growing number of CG models have supplemented these pair potentials with one-body potentials of the local density (LD) around each site. These LD potentials can significantly improve the accuracy and transferability of CG models. Nevertheless, it remains challenging to accurately describe interfaces where the LD varies rapidly....

Electrodynamic Levitation Diffusion Chamber Measurements of the Mass Growth of Ice Crystals Grown from the Vapor at -65 to -40C

G. Pokrifka, A. Myle & J.Y. Harrington
This data set comprises individual time-series for ice crystals grown in an electrodynamic levitation diffusion chamber at temperatures between -65 and -40C. Descriptions of the chamber and experimental proceedure can be found in Harrison et al. (2016), Pokrifka et al. (2020), and Pokrifka et al. (submitted to J. Atmos. Sci. 2022). Experiments were conducted by freezing small (approximately 10 micrometer radius) droplets either homogeneously or heterogeneously with a 0.2 g/L Snomax mixture. Frozen droplets were...

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