2,180 Works

Encapsulation of naringenin using zein nanoparticles

Elizabeth Joseffy Chrzastek
Naringenin (4’,5,7-­‐‑trihydroxyflavanone) is a flavanone known to have many health benefits including antitumor, antioxidant, anti-­‐‑inflammatory, and hepatoprotective properties. It is naturally found in citrus fruits, predominantly in grapefruits. However, when naringenin is orally ingested, the health benefits are limited due to its low solubility in water, which causes low bioavailability. In an effort to improve the bioavailability of naringenin, various nanoparticle systems were investigated and optimized to counter this problem. Zein, a corn based protein,...

Behavioral ecology and control of bed bugs, Cimex lectularius L., in multifamily housing communities

Richard Alan Cooper
After nearly a fifty-year absence, the bed bug (Cimex lectularius L.) has reemerged as a very important urban pest affecting persons of all economic strata. My research was conducted in affordable housing communities for the elderly. These communities suffer disproportionately high infestation rates compared to other housing communities. In my first study, I evaluated the accuracy of commercially available canine scent detection teams to detect bed bugs in apartments and compared the results to detection...

Maliga, Pal

Pal Maliga

Microbial safety of unpasteurized juice

Diane Sapit & Julie M. Fagan
Most cold-pressed juice companies choose not to pasteurize their fruit and vegetable juice. The use of high heat in pasteurization destroys heat-sensitive vitamins and nutrients and inactivates beneficial digestive enzymes. Companies that sell unpasteurized juice mainly do so in order to preserve as much of the nutritional value of the juice as possible. However, unpasteurized juice has a greater risk of contamination by pathogenic microorganisms. In lieu of pasteurization, some cold-pressed juice companies use high-pressure...

Twitter: an ideal platform for delivering educational material in today's world

Michelle Matyash & Julie M. Fagan
Twitter is an ideal platform for delivering educational material in today’s world. With twitter, educators can extend their classroom beyond its walls providing a unique learning experience to both their students and students around the world. Anyone with a twitter account can gain access to information tweeted by educators on various topics anytime, anyplace. As an example of how educational information can be twitterized and delivered to the masses, we chose to break down information...

Haverfield, Marie C.

Marie C. Haverfield

Studies on the effect of cell cycle arrest on central metabolism in the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum, using physiological and systems biology approaches

Joomi Kim
Diatoms (Bacillarophyceae) are photosynthetic unicellular microalgae that have risen to ecological prominence in the modern oceans over the past 30 million years. They are excellent candidates for biodiesel feedstocks. Global climate change has led to an interest in algal triacylglycerols (TAGs) as feedstocks for sustainable biodiesel, and diatoms are attractive candidates for TAG production as one of the most productive and environmentally flexible algae in the contemporary oceans. For Chapter 2, a genome-scale metabolic model...

Linking photosynthetic and carbon metabolism in microalgae for biofuel applications

Anagha Krishnan
Microalgae predominantly partition photosynthetically fixed carbon into proteins, starch and lipids. Of these, carbohydrates and lipids are desired as they are the precursors for biofuel production. Photosynthetic electron transport is closely coupled to carbon partitioning, thus frustrating efforts to substantially increase the yield of the desired terminal product without compromising photosynthetic fitness. The objective of this thesis was to investigate the role of starch biosynthesis with respect to photosynthesis and carbon partitioning in a model...

Branch dependent shear coefficients and their influence on the free vibration of mindlin plates

Joseph M. Lakawicz
The effect of the shear correction coefficient on the branches of the frequency spectrum for the free vibrations of plates using Mindlin plate theory is studied. Each of the three branches of the frequency spectrum for the Mindlin plate is identified through comparison with the frequency spectrum of the infinite elastodynamic plate. The use of branch dependent shear correction coefficients is proposed, in order to bring each of the three branches of the Mindlin plate...

The design, characterization and utility of self-assembling hydrophobic collagen peptides

Kenneth N. McGuinness
This thesis will focus on predicting and characterizing the self-assembly of collagen mimetic peptides and their interactions with natural proteins with varying secondary structure and exposed surface hydrophobicity. Chapter 1 will provide an overview of the forces that affect peptide self-assembly, and describe why the collagen triple-helix is a good model system for studying self-assembly. In Chapter 1, a set of synthetic collagen peptides, that were designed using diffusion limited aggregation (DLA) simulations, are used...

Evaluation of formulations and oxidative stability of coconut oil blends

Emily Nering
Tropical fats such as coconut oil contain medium chain fatty acids which activate lipases, converting fats directly into energy rather than storage in adipose tissue. Implications that these fats may be helpful in reducing obesity and related diseases, and also replace trans fats in foods, have led to interest in developing "healthy" coconut oil-based products for use in table spreads, cooking, and baking applications. This study evaluated effects of water quality, antioxidants, and oil components...

Sex differences in social support and substance use disorders

Deena Peyser Faleck
Individuals with substance use disorders (SUDs) often draw on support from their social networks to perpetuate gains made during addiction treatment. Sex differences exist in the function of social networks, the ways in which individuals are influenced by their network members, and in substance use behaviors. We examined whether treatment-seeking men and women differed in the nature of their social support at treatment entry and whether individuals with abstinence versus substance using social support networks...

Architectural support for efficient virtual memory on big-memory systems

Binh Quang Pham
Virtual memory is a powerful and ubiquitous abstraction for managing memory. How- ever, virtual memory suffers a performance penalty for these benefits, namely when translating program virtual addresses to system physical addresses. This overhead had been limited to 5-15% of system runtime by using a set of sophisticated hardware so- lutions, but has increased to 20-50% for many scenarios, including running workloads with large memory footprints and poor access locality or using deeper software stacks....

Klein, Eric A.

Eric A. Klein

Network modeling approach to energy-performance optimization in industrial systems

Niloofar Salahi
With approximately 95 quadrillion Btu, the United States accounts for nearly 18% of the world’s total energy demand, and industrial sector within U.S. consumes as much as 34% of this energy intake. Growing energy demands, continuous worldwide depletion of natural resources and environmental regulations, have become a strong factor in the industrial sector for reducing energy consumption in the recent years. However, manufacturing facilities are often complex systems consisting of different components that have strict...

The photography of absence

Mary Kate Scott
It is a paradox that postmodern photographic theory—so thoroughly obsessed with death—rarely addresses intimate scenes of explicit death or mortality. Rather, it applies these themes to photographs of living subjects or empty spaces, laying upon each image a blanket of pain, loss, or critical dissatisfaction. Postmodern theorists such as Rosalind Krauss and Geoffrey Batchen root their work in the writings of Roland Barthes, which privilege a photograph’s viewer over its subject or maker. To Barthes’...

Development of life cycle assessment tool for pavement sustainability analysis

Chinmay Thakkar
Motivated by the emerging importance of sustainability in transportation infrastructure, this study aims at developing a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) tool to quantify the energy and environmental impacts of pavements. The general LCA framework is incorporated into a highly customizable Excel-based software tool that can be used to facilitate environmental assessment of pavements at the project-level. The impact assessment focuses on the cumulative energy demand (CED) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission in the material, construction,...

Growth inhibitory effects of 3'-hydroxypterostilbene in human prostate cancer cells and xenograft mice

Hui-Yun Tsai
Prostate cancer is the second highest cause of cancer-related death among men in the United States. Most of these deaths are caused by invasive and metastatic spread of the prostate cancer. Therefore, more efforts should be dedicated to the development of preventive strategies to reduce prostate cancer prevalence and impact. Pterostilbene (Pt) is a natural antioxidant compound predominantly found in blueberries, grapes and a tree wood, Pterocarpus marsupium. 3'-Hydroxypterostilbene (OHPt), one of hydroxyl analogs of...

Kernel learning and applications in wireless localization

Qiaojun Wang
Recent advances in mobile and pervasive computing have enabled accurate location tracking of users wearing wireless devices indoors, where GPS isn’t available. Many indoor WiFi location estimation techniques use received radio signal strength (RSS) values from various access points to track users. In recent years, machine learning techniques have been applied to this application and demonstrated the effectiveness for tracking mobile devices. However, many existing systems suffer from the following problems: (1) lack of labeled...

Comparison of two models in differentially private distributed learning

Liyang Xie
Designing medical systems that can automatically diagnose patient's conditions from test data can greatly improve healthcare systems. With the help of machine learning tools and differential privacy consideration, this system can be made more efficient and powerful. Empirical risk minimization is a common and useful technique with which we can obtain a good approximation of globally optimal classifier and thus give good statistical classification result. Firstly we introduce three models for medical data learning and...

Regulation of Wnt delivery at intestinal stem cell niche

Soumyashree Das
Communication between stem cells and its niche-supporting cells maintains the homeostasis of adult tissues. Wnt signaling is a critical regulator of stem cell niche, but the mechanism that governs Wnt-ligand delivery in this compartment has not been fully investigated. We identified that Wnt secretion is partly dependent on Rab8a-mediated anterograde transport of Gpr177/Wntless, a Wnt-specific transmembrane transporter. Gpr177 binds to Rab8a, depletion of which compromises Gpr177 traffic thereby weakening the secretion of multiple Wnts. Analyses...

Continuous risk monitoring and assessment

Daehyun Moon
In their monograph “Continuous Assurance (CA) for the Now Economy,” Vasarhelyi et al. (2010) introduce Continuous Risk Monitoring and Assessment (CRMA) as a future area of continuous auditing. CRMA is a CA methodology to monitor an organization’s business risks, identify its uncontrolled significant risks, and prioritize audit and risk management procedures for the timely mitigation of such risks. They argue that development of CRMA procedures is necessary to keep maintain the relevance of CA system...

Proposal for a Community \"Solidarity\" Refrigerator that Would Both Feed the Hungry and Lessen Food Waste

Aashka Parikh & Julie M. Fagan
Approximately 40% of the food produced in America is wasted with much of this waste produced by homeowners and restaurants. A “solidarity” refrigerator in Spain enables restaurants and residents to bring leftover food to a community refrigerator instead of throwing it out. Individuals in need of food can then take the food. Starting a “solidarity” refrigerator in communities throughout the US would keep waste out of the landfill and feed the hungry.

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