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ICOS Ecosystem Instructions for Station Team Description

Dario Papale, Eleonora Canfora & Diego Polidori
This document describes the reporting of the ICOS Ecosystem station team and how the communication between ETC and different station team members will be organized. The aim is to have a clear definition of the people working at the station in order to optimize the exchange of information. The document is structured in six different sections with the aim to facilitate the use and application: - Station Team Roles, where it is described which are...

ICOS Ecosystem Instructions for Air Meteorological Measurements (TA, RH, PA, WS, WD)

Simone Sabbatini, Giacomo Nicolini, Maarten Op de Beeck & Dario Papale
Several meteorological variables need to be measured at ICOS monitoring stations in order to characterize them, analyse the drivers explaining GHG fluxes, and properly calculate, partition and aggregate these fluxes and their seasonal budgets from eddy covariance (EC) measurements, the storage profile, automatic chambers, etc. This Instruction document deals with all the relevant air characteristics to be measured at ICOS stations, i.e. air temperature (TA), air relative humidity (RH), air pressure (PA), wind speed (WS)...

ICOS Ecosystem Instructions for Ancillary Vegetation Measurements in Mires

Maarten Op de Beeck, Simone Sabbatini & Dario Papale
This Instruction document describes the measurement of Green Area Index (GAI) and Aboveground Biomass (AGB) at ICOS ecosystem stations in mires. The focus of these Instructions is skewed towards rather sparsely vegetated fen and bog mires, as found in boreal and subarctic Europe and with vegetation primarily made up of mosses, herbaceous vascular plants, and dwarf shrubs. Only measurements on mire vegetation comprising one or more of these three plant functional types (PFTs) are hence...

ICOS Ecosystem Instructions for Turbulent Flux Measurements of CO2, Energy and Momentum

Simone Sabbatini & Dario Papale
The eddy covariance (EC) technique allows the calculation of the turbulent fluxes of momentum, energy and matter. CO2, energy and momentum fluxes are covered by this Instruction document. The main variables to be measured are horizontal and vertical wind speed, wind direction, CO2 and H2O density, and sonic temperature. Other variables used for the calculation of the fluxes but not directly linked to the EC measurement stage (e.g. air temperature and pressure), are included in...

ICOS Data Policy

In this document, the general ICOS data policy principles are described. The aim of this data policy is to guarantee a smooth data flow from the ICOS RI National Networks, Central Facilities and Carbon Portal to the users to provide open, easy access to ICOS data and develop user-driven services for user communities (e.g. to scientists, national and international agencies, local authorities, general public). To achieve ICOS RI objectives, General Assembly of the ICOS ERIC...

Uncertainty analysis for calculations of the marine carbonate system for ICOS-Oceans stations

Tobias Steinhoff & Ingunn Skjelvan

ICOS Ocean Station Labelling Step 2

, Ingunn Skjelvan, Roman Battisti, Emil Jeansson, Camilla Landa, Are Olson, Benjamin Pfeil, Anne Rutgersson, Tobias Steinhoff &
The intent of this document is to provide an overview of step 2 of the labelling process of ICOS ocean stations. Section 2 of this document summarises the core variables for each of the station categories: Ship of Opportunity Program (SOOP lines), Repeat Ocean Sections (ROS), Fixed Ocean Stations (FOS), and Marine Flux Towers (MFT). This station type distinction will be maintained throughout the document. Section 3 of this document summarises the required documents to...

ICOS Ecosystem Instructions for Site Characterization Measurements in Grasslands

Maarten Op de Beeck & Dario Papale
This document describes the measurements to perform at the beginning of the ICOS grassland station operation in order to characterize the site investigated. These characterization measurements are twofold: they include (i) measurements of species presence to characterize the grassland in terms of botanical composition, and (ii) measurements of Aboveground Biomass (AGB) in order to define the station characteristic needed for the design of the ancillary vegetation measurements.

ICOS Ecosystem Instructions for Radiation Measurements

Giacomo Nicolini, Simone Sabbatini & Dario Papale
at the ICOS Ecosystem Stations. The following variables are included: - Incoming short-wave radiation (SW_IN) - Outgoing short-wave radiation (SW_OUT) - Diffuse short-wave radiation (SW_DIF) - Incoming long-wave radiation (LW_IN) - Outgoing long-wave radiation (LW_OUT) - Incoming photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD_IN) - Outgoing photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD_OUT) - Diffuse photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD_DIF) - Below canopy photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD_BC_IN) All the following requirements and specifications apply to Class 1 and...

