885 Works

Eco-friendly-made selenium products of mushroom origin for use in agriculture (review)

O. M. Tsivileva

Экзометаболиты почвенных цианобактерий как стратегия выживания в естественных и техногенно нарушенных экосистемах

Л.И. Домрачева, А.И. Фокина, А.Л. Ковина & Т.Я. Ашихмина
В обзоре проведён анализ литературных данных и результатов собственных исследований об экологической роли экзометаболитов (ЭМ) почвенных цианобактерий (ЦБ). Показано, что ЦБ способны синтезировать и выделять в окружающую среду широкий спектр разнообразных органических веществ, в число которых входят полисахариды, сахара, органические кислоты, пептиды, аминокислоты, алкалоиды, антибиотики, токсины. Экссудаты ЦБ становятся местом обитания прокариотных и эукариотных микроорганизмов, вступающих в сложные отношения с цианобактериальным партнёром и обеспечивая ему дополнительные возможности выживания в стрессовых условиях за счёт выделения гидролитических...

Распределение микроскопических грибов в мерзлотной торфяной почве плоскобугристого болота лесотундры

Ю.А. Виноградова, Е.М. Лаптева, В.А. Ковалева & Е.М. Перминова
Исследован комплекс микроскопических грибов в торфяной мерзлотной почве плоскобугристого болота (бассейн нижнего течения р. Печора, лесотундра). Таксономический список включает 42 вида микромицетов, в том числе две формы стерильного мицелия. Отдел Zygomycota представлен 8 видами (19%) из родов Mucor, Mortierellа, Umbelopsis, отдел Ascomycota– 32 видами (76%), среди которых по числу видов доминирует род Penicillium (17 видов). Остальные роды – Alternaria, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Pseudogymnoascus, Chrysosporium, Fusarium, Talaromyces, Trichoderma – представлены единичными видами. Наибольшим видовым разнообразием грибов (38...

Использование космических снимков для определения границ водоёмов и изучения процессов эвтрофикации

Т. И. Кутявина, В. В. Рутман, Т. Я. Ашихмина & В. П. Савиных
Проведено дешифрирование космических снимков со спутника Landsat 5. Определены индексы цвета, мутности, концентрации хлорофилла а, нормализованный вегетационный индекс (NDVI) и нормализованный разностный индекс воды (NDWI) для Белохолуницкого, Омутнинского, Большого Кирсинского и Чернохолуницкого водохранилищ Кировской области. Отмечено, что в условиях высокой мутности и цветности воды наиболее информативными для выявления береговой линии водных объектов являются индексы NDVI и NDWI. В весенний период значения индексов цвета воды, NDVI и NDWI ниже, чем в летний период. Показана возможность проведения...

Отклик почвенной цианобактерии Nostoc paludosum на действие cульфата меди(II) в присутствии глутатиона восстановленного

А.И. Фокина, Е.И. Лялина, Л.В. Трефилова & Т.Я. Ашихмина
Изучено влияние растворов CuSO4 с концентрациями ионов Cu2+, равными 1, 2, 3, 4 и 5 мг/дм3 , с добавлением трипептида – глутатиона восстановленного (GSH) и без него на почвенную цианобактерию (ЦБ) Nostoc paludosum 18. Продолжительность экспозиции культуры с растворами составила 72 часа. В ходе эксперимента наблюдали за формированием биоплёнок ЦБ из гомогената, как за показателем восстановления исходной популяции; измеряли концентрацию растворённого O2 в суспензиях ЦБ; определяли долю клеток ЦБ, способных к образованию формазана из 2,3,5-трифенилтетразолий...

Влияние полисахаридов Hericium erinaceus БП 16 на фагоцитарную активность нейтрофилов крови человека

Т.В. Полежаева, И.Г. Широких, М.И. Сергушкина, Я.И. Назарова, А.А. Широких, А.Н. Худяков, О.О. Зайцева, О.Н. Соломина & И.Г. Патурова

Complex hydrochemical indices evaluating surface water pollution in the area of the acting chemical weapons deсommission facility Maradykovsky on

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The article presents the assessment results of water quality of the samples selected from water bodies in the area of chemical weapons decommission facility in the Kirov region. Some assessment contradiction was marked in contamination level of some watercourses due to high natural iron content. For objective evaluation of water quality it is preferable to use a combinatorial index of water pollution and the specific combinatorial index of water pollution.

