662 Works

7.2.5 High-speed Chemical Imaging System Based on Front-side-illuminated LAPS

Akinori Itabashi, Naoki Kosaka, Ko-Ichiro Miyamoto, Torsten Wagner & Tatsuo Yoshinobu
The chemical imaging sensor is a Si-based chemical sensor that visualizes the spatial distribution of a specific ion in the solution contacted with the sensing surface. It is based on the principle of the lightaddressable potentiometric sensor (LAPS), in which a modulated light beam is used to read out the ion concentration in the form of photocurrent. Since the conventional chemical imaging sensor uses a scanning light beam for mapping the distribution of the ion...

2.3.4 3D Rekonstruktion der Magnetfeldvektoren Bx, By, Bz in Cern, Schweiz. 3D Single Chip Hall Sensor 5 Tesla, PHE Fehler 20 ppm.

H. Hoeben
Die genaue Messung von starken Magnetfeldern ist heute zum Beispiel mit NMR Messgeräten möglich. NMR Messergebnisse sind jedoch mit dem Nachteil behaftet, dass nur die Stärke des Magnetfeldes gemessen wird, nicht jedoch die Richtung des Magnetfeldes. Hall Sensoren ermöglichen die Messung sowohl der Stärke des Magnetfeldes als auch dessen Richtung. Dies ermöglicht einen völlig neuen Lösungsansatz in Cern (Europäische Organisation für Kernforschung), durch den Einsatz des neu entwickelten dreidimensionalen, würfelförmigen Hall Sensor Modules HE444. Der...

2.1.4 Piezoelektret-Beschleunigungsaufnehmer mit integriertem Impedanzwandler

J. Hillebrand, S. Haberzettl & G. M. Sessler
Auf Piezoelektretfolien basierende Beschleunigungsaufnehmer können sowohl mit Ladungs- als auch mit Spannungsverstärkern betrieben werden, wobei im letzteren Fall ein abgeschirmter hochohmiger Impedanzwandler in unmittelbarer Nähe der Folien platziert werden sollte. Für die vorliegende Arbeit wurden daher Piezoelektret-Beschleunigungsaufnehmer mit im Metallgehäuse integriertem Feldeffekttransistor (FET) und bis zu drei gestapelten Piezoelektret-Folien entwickelt und gebaut. Die Charakterisierung erfolgte mit Hilfe eines elektrodynamischen Schwingungserregers im Frequenzbereich von 10 Hz bis 8 kHz. Neben dem Frequenzgang der Empfindlichkeit wurden auch...

P2.7.7 Detection of Reducing Gases in Air: Experiment and Theory

Leonid I. Trakhtenberg, Genrikh N. Gerasimov, Tatyana V. Belysheva, Mortko A. Kozhushner, Vladimir. F. Gromov & Olusegun J. Ilegbusi
The sensor responses (com) of SnO2 + In2O3 and ZnO + In2O3 nanocomposite films to H2 and CO in air are investigated for varying oxide compositions. Sensor properties of the In2O3 + SnO2 composite are determined by the interaction between components, which leads to the transfer of electrons from In2O3 to SnO2. The degree of electron transfer increases under the action of reducing gases that is the cause of an increase in com when added...

7.1.4 Monitoring breath carbon monoxide gas using micro thermoelectric sensor

D. Nagai, T. Nakashima, M. Nishibori, T. Itoh, N. Izu & W. Shin
The CO gas, which is several ppm level in the human breath, is used for medical examination. In this study, CO combustion catalysts of Au, Pt and Pd loaded on CoO on the thermoelectric gas sensor (TGS) were developed and the combustion performance of these catalysts was evaluated. We have demonstrated that the micro-THS detected the CO concentration in air from low as 1 ppm to high as 1 vol%. The noise voltage level of...

P2.2.11 Electrochemical cell with electrically addressable cantilever arrays

Konrad Nieradka, Piotr Paletko, Daniel Kopiec, Teodor Gotszalk, Piotr Grabiec, Pawel Janus, Grzegorz Schroeder & Tadeusz Ossowski
In this paper, an electrochemical measurement cell with electrically addressable cantilever arrays is presented. The cell allows 3-electrode configuration electrochemical measurements, including cyclic voltamperometry and potentiometry. It also allows a readout laser beam to be passed through an optical window to monitor bending of cantilevers in specially designed electrochemical cantilever arrays. The cantilever arrays incorporate electric connections to the gold layers of individual cantilevers, enabling each one to be biased independently. Combined, these features allow...

7.4.6 New Approaches to Chemical Sensing for Application in Environmental Monitoring

Julian Gardner
There has been considerable research into the development of arrays of partially-sensitive chemical sensors coupled with pattern recognition techniques in order to mimic the sense of smell. The resulting technologies have been of limited success in the field of environmental monitoring and here we briefly consider some of these sensor technologies and their limitations; in term of sensitivity, selectivity, response time, and practical application. Examples of application space for so-called electronic noses are traditionally food...

3.2.1 Langzeitstabile Messung und Regelung des Sauerstoffpartialdruckes bei hohen Temperaturen

M. Schulz, H. Fritze & Ch. Stenzel
Die Untersuchung von Materialparametern bei hohen Temperaturen erfordert in vielen Fällen Methoden zur Messung und Regelung des Sauerstoffpartialdruckes (pO2). Ein Beispiel bildet die Bestimmung der Viskosität von Metallen bei Schwebeschmelzversuchen. Bei diesem Verfahren wird eine leitfähige Probe mit Hilfe eines elektrischen Wechselfeldes zum Schweben gebracht und geschmolzen. Somit ist eine berührungslose Ermittlung von Viskosität und Oberflächenspannung ohne zusätzliche Verunreinigung der Materialien möglich. Undefinierte Atmosphären müssen vermieden werden, da es in Abhängigkeit des Materialsystems bereits bei...

7.1.3 Breath acetone monitoring by portable Si:WO3 gas sensors

M. Righettoni, A. Tricoli, S. Gass, S. E. Pratsinis, A. Schmid & A. Amann
Breath analysis has the potential for early stage detection and monitoring of illnesses to drastically reduce the corresponding medical costs. Here, a portable acetone sensor consisting of flame-deposited and in-situ annealed, Si-doped epsilon-WO3 nanostructured films was developed. The chamber volume was miniaturized, reaction- and diffusion-limited gas flow rates were identified and sensing temperatures were optimized resulting in low limits of detection and short responses at realistic relative humidities. The acetone content in the breath of...

1.1.3 Al-doped TiO2 semiconductor gas sensor for NO2-detection at elevated temperatures

A. Yüce & B. Saruhan
Al-doped TiO2 semiconductor layers were investigated as gas sensor for NOx detection at temperatures up to 800°C. Thin sensor layers were deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering technique from the metallic targets of Ti and Al under addition of oxygen onto the alumina substrates which consisted of screen-printed interdigited Ptelectrodes on the front and no heater at the backside. Al-content was adjusted to 6 atm. % in TiO2. The layers were characterized by XRD and SEM...

P1.9.18 A MEMS based compact natural gas analyzer implementing IEEE-1451.2 and BS-7986 smart sensor standards

S. Udina, J. Bosch, A. Pardo, C. Calaza & S. Marco
A compact natural gas analyzer prototype is presented which incorporates several advanced features. In first place a very recently reported MEMS sensing technology for properties determination of natural gas mixtures is implemented. Besides, the prototype is a very complete smart instrument incorporating fault detection, selfidentification to a network and measurement quality metrics (self validation or SEVA), provided by the combination of the IEEE-1451 and BS-7986 smart sensor standards. Experimental measurements are presented for calibration and...

8.4.2 Gas Sensing Properties of Novel CuO Nanowire Devices

S. Steinhauer, E. Brunet, T. Maier, G. C. Mutinati, A. Köck & O. Freudenberg
We report on novel gas sensing devices which are realized by the on-chip synthesis of cupric oxide (CuO) nanowires during the thermal oxidation of electroplated copper microstructures. By this method, it is possible to fabricate conductometric gas sensors with an electrical resistance dominated by a multitude of suspended CuO nanowires resulting in a huge sensor surface area. For these devices, resistance changes during exposure to different oxygen concentrations, to relative humidity and to small concentrations...

Ortsaufgelöste in-situ Beladungsdiagnose von Diesel-Partikelfiltern

G. Hagen, A. Piontkowski, A. Müller, D. Brüggermann & R. Moos
Der Einsatz von Partikelfiltern in dieselbetriebenen Fahrzeugen ist notwendig, um die strengen gesetzlichen Emissionsgrenzwerte einzuhalten. Dabei wird im diskontinuierlichen Betrieb ein im Abgasstrang eingebautes Filterelement mit Ruß beladen und mit erhöhtem Kraftstoffaufwand durch Erhöhung der Abgastemperatur wieder regeneriert. Für den effizienten Betrieb eines solchen Systems, also z.B. zur Bestimmung eines geeigneten Regenerationszeitpunkts, ist es wünschenswert, die im Filter enthaltene Rußmenge und deren Verteilung genau zu kennen. Durch Kontaktierung einzelner Kanäle innerhalb des Filters konnte eine...

P2.4.18 MBE growth of GaN nanowires on Si(111) substrates for gas sensor applications

Z. R. Zytkiewicz, M. Sobanska, K. Klosek, A. Reszka, A. Wierzbicka, R. Kruszka, K. Golaszewska, M. Setkiewicz & T. Pustelny
GaN nanowires (NWs) were grown on Si(111) substrates by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PAMBE). The NWs nucleated spontaneously, no catalyst was used for their growth. SEM studies show that the NWs are homogenously distributed and well aligned with the c-axis being perpendicular to the substrate, while TEM analysis reveals their high crystalline quality. No GaN wetting layer between NWs was detected. Two types of NWs-based gas sensors were prepared. Our preliminary tests in NO2, NH3...

P1.6.5 NASICON-based CO2 sensor operative at room temperature with Li2CO3-based auxiliary as a sensing electrode

Kenji Obata & Shigenori Matsushima
A Potentiometric NASICON (Na3Zr2Si2PO12)-based CO2 sensor operative at room temperature was fabricated by combining with a metal oxide (ITO: indium tin oxide) and Li2CO3-In2O3 (4:1 in molar ratio) auