61 Works

Subroutines to Calculate the Deposition Coefficients for Ice Crystal Vapor Growth.

J.Y. Harrington, G. Sokolowsky & H. Morrison
This code uses fitting coefficients to calculate supersaturation-dependent deposition coefficients for numerical models. The code takes as input the ambient supersaturation, temperature, and atmospheric pressure, along with the size of the crystal. If the crystal shape is unknown an equivalent volume sphere may be used. The subroutines calculate and return the deposition coefficients.

Lactational performance, rumen fermentation and enteric methane emission of dairy cows fed high-amylase corn silage.

S.F. Cueva, H.A. Stefenoni, A. Melgar, S.E. Räisänen, C.F.A. Lage, D.E. Wasson, M.E. Fetter & A.N. Hristov
The current study investigated the effect of a high-amylase corn silage on lactational performance, enteric methane (CH4) emission, and rumen fermentation of lactating dairy cows. Following a 2-wk covariate period, 48 Holstein cows were blocked based on parity, days-in-milk, milk yield (MY), and CH4 emission. Cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments in an 8-wk randomized complete block design experiment: (1) control corn silage (CON) from an isogenic corn without a-amylase trait and...

Electrical Discharges Produce Prodigious Amounts of Hydroxyl and Hydroperoxyl Radicals

J.M. Jenkins & W.H. Brune
Reaction with the hydroxyl radical (OH) is often the first step in the removal of many atmospheric pollutants. The nitrogen oxides (NOx) generated by lightning can increase the amount of HOx (HOx = OH + HO2) present in the atmosphere, but direct HOx production from lightning has never been investigated in the laboratory. In this laboratory study, prodigious amounts of HOx were generated by both visible and subvisible electrical discharges over ranges of pressure and...

Stone Valley Stem Mapped

E.K. Zenner & J.E. Peck
To permit forest structure analyses, two 2.25 ha permanent plots were established in mature (ca. 110 yr old) mixed stratified Eastern Hardwoods forest on the Stone Valley Experimental Forest in 2007. The species, diameter at breast height (DBH), and spatial position of all trees = 5 cm DBH were recorded.

Effects of the macroalga Asparagopsis taxiformis and oregano leaves on methane emission, rumen fermentation, and lactational performance of dairy cows

H.A. Stefenoni, S.E. Räisänen, S.F. Cueva, D.E. Wasson, C.F.A. Lage, A. Melgar, M.E. Fetter, P. Smith, M. Hennessy, B. Vecchiarelli, J. Bender, D. Pitta, C.L. Cantrell, C. Yarish & A.N. Hristov
Asparagopsis taxiformis (AT) is a source of multiple halogenated compounds and, in a limited number of studies, has been shown to decrease enteric CH4 production in vitro and in vivo. Similarly, oregano has also been suggested as a potential CH4 mitigating agent. This study consisted of 2 in vitro and 2 in vivo experiments. Experiment 1 (Exp. 1) was aimed at establishing the effect of AT on total gas production and CH4 emission in vitro....

Shale Network database – A snapshot of the Entire Shale Network database as of March 2021

S.L. Brantley & T. Wen
This data set is a snapshot copy of the entire Shale Network database (https://doi.org/10.4211/his-data-shalenetwork) as of March 3rd, 2021. The Shale Network (http://www.shalenetwork.org/) is a project funded by the National Science Foundation to help scientists and other stakeholders store data for water resources that may be affected by gas exploitation in shale in the U.S.A. Our primary focus currently is the northeastern U.S.A. We want to enable the generation of knowledge from water chemistry and...

Supplementary data, code, and information for ‘Projected changes in persistent extreme summer weather events: The role of quasi-resonant amplification’ (Science Advances, Mann et al. 2018)

M.E. Mann, S.E. Räisänen, K. Kornhuber, B.A. Steinman, S.K. Miller, S. Petri & D. Coumou
Persistent episodes of extreme weather in the Northern Hemisphere summer have been associated with highamplitude quasi-stationary atmospheric Rossby waves, with zonal wave numbers 6 to 8 resulting from the phenomenon of quasi-resonant amplification (QRA). A fingerprint for the occurrence of QRA can be defined in terms of the zonally averaged surface temperature field. Examining state-of-the-art [Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5)] climate model projections, we find that QRA events are likely to increase by...

Supplementary data, code, validation statistics, and other information for ‘Proxy-based reconstructions of hemispheric and global surface temperature variations over the past two millennia’ (PNAS, Mann et al. 2008)

M.E. Mann, Z. Zhang, M.K. Hughes, R.S. Bradley, S.K. Miller, S. Rutherford & F. Ni
Following the suggestions of a recent National Research Council report [NRC (National Research Council) (2006) Surface Temperature Reconstructions for the Last 2,000 Years (Natl Acad Press, Washington, DC).], we reconstruct surface temperature at hemispheric and global scale for much of the last 2,000 years using a greatly expanded set of proxy data for decadal-to-centennial climate changes, recently updated instrumental data, and complementary methods that have been thoroughly tested and validated with model simulation experiments. Our...

Supplementary data, code, and information for ‘On forced temperature changes, internal variability, and the AMO’ (Geophysical Research Letters, Mann et al. 2014)

M.E. Mann, B.A. Steinman & S.K. Miller
We estimate the low-frequency internal variability of Northern Hemisphere (NH) mean temperature using observed temperature variations, which include both forced and internal variability components, and several alternative model simulations of the (natural + anthropogenic) forced component alone. We then generate an ensemble of alternative historical temperature histories based on the statistics of the estimated internal variability. Using this ensemble, we show, first, that recent NH mean temperatures fall within the range of expected multidecadal variability....

Supplementary data, code, and information for ‘The likelihood of recent warmth’ (Nature Scientific Reports, Mann et al. 2016)

M.E. Mann, S. Rahmstorf, B.A. Steinman, M. Tingley & S.K. Miller
2014 was nominally the warmest year on record for both the globe and northern hemisphere based on historical records spanning the past one and a half centuries. It was the latest in a recent run of record temperatures spanning the past decade and a half. Press accounts reported odds as low as one-in-650 million that the observed run of global temperature records would be expected to occur in the absence of human-caused global warming. Press...

Effect of neutral winds on the creation of non-specular meteor trail echoes

F. Galindo, J. Urbina & L. Dyrud
Non-specular meteor trail echoes are radar reflections from plasma instabilities that are caused by field-aligned irregularities. Meteor simulations are examined to show that these plasma instabilities, and thus the associated meteor trail echo, strongly depend on the meteoroid properties and the characteristics of the atmosphere in which the meteoroid is embedded. The effects of neutral winds, as a function of altitude, are analyzed to understand how their amplitude variability impacts the temporal–space signatures of non-specular...

Data, Analyses, and Code for Swarmsonde 2019

E.A. Bartos, P. Markowski & Y.P. Richardson
This dataset includes observations, analyses, and Python code for the “Swarmsonde 2019” project, in which swarms of balloon-borne sondes obtained in-situ thermodynamic and wind observations from above the ground in four supercell thunderstorms in May 2019. The supercells intercepted include a tornadic supercell on 17 May 2019 in southwestern Nebraska, a tornadic supercell on 20 May 2019 in southwestern Oklahoma, a nontornadic supercell on 23 May 2019 in the northeast Texas panhandle, and a tornadic...

Supplementary data, code, and information for ‘Evidence for a Modest Undercount Bias in Early Historical Atlantic Tropical Cyclone Counts’ (Mann et al. 2007)

M.E. Mann, T.A. Sabatelli & U. Neu
We obtain new insights into the reliability of long-term historical Atlantic tropical cyclone (‘TC’) counts through the use of a statistical model that relates variations in annual Atlantic TC counts to climate state variables. We find that the existence of a substantial undercount bias in late 19th through mid 20th century TC counts is inconsistent with the statistical relationship between TC counts and climate.