Analysis of sewage pollution of the cities in the middle part of the river Vyatka

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Comparative data of middle part of the river Vyatka water pollution with rain water and wastewater of the cities Slobodskoy, Kirovo-Chepetsk, Kirov, Orlov are presented. To reduce the negative impact it is offered to construct a rain water sewer system with facilities for further treatment of surface runoff, to reconstruct the city sewer system for trouble-free diversion of waste water, as well as to upgrade the existing wastewater treatment plant.

Methodological aspects background the use of indicators in the evaluation of ecological state of territories

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Methods of evaluation of the ecological State within the zone of influence of dangerous industrial objects. Invited, along with the use of maximum permissible concentrations for assessing pollution used to compare current performance with the background of the territory. For example, the chemical weapons destruction facility demonstrates the impermanence of background characteristics on the area and time. Provides methods for analysis of the results of environmental monitoring in order to obtain background characteristics of the...

Ecological state of urban soils subject to anthropogenic salinization and pollution (the North-Western District of Moscow as a study case)

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Results of an integrated environmental research of soils in the North-Western District of Moscow are presented. It is found that most of the studied soils have a neutral pH. Despite the low content of water-soluble salts at the period of sampling, a significant share of Na+ and Cl- in the aqueous extract from the soils indicates seasonal soil salinity in consequence of de-icing agents. All soils have high levels of mobile forms of some heavy...

Comprehensive monitoring of the ecological state urbanozem by biological indicators (on the example of Saratov)

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An environmental monitoring of soil cover urban landscapes - urbanozem. Studied biological and enzymatic activity, microbial composition of soils of different functional zones of cities of Saratov (on the major road junctions in the areas of industrial enterprises in parks and residential areas).A comparative analysis of the environmental indicators of the investigated soils with varying degrees of anthropogenic load. The change of major ecological and physiological groups of microorganisms in a sample of soil Saratov....

Transformation of vegetation, soils, and soil microbiota in the impact zone of the coal mine «Vorkutinskaya»

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The article is devoted to investigation of vegetation, soils, and soil microbiota in the impact area of the coal mine «Vorkutinskaya» located in the Vorkuta industrial region (Komi Republic, Russia). Area around coal mining is divided into three impact zones (impact zone, buffer zone and background). The impact zone near mine dumps is being overgrown with grassy plants which ratio in projective cover is 40%. Soils contain increased amounts of barium and strontium as compared...

Study of the effect of fluoropolymer production wastes on barley Elf

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Studies on the action of the mother liquors (ML) waste production of fluoropolymers SCF-26 and SCF-32 and their dilutions showed that these compounds affect the growth and development of plants of spring barley varieties Elf as by direct contact (irrigation plots) in a field experiment, and in consequence in determining some morphometric parameters of plants and the accumulation of fluoride ions in different organs. It was found that increasing the concentration of solution components lead...

Greening the production of aluminum products

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Decrease in harmful effects on environment of the chemical companies making ftorpolimer by use of their waste at production of products, is an actual task. In work possibility of use of liquid production wastes of ftorpolimer for receiving composite electrochemical coverings «aluminum oxide – политетрафторэтилен» is shown because liquid waste contains in the structure part of a target product - a ftorpolimer. Replacement of the widespread anodized aluminum by the aluminum covered with a composite...

Action of the new ecdysteroid containing preparation serpisten on the behavior and cellular adaptation in rats under heat stress

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We investigated the action of phytoecdysteroid preparation Serpisten on the behavior of Wistar rats and a content of two stress proteins 70 in liver, heart and brain. Administration of Serpisten in total dose 12 mg/kg led to activation of rat’s motor and exploratory activity. Some elements of anxiety, which enhanced by heat stress, have been also noted. Combination of Serpisten delivering and heat stress gave increase of adrenals weight. Serpisten takes part in stressreaction of...

Perspectives of use of preparations, developed on the basis of phytoercdysteroids in the treatment of giardiasi

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Ability of the preparation Ecdysten, developed on the basis of phytoecdysteroid ecdysteron, isolated from Rhaponticum carthamoides (Willd) Iljin, to eliminate Giardia lamblia in treatment of giardiasis as a mono-infection in immunocompetent individuals and co-infection in patients with intensive immunological disorders (patients with tuberculosis and HIV-infected individuals) was studied. A high dose-depending efficiency of Ecdysten in treatment of giardiasis was shown as well as ability to correct some immunological and biochemical disturbances, including decrease of elevated...

Studies on the effect of aluminum compounds on test organisms in a model experiment

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Antitoxic activity of 1,5-diphenyl-3-selenapentadion-1,5 (DAPS) and its chloride, fluoride- and nitro derivatives at poisoning rats with lead nitrate was investigated. Compound DAPS is the most effective antitoxicant. It is suggested by normalizing biochemical and clinical parameters of rat’s blood. The other compounds didn’t have antitoxic activity

Geoecological basis of increasing efficiency of agricultural lands use (by the example of Cechen Republic)

The article contains peculiarities of the agricultural lands use in Chechen Republic. Moreover, it gives scientifically grounded recommendations about the agricultural lands usage efficiency improvement in the in specific environment of the region.

Actinomycetes’ reaction on the key factors of urbangeneous soil contamination in a model experiment

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In laboratory microcosms actinomycetes’ number varying was studied under the influence of such factors as soil alkalizing and soil contamination with lead. The reaction of certain actinomycetes’ complex elements, such as streptomyces, micromonospores and oligospores forms, on the impact of urbangeneous factors is described.

Deficiency of fluoride and incidence of caries of the population in the Jewish Autonomous Region

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We investigated the long-term and age trends in the dynamics of annual radial increment of Pinus sylvestris L., growing in the southern sector of the Kola Peninsula. In the analysis of dendrochronological series, the method of environmental reconstruction of the growth process for removing the age trend was used. Statistically significant long-term and age trends to reduce the width of annual rings and to increase stability for the studied group of plants were identified.

Implementation of the system of ecological control and monitoring at the chemical weapons storage and decommission plant in Maradykovsky Settlementin Kirov region

Information is presented on the ecological control and monitoring system that has been exploited for 6 years in the area of the chemical weapons storage and decommission plant in Maradykovsky Settlement in Kirov region.. There was made a review of the work on organization of ecological monitoring and the data are presented describing the environmental state in the area of the plant operation, and the safety zone, and at the industrial site of the chemical...

Interrelation Between Phyto- And Zooplankton In Karst Lakes

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Characteristic of phyto-and zooplankton in two karst lakes is present. The sizes groups of phytoplankton and feeding types groups of zooplankton were distinguished. The both changes of quantitative indicators of phyto- and zooplankton during vegetative season were analyzed. The dependences between different groups of phyto- and zooplankton biomasses were shown. It is stated that the size of the algae cells consumed by zooplankton is less than 30 microns.

Ecological problems of utilizing fluoroplastic wastes

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The ways of processing fluoroplastic wastes that are the most suitable from the ecological and economic point of view are characterized in the article. Advantages and disadvantages of grinding methods, methods of thermal destruction and aggregation of polytetrafluoroethylene are shown.

Вiological problems of the first colonizers of the Earth

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Microorganisms (bacteria and cyanobacteria) are the first colonizers of our planet. They have characteristic properties and features which the Nature used at the stages of biological evolution of the organic world. Bacteria and cyanobacteria have always been living in biocenoses which have social relations. These social relations are the beginning of social relations of the vegetative and animal worlds. Bacteria can use chemical and electromagnetic signals for information.

Role and meaning of natural resourses at working out ecologically balanced development of the region

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The characteristic of the total resource potential of the regions of the Russian Federation is given in the article. The results of placing the resource potential on the territory of the RF as well as the difference between the RF regions in the level of resource potential are shown. The authors have worked out qualitative and quantitative indexes, on the basis of these indexes they classify the territories according to the level of ecological-economic balance...

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Affiliations

  • Vyatka State University
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  • Russian Academy of Sciences
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