116 Works

Safe Patient Care (Nurse to Patient and Midwife to Patient Ratios) Amendment Bill 2018: Bill Brief

Bella Lesman, Marianne Aroozoo & Alice Petrie
In 2015, the Andrews Labor Government in Victoria was the first jurisdiction in Australia and the second in the world (following California in 1999), to legislate nurse-to-patient and midwife-to-patient ratios, thus enshrining in law minimum staffing levels. The ratios applied in Victoria were those set out in the existing nurses and midwives’ Victorian Public Sector Enterprise Agreement, and applied to certain wards and services in hospitals covered by the Enterprise Agreement.Following the introduction of the...

APO Digital Inclusion Collection: a look back into the archive (April 2019)

Chris Wilson
The Internet Society is a not-for-profit organisation founded in 1992 to provide leadership in Internet related standards, development and policy. The organisation's guiding vision 'The Internet is for Everyone' reflects its ongoing commitment to digital inclusion. Since 2014, the Internet Society has published a series of Global Internet Reports that showcase topics central to the Internet Society's mission. The APO Digital Inclusion collection includes all four reports published to date.The first Global Internet Report, released...

The viability of electrical energy storage for Lochiel Park households

Peter Pudney, Adrian Grantham, Lesley A. Ward, David Whaley & John Boland
Distributed electrical energy storage can help reduce the CO2 emissions associated with the use of electrical energy, better enabling distributed generation of energy from sources such as rooftop photovoltaic (PV) systems. However, electricity distribution systems were not designed to allow power to flow from consumers to the grid, limiting how much power can be exported from rooftop PV systems. Falling feed-in tariffs are also making it more cost-effective to store excess PV energy on site,...

Above-roof temperature impacts on heating penalties of large cool roofs in Australian climates: interim report

Wenye Lin, Alan Green, Georgios Kokogiannakis & Paul Cooper
This is the first interim report for project RP1037u1, an extension to the recently completed project RP1037 ‘Driving increased utilisation of cool roofs on large footprint buildings’. Progress so-far in the project and preliminary findings have been summarised in this report.The research has been focused on two key aspects of roof thermal performance that had, up until the time of writing, not been taken into account in most investigations into cool roof technology:1. The condensation...

Low carbon inclusions in Commonwealth and NSW government built environment sector procurement

Charlie Hargroves
This report forms part of the deliverables for the CRC for Low Carbon Living project RP2010 'Informing and Trialling Low Carbon Inclusions in State Government Built Environment Sector Tenders'. The project is being undertaken in collaboration with UrbanGrowth NSW by Curtin University. The project is designed to collaborate with industry and state government to investigate ways to appropriately enhance the low carbon outcomes of built environment projects, initially focused on land development projects, through the project...

Preliminary design of a smart climatic road in Phillip St. Parramatta

Mattheos Santamouris, Gloria Pignatta, Shamila Haddad, Riccardo Paolini, Carlos Bartesaghi Koc, Marco Brozzetti, Samin Marzban, Jie Feng, Kai Gao & Geraldo Sansone
The present study is aiming to pre-design and optimize a smart climatic street in Parramatta, named Phillip st., exhibiting high climatic, environmental, and energy performance.The specific objective of the study is to propose, investigate, and optimize the combination of advanced thermal mitigation and smart technologies to improve thermal comfort and mitigate the urban overheating in the area.To satisfy the above described objective, the whole study involves the following research phases:Phase 1: Aerial monitoring of the...

Greening suburban travel: interim report on (sub)urban travel demand analysis

Callum Sleep & Sekhar V.C. Somenahalli
From the end of World War Two, the use of public transport in Australian cities declined as the automobile industry grew and car ownership increased rapidly. Over time the car has evolved beyond being a means of transportation into being a subject of interest and a cherished part of their lifestyle for many people. In Australia, the car population is growing faster than the human population, and more than 90 per cent of Australians live...

Greening urban and suburban travel: current situation, challenges, opportunities and emerging trends

Hussein Dia, Stephen Cook, Sekhar V.C. Somenahalli & John Stone
Prospects for the decarbonising of Australian cities will depend on opportunities for a reduction of transport energy use. This project focuses on the most significant challenge to Green House Gas reduction in urban transport -- specifically, that relating to provision of public transport and active travel options for low density suburban areas that are currently car dependent. As part of the interim deliverables for this project, the research team has undertaken an environmental scan of...