The Finite-Volume Cubed-Sphere Dynamical Core (FV3) Version 1.0 Dataset

D. Fan, S.J. Greybush, X. Chen, Y.H. Lu, F. Zhang & G.S. Young
The Finite-Volume Cubed-Sphere Dynamical Core (FV3) dataset version 1.0 contains hourly gridded atmospheric variables over the globe, spanning 24 August 2017 through 26 August 2017. The dataset includes gridded fields of horizontal wind at select levels (700 hPa, 300 hPa, and 100 hPa) and brightness temperature from several runs of the model at 3km, 6km, and 13km grid spacing. The Community Radiative Transfer Model (CRTM), version 2.3.0, was employed to translate model state variables into...

Supplementary data, code, and information for ‘Northern Hemisphere Temperatures During the Past Millennium: Inferences, Uncertainties, and Limitations’ (Mann et al. 1999 – the second ‘Hockey Stick’ paper [MBH99])

M.E. Mann, R.S. Bradley & M.K. Hughes
Building on recent studies, we attempt hemispheric temperature reconstructions with proxy data networks for the past millennium. We focus not just on the reconstructions, but the uncertainties therein, and important caveats. Though expanded uncertainties prevent decisive conclusions for the period prior to AD 1400, our results suggest that the latter 20th century is anomalous in the context of at least the past millennium. The 1990s was the warmest decade, and 1998 the warmest year, at...

Supplementary data, code, and information for ‘The Influence of Climate State Variables on Atlantic Tropical Cyclone Occurrence Rates’ (Sabbatelli and Mann 2007)

T.A. Sabatelli & M.E. Mann
We analyzed annual North Atlantic tropical cyclone (TC) counts from 1871-2004, considering three climate state variables—the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO), peak (August-October or ‘ASO’) Sea Surface Temperatures (SST) over the main development region (‘MDR’: 6-18N latitude, 20-60W), and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO)—thought to influence variations in annual TC counts on interannual and longer timescales. The unconditional distribution of TC counts is observed to be inconsistent with the null hypothesis of a fixed rate random...

Supplementary data, code, and information for ‘Robustness of Proxy-Based Climate Field Reconstruction Methods’ (Mann et al. 2007)

M.E. Mann, S. Rutherford, E. Wahl & C. Ammann
We present results from continued investigations into the fidelity of covariance-based climate field reconstruction (CFR) approaches used in proxy-based climate reconstruction. Our experiments employ synthetic ‘‘pseudoproxy’’ data derived from simulations of forced climate changes over the past millennium. Using networks of these pseudoproxy data, we investigate the sensitivity of CFR performance to signal-to-noise ratios, the noise spectrum, the spatial sampling of pseudoproxy locations, the statistical representation of predictors used, and the diagnostic used to quantify...

Supplementary data, code, and information for ‘Assessing Climate Change Impacts on Extreme Weather Events: The Case For an Alternative (Bayesian) Approach’ (Mann et al. 2017)

M.E. Mann, E.A. Lloyd & N. Oreskes
The conventional approach to detecting and attributing climate change impacts on extreme weather events is generally based on frequentist statistical inference wherein a null hypothesis of no influence is assumed, and the alternative hypothesis of an influence is accepted only when the null hypothesis can be rejected at a sufficiently high (e.g., 95% or p = 0.05) level of confidence. Using a simple conceptual model for the occurrence of extreme weather events, we show that...

Supplementary data, code, and information for ‘Long-term variability in the El Niño/Southern Oscillation and associated teleconnections’

M.E. Mann, R.S. Bradley & M.K. Hughes
We analyze global patterns of reconstructed surface temperature for insights into the behavior of the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and related climatic variability during the past three centuries. The global temperature reconstructions are based on calibrations of a large set of globally distributed proxy records, or “multiproxy” data, against the dominant patterns of surface temperature during the past century. These calibrations allow us to estimate large-scale surface temperature patterns back in time. The reconstructed eastern...

Model Input, Analysis Code, and Select Model Output for the Murdzek et al. (2021) Inflow Layer Study

S. Murdzek, P. Markowski, Y.P. Richardson & M.R. Kumjian
This dataset contains all relevant Cloud Model 1 (CM1) input files, python analysis code, and select CM1 output for the Murdzek et al. (2021, JAS) study that examines whether reversible or pseudoadiabatic convective inhibition should be used when determining the effective inflow layer of a convective storm. Enough CM1 output is provided to recreate all the figures from Murdzek et al. (2021), and the rest of the output can be recreated using the supplied input...

Investigating axisymmetric and asymmetric signals of secondary eyewall formation using observations-based modeling of the tropical cyclone boundary layer

C. Yu, A.C. Didlake,Jr. , J.D. Kepert & F. Zhang
This study examines axisymmetric and asymmetric aspects of secondary eyewall formation (SEF) in tropical cyclones (TCs) by applying a nonlinear boundary layer model to tangential wind composites of observed TCs with and without SEF. SEF storms were further analyzed at times prior to and after SEF, as defined by the emergence of a secondary maximum in axisymmetric tangential wind. The model is used to investigate the steady-state boundary layer response to the free-tropospheric pressure forcing...

Permian Basin: in-situ tower greenhouse gas data

V. Monteiro, N.L. Miles, S.J. Richardson, Z.R. Barkley, B.J. Haupt & K.J. Davis
The Permian Basin in-situ greenhouse gas network was designed to measure atmospheric mole fractions of methane to be used in conjunction with transport modeling to determine methane emissions from the Permian Basin oil and natural gas extraction area in Texas/New Mexico. The current network includes 5 measurement sites with continuous measurements of CH4, 4 sites with measurements of CO2, 2 sites with measurements of the isotopic ratio of methane, and 1 site with measurements of...

The Role of Landscape Context in Forests Recovering from Fire

J.L. Peeler & E.A. Smithwick
Distance to seed source is often used to estimate seed dispersal – a process needed for post-fire tree recovery. However, distance, especially in mountainous terrain, does not capture pattern (area and arrangement) or scale-dependent effects controlling seed supply and delivery. Measuring seed source pattern could provide insights on how these spatial dynamics shape recovery. Here we provide access to data collected at 71 plots in the Boulder and Bull Fires near Jackson, Wyoming, United States....

Archived Dataset for Wen et al. (2021) in Water Research

T. Wen & S.L. Brantley
This data set has been discussed in the following publication: “Wen, T., Liu, M., Woda, J., Zheng, G., Brantley, S., 2021. Detecting Anomalous Methane in Groundwater within Hydrocarbon Production Areas across the United States. Water Research.”. Parts of this dataset (i.e., groundwater chemistry in Pennsylvania) are a subset of the Shale Network database (https://doi.org/10.4211/his-data-shalenetwork). Colorado data were downloaded from COGCC website (https://cogcc.state.co.us/). Texas data were compiled from published literature (Darvari et al., 2017; Nicot et...

Supplementary data, code, and information for ‘Influence of Anthropogenic Climate Change on Planetary Wave Resonance and Extreme Weather Events’ (Nature Scientific Reports, Mann et al. 2017)

M.E. Mann, S. Rahmstorf, K. Kornhuber, B.A. Steinman, S.K. Miller & D. Coumou
Persistent episodes of extreme weather in the Northern Hemisphere summer have been shown to be associated with the presence of high-amplitude quasi-stationary atmospheric Rossby waves within a particular wavelength range (zonal wavenumber 6–8). The underlying mechanistic relationship involves the phenomenon of quasi-resonant amplification (QRA) of synoptic-scale waves with that wavenumber range becoming trapped within an effective mid-latitude atmospheric waveguide. Recent work suggests an increase in recent decades in the occurrence of QRA-favorable conditions and associated...

Registration Year

  • 2021
    61

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    58
  • Text
    2
  • Model
    1

Affiliations

  • Pennsylvania State University
    61
  • University of Massachusetts Amherst
    6
  • Roger Williams University
    6
  • University of Arizona
    6
  • Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research
    3
  • Yale University
    3
  • Goddard Institute for Space Studies
    2
  • National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
    2
  • National Center for Atmospheric Research
    2
  • University of Pennsylvania
    1