Co-seismic luminescence, commonly referred to as Earthquake lights (EQLs), is an atmospheric luminous phenomenon occurring before and during strong earthquakes. We utilize the assumption that strong currents are produced inside the Earth during earthquakes and model the current and field distribution inside and above the Earth to find the conditions where electrical discharges can appear. The simulation results quantify the effects of source currents for various configurations of current dipoles inside the Earth. The results...
Characterizing the deep uncertainties surrounding coastal flood hazard projections: A case study for Norfolk, VAKelsey L. Ruckert, Vivek Srikrishnan & Klaus Keller
Coastal planners and decision makers design risk management strategies based on hazard projections. However, projections can differ drastically. What causes this divergence and which projection(s) should a decision maker adopt to create plans and adaptation efforts for improving coastal resiliency? Using Norfolk, Virginia, as a case study, we start to address these questions by characterizing and quantifying the drivers of differences between published sea-level rise and storm surge projections, and how these differences can impact...
Archival data and code in support of uncertainty quantification of climate system properties using the MIT Earth System Model (MESM)Chris Forest, Alex Libardoni, Andrei P. Sokolov & Erwan Monier
This archive provides the climate model outputs, observational data, and analysis codes that were used to quantify uncertainty in the climate system response properties of the MIT Earth System Model (MESM). Three papers (Libardoni et al. 2018a, 2018b, 2019) include results using these data and codes to provide conditional probability distributions of equilibrium climate sensitivity (ECS), the transient climate response (TCR), and the net radiative forcing by aerosols. The analysis codes are either written in...
This data set is a subset of the Shale Network database (https://doi.org/10.4211/his-data-shalenetwork) and has been discussed in the following publication “Wen, T., Woda, J., Marcon, V., Xianzeng, N., Li, Z., Brantley, S., 2019. Exploring how to use groundwater chemistry to identify migration of methane near shale gas wells in the Appalachian Basin. Environmental Science & Technology.”. The Shale Network (http://www.shalenetwork.org/) is a project funded by the National Science Foundation to help scientists and citizens store...
The fate of organic material on Mars after deposition is crucial to interpreting the source of these molecules. Previous work has addressed how various organic compounds at millimeter depths in sediments respond to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. In contrast, this study addressed how high-energy particle radiation (200-MeV protons, simulating the effect of galactic cosmic rays at depths of < 4-5 cm) influences organic macromolecules in sediments. Specifically, we report the generation of organic-acid radiolysis products after...
Tower-based atmospheric CO2 mole fractions (raw, uncalibrated) measured as part of the National Carbon Program’s Mid Continent Intensive, U.S. Upper Midwest, 2007-2009N.L. Miles, S.J. Richardson, B.J. Haupt & K.J. Davis
A total of nine communication tower-based CO2 sensors were located within a 500 x 800 km2 area within the Mid Continental Intensive (MCI) study region in the U.S. Upper Midwest from May 2007 through November 2009. With the goal of oversampling the MCI region, The Pennsylvania State University deployed instruments at five towers: Centerville (Iowa), Galesville (Wisconsin), Kewanee (Illinois), Mead (Nebraska), and Round Lake (Minnesota). Here we publish the raw, uncalibrated data from these five...
Costs of plant defense priming: Exposure to volatile cues from a specialist herbivore increases short-term growth but reduces rhizome production in tall goldenrod (Solidago altissima).Eric C. Yip, John F. Tooker, Mark C. Mescher & Consuelo M. De Moraes
By sensing environmental cues indicative of pathogens or herbivores, plants can “prime” appropriate defenses and deploy faster, stronger responses to subsequent attack. Such priming presumably entails costs—else the primed state should be constitutively expressed—yet those costs remain poorly documented, in part due to a lack of studies conducted under realistic ecological conditions. We explored how defence priming in goldenrod (Solidago altissima) influenced growth and reproduction under semi-natural field conditions by manipulating exposure to priming cues...
This data set contains selected output from the MSc Thesis of Wenjie Li, 2018. Ensemble Sensitivity Analysis of Ice Flow Simulations with Different Parametric Model Uncertainties. M.Sc. thesis. Meteorology, Pennsylvania 81 State University, University Park, PA. 32 pp. https://etda.libraries.psu.edu/files/ 82 final_submissions/17978
Tower footprints represent the surface area that influenced an atmospheric mixing ratio observation measured at one of the 13 tower locations of the INFLUX network (https://sites.psu.edu/influx/site-information/). These footprints were generated to map in space and time the sensitivity of any given hourly atmospheric observation sampled between September 2012 to September 2015 by the network. The footprints were created by coupling the Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model (LPDM) described by Uliasz  to the WRF-FDDA modeling system...
The data consists of airglow time series obtained from a CCD imager located at the Andes Lidar Observatory in Chile (30.3 S, 70.7 W). 2010-2018. .mat files
To meet the 1.5°C target, methane (CH4) from ruminants must be reduced by 11 to 30% of the 2010 level by 2030 and by 24 to 47% by 2050. A meta-analysis identified strategies to decrease product-based [PB; CH4 per unit meat or milk (CH4I)] and absolute (ABS) enteric CH4 emissions while maintaining or increasing animal productivity (AP; weight gain and milk yield). Next the potential of different adoption rates of one PB and/or ABS strategies...
The use of a boundary-layer parameterization of buttressing and ice flux across grounding lines in a two-dimensional ice-sheet model is improved by allowing general orientations of the grounding line. This and another modification to the model's grounding-line parameterization are assessed in two settings: a narrow fjord-like domain (MISMIP+), and in future simulations of West Antarctic ice retreat under RCP8.5-based climates. The new modifications are found to have significant effects on the fjord results, which are...
First principles plasma fluid modeling is used for investigation of electrical gas discharges ignited by a configuration of two approaching conducting hydrometeors with typical radii on the order of several millimeters under thunderstorm conditions (i.e., at an elevated location in the Earth's atmosphere corresponding to half of air density at ground level and at applied electric field approximately half of that required for avalanche multiplication of electrons in air). It is demonstrated that UV photons...
Cavity ring-down spectroscopic measurements of CO2 mole fraction in State College, Pennsylvania, 2017-2018.S.J. Richardson, N.L. Miles, T. Lauvaux, B.J. Haupt & K.J. Davis
Carbon dioxide (CO2) mole fractions were measured at three locations near State College, Pennsylvania, using cavity ring-down spectrometers (Picarro, Inc.). This dataset includes raw data and hourly averages. The instruments were calibrated via four NOAA tertiary tanks prior to deployment, but no field calibrations were applied. The air samples were not dried. The locations of the measurements were Rock Springs (40°43'15.3"N 77°55'54.1"W, 10 m AGL), Walker Building roof (40°47'36.1"N 77°52'02.0"W, 30 m AGL), and Houserville...
Pennsylvania State University145
University of Massachusetts Amherst6
Roger Williams University6
University of Arizona6
National Center for Atmospheric Research5
Goddard Space Flight Center4
Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research3
Colorado State University3
University of Cambridge2