Lower income barriers to low carbon living: policy pathways to addressing barriers

Edgar Liu, Bruce Judd & Sarath Mataraarachchi
This is the second and final report for the Cooperative Research Centre for Low Carbon Living research project RP3038, Lower income barriers to low carbon living. The first report, Summary of focus group and survey findings, detailed the findings from our focus group discussions with lower income households across four Australian jurisdictions. This final report focuses on the suggestions put forward by these lower income households during the focus group discussions and the stakeholders during...

Transformation to Low Carbon Living – Social psychology of low carbon behavioural practice (RP3012)

Lean V. O’Brien, Ilona McNeil & Yoshihisa Kashima
This document is the final report for a CRC Low Carbon Living project called “Transformation to Low Carbon Living: Social psychology of low carbon behavioural practice". As outlined in the introduction, the purpose of this project was to identify low carbon behaviours and then both (a) develop a short measure that could be used to measure psychological readiness in people for engaging in low carbon behaviour and (b) provide a social psychological foundation for understanding...

The tenant's role in creating the business case for high performance low-carbon buildings: systematic literature review and post occupancy evaluation

Subha Parida
The ultimate test of the business case for high performance low carbon building is to consider how the human benefits of these buildings could be reliably quantified to prove beyond all doubt the positive Return on Investment (ROI). After all, staff costs, including salaries and benefits, typically account for about 90% of business operating costs. Therefore, what may appear a modest improvement in employee health or productivity can have a huge financial implication for employers...

Leading the way: low carbon policies and measures in Australia’s capital cities

Philip Harrington
In Australia, capital cities are increasingly stepping forward to offer leadership on greenhouse gas abatement to a degree not evident at the national level nor in many states and territories.In 2016, over 82% of all Australian local governments had zero emissions targets for their operations, while 18% had similar targets for their communities.Major cities such as Melbourne and Adelaide are committed to achieving zero carbon cities by or before 2020, while Canberra and Sydney are...

Precinct Information Modelling – project progress report

Jim Plume, John Mitchell & David Marchant
This report outlines the scope and progress of work that has been undertaken as part of the PIM Project for the CRC for Low Carbon Living. It is recognised that the project has suffered setbacks in its collaboration with other CRC projects, but the report makes the case that the core deliverables have progressed strongly and the project has made significant contributions to the development of international (and therefore, national) standards for modelling the built...

Enhancing the market for energy efficient homes: implementing a national voluntary disclosure system for the energy performance of existing homes

Henry Adams, Matthew Clark & Jonathan Potts
This report and eight associated working papers are a deliverable for the Project RP3016: ‘Enhancing the market for low-carbon homes at point of sale and lease’ funded by the CRC for Low Carbon Living. This project is publicly known as the EnergyFit Homes Project: empowering consumers to recognise and value homes with better health, comfort and sustainability benefits and lower running costs.The EnergyFit Homes Project seeks to develop a pathway for enhancing the market for...

Scenarios 2040

Chris Ryan, Paul Twomey, A Idil Gaziulusoy, Stephen McGrail & Paul Chandler
Read the the Visions & Pathways 2040's second year project report on the potential contributions of the digital economy to low-carbon futures for Australian cities

Lower income barriers to low carbon living: summary of focus group and survey findings

Edgar Liu & Bruce Judd
The research reported in this summary of findings identifies the financial and non-financial barriers that prevent lower income households from reducing their carbon consumption.This research is designed as a follow-up to the data mining exercise (CRC-LCL RP3001) conducted by Burke and Ralston. In their report, Burke and Ralston (2015) identified rising fuel costs as a major factor in lower income household’s adoption of adaptive behavours to reducing their carbon consumption. They found that “low income...

Carbon reductions and co-benefits: final report

Michelle Philp, Michael A. P. Taylor & Susan Thompson
Project RP2015 was a scoping study designed to inform the CRCLCL on the research and development needs to maximise potential health and productivity co-benefits of low carbon planning and design for precincts. This report provides a review of international research on co-benefits, examining and discussing current Australian policies in this area. Co-benefits are defined to be ancillary benefits – such as public health and productivity gains – that result from intentional decisions to address low carbon...

Carbon Value Engineering: integrated carbon and cost reduction strategies for building design

Mehdi Robati, Philip F. Oldfield, Ali Akbar Nezhad & David Carmichael
The Carbon Value Engineering project aims to maximise the reduction of embodied carbon in the built environment. Rather than proposing a new process for these reductions, it adapts the industry-standard practice of value engineering (VE) for integrated carbon and cost minimisation. The project set out to answer two research questions:What is the impact of value engineering in its current form on building embodied carbon, and life-cycle carbon emissions?To what extent can the process of value engineering...

Digital news report: Australia 2019

Caroline Fisher, Sora Park, Jee Young Lee, Glen Fuller & Yoonmo Sang
The Digital News Report: Australia 2019 finds only 9% of Australian online news consumers would prioritise paying for news over a video streaming services such as Netflix, Amazon or Stan (34%).The report also finds 62% of Australians are concerned about what is real or fake on the internet and many are taking action to combat it by fact-checking.Australians have also given the news media mixed report card:News Performance66% think the news media does a good...

Value based health care: setting the scene for Australia

Kylie Woolcock
Australians have had access to universal health care for more than 30 years. However, our health care system is not immune to pressures of an ageing population, a growing burden of chronic disease, increasing life expectancy, increasing individual and community expectations, and escalating healthcare costs associated with new technology and treatments.Many health care systems around the world are facing similar challenges and are looking to maximise the value of health care for populations, narrowing the...

The 2018 Victorian State Election

Bella Lesman, Alice Petrie, Debra Reeves, Caley Otter, Holly McLean, Marianne Aroozoo & Jon Breukel
This paper examines the 2018 Victorian state election, providing description and analysis of the results in two main sections. Part A provides an overview of the election campaign, key policies, news coverage and polling data. Part B provides statistical tables of the results for each district and region. 

APO Digital Inclusion Collection Brief: April 2019

Chris Wilson
Welcome to the first APO Digital Inclusion Brief. These monthly snapshots will introduce some of the latest offerings from academia, government and non-government sources available in the APO Digital Inclusion Collection. This month there is a brief discussion of the ACMA’s Communication Report for 2018 and a more extensive look at the digital inclusion component of the Regional Telecommunications Independent Review Committee’s 2018 report and the government’s response to the digital inclusion recommendations posed in this...

Reducing harms related to alcohol use in pregnancy: policy and practice recommendations

Amy Finlay-Jones
The widespread use of alcohol during pregnancy is a significant public health concern in Australia. Prenatal exposure to alcohol, caused by maternal alcohol use in pregnancy, increases the risk of miscarriage, stillbirth, and FASD. Individuals living with FASD experience lifelong neurodevelopmental impairments across a range of areas, and are at increased risk of secondary disabilities, including mental illness, disengagement from education and the workforce, and contact with the justice system.Despite National Health and Medical Research...

Facilitating end user deployment of off‐site renewable generation: final project report

Emily Mitchell & Graham Mills
Internationally, there is a trend towards end users procuring electricity from offsite Renewable Energy (RE) facilities located at physical premises distinct from the point of end use. In 2015, end user Power Purchase Agreements (PPAs) in the United States underpinned more new wind capacity than renewable energy portfolio standards (RPS). First mover companies such as Google, Amazon, Facebook, and Microsoft are now being joined by manufacturing and retail businesses like Ikea, Volkswagen, General Motors, and Dow Chemical.This...

Performance assessment of urban precinct design: a scoping study

Peter Newton, David Marchant, John Mitchell, Jim Plume, Seongwon Seo & Rob Roggema
Executive Summary: Significant advances have been made over the past decade in the development of scientifically and industry accepted tools for the performance assessment of buildings in terms of energy, carbon, water, indoor environment quality etc. For resilient, sustainable low carbon urban development to be realised in the 21st century, however, will require several radical transitions in design performance beyond the scale of individual buildings. One of these involves the creation and application of leading edge...

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