ICOS Ecosystem Instructions for Raw Data Format for CO2 Eddy Covariance Measurements

Simone Sabbatini & Dario Papale
The following document describes the accepted formatting and file structure and name for the submission of continuous eddy covariance raw data in ICOS. This group of variables includes high-frequency measurements of wind speed, sonic temperature and gas concentrations collected by the sonic anemometer Gill HS-50 or HS-100 and the IRGA LICOR LI-7200 or LI-7200RS. Non-CO2 gases are not included in this section.

ICOS Ecosystem Instructions for Soil Samples Collection and Preparation

Denis Loustau, Claudy Jolivet, S├ębastien Lafont, Katja Klumpp, Dario Papale & Dominique Arrouays
This document describes how to collect and prepare soil samples to monitor the soil organic Carbon and Nitrogen Stocks (CNS) within the target area of an EC flux tower. The stocks are calculated for the first meter (0 to 100 cm). The CNS will be determined from simultaneous measurements of soil organic carbon and nitrogen contents and bulk density. Whereas the C and N contents of soil samples are determined by the ETC central laboratory,...

ICOS Ecosystem Instructions for Storage Fluxes Measurements (CO2, H2O, CH4 and N2O)

Giacomo Nicolini & Dario Papale
The storage flux term, added to the turbulent flux estimated by the Eddy Covariance (EC) system, allows for a closer quantification of the true net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of a given scalar (e.g. CO2, H2O, CH4, N2O, temperature) The storage flux of a given scalar C is given by the vertical integration of the scalar rate of change within the control volume. It is measured by sampling a number of points distributed between the ground...

ICOS Ecosystem Instructions for Site Characterization Measurements in Forest

Bert Gielen, Maarten Op de Beeck & Dario Papale
This document describes the measurements to perform at the beginning of the ICOS forest station operation in order to characterize the site investigated. These characterization measurements include (i) measurements of species presence to characterize the forest in terms of botanical composition, (ii) measurements of Aboveground Biomass and (iii) of the Green Area Index.

ICOS Atmosphere Station Specifications V2.0 (editor: O. Laurent)

This document describes the ICOS specifications for atmosphere stations, which typically consist of a set of integrated analyzers that reside in a shelter with an air intake system that collects air on a mast. The document groups the main atmospheric specification into: measurement set up (chap. 2), measurement protocols (chap. 3), calibration and standards (chap. 4), data management (chap. 5) and quality management (chap. 6). The atmosphere Monitoring Station Assembly (MSA) meets regularly (at least...

ICOS Ecosystem Instructions for Ancillary Vegetation Measurements in Grasslands

Maarten Op de Beeck, Simone Sabbatini & Dario Papale
This document describes the measurement of ancillary vegetation variables at ICOS ecosystem stations in grasslands. These variables include Green Area Index (GAI), Aboveground Biomass (AGB), and litter biomass, and are in summary measured with the following methods: - GAI and AGB are assessed from direct measurements by destructive sampling and from plate meter measurements of bulk vegetation height, which are combined in a double sampling design. Destructive sampling involves clipping vegetation to a site-specific stubble...

ICOS Ecosystem Instructions for Foliar Samples Collection and LMA Ratio Determination

Denis Loustau, Christelle Aluome & Dario Papale
The nutritional status of the canopy foliage in terms of macronutrients (C, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn) has a strong influence on the carbon cycle and energy balance of terrestrial ecosystems and therefore on the energy, water and greenhouse gas fluxes between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. The leaf mass to area ratio, LMA, is also a widely used leaf functional trait the spatial and temporal variations of which are essential...

ICOS Ecosystem Instructions for Plant Species Reporting

Guido Pellis & Dario Papale
This Instruction document describes the procedure to report plant species present in the ICOS stations to the ETC. The species classification (to be done in the field or in the lab) is not discussed here because it is a standard procedure that must be done by experts in the station team. The reference nomenclature has to follow the approach of The Plant List database (http://www.theplantlist.org), where multiple taxonomic data sources were merged taking into consideration...

ICOS Ecosystem Instructions for AccuPAR LP-80 Ceptometer Instrument Use

Maarten Op de Beeck, Simone Sabbatini & Dario Papale
This document explains Green Area Index measurements with the AccuPAR LP-80 PAR/LAI Ceptometer, here simply called AccuPAR, at ICOS ecosystem stations. It describes how to set up the instrument and how to carry out the measurements at each measurement plot following the spatial scheme explained in the Instructions documents for Ancillary Vegetation Measurements. It also explains how output files from the instrument are structured.

ICOS Ecosystem Instructions for Soil Meteorological Measurements (TS, SWC, G)

Maarten Op de Beeck, Simone Sabbatini & Dario Papale
This document describes how to organize, set up, and collect the measurements of soil-meteorological variables at ICOS ecosystem stations. These variables are soil temperature, volumetric soil water content, and soil heat flux density. Measurements of water table depth, another soil-meteorological variable, are explained in a separate Instructions document. This document is structured in four different sections with the aim to facilitate the use and application: - Measurements: in this section the sensors, setup and methods...

ICOS Ecosystem Instructions for Raw Data Format for CO2 Storage Measurements

Simone Sabbatini, Giacomo Nicolini & Dario Papale
The following document describes the accepted formatting and file structure and name for the submission of 1 Hz storage raw data in ICOS. This group of variables includes the whole storage system (gas concentrations, including water vapour, air temperature and air humidity) installed following the respective ICOS protocols and instruction documents.

ICOS Ecosystem Instructions for Site Characterization Measurements in Mires

Maarten Op de Beeck, Bert Gielen & Dario Papale
This document describes the measurements to perform at mire stations for the characterization of the site investigated. These measurements are performed at the beginning of the ICOS operation of the station and are aimed at assessing the spatial heterogeneity of the mire vegetation. More specifically, they are done (i) to identify the main plant community types that make up the target area and (ii) to evaluate the representativeness of Continuous Measurements Plots (CPs). The methodology...

ICOS Ecosystem Instructions for Precipitation Measurements

Giacomo Nicolini & Dario Papale
Precipitation is one of the most important abiotic variables related to plant growth. Considering the spatial variability of precipitation in relation to the area of interest (Eddy covariance system footprint), a single point measurement would satisfy the requirement as ancillary variable in ICOS. This measurement includes all precipitation in liquid and solid form: rain, snowfall (water content where applicable) sleet, graupel and hail. When the snow cumulates on the soil, also the snow depth has...

ICOS Ecosystem Instructions for SS1 SunScan Canopy Analysis Ceptometer Use

Maarten Op de Beeck, Simone Sabbatini & Dario Papale
This document explains Green Area Index measurements with the SS1 SunScan Canopy Analysis System, here simply called Sunscan, at ICOS ecosystem stations. It describes how to set up the instrument and how to carry out the measurements at each measurement plot following the spatial scheme explained in the Instructions documents for Ancillary Vegetation Measurements. It also explains how output files from the instrument are structured.

ICOS Ecosystem Instructions for Use the ICOS BADM

Dario Papale, Eleonora Canfora & Diego Polidori
The ICOS BADM (Biological, Ancillary, Disturbance and Metadata) is the system used to submit non-continuous data, metadata and information to the ICOS ETC. It is based on an international system agreed across the flux networks globally (in particular between AmeriFlux and the European Database) but adapted to the specific needs of ICOS. In this document the general structure of the ICOS BADM, the different type of variables and the options are described. Then instructions on...

ICOS Ecosystem Instructions for Ancillary Vegetation Measurements in Croplands

Bert Gielen, Maarten Op de Beeck & Dario Papale
This document describes the measurement of ancillary vegetation variables at ICOS ecosystem stations in croplands. These variables are Green Area Index (GAI), Aboveground Biomass (AGB), and litter biomass. In summary, they are measured for the following aims and with the following methods: - GAI is measured to explain seasonal variation in ecosystem-atmosphere fluxes and is measured either directly by destructive sampling or indirectly with a linear ceptometer. Indirect measurements are compared against direct measurements from...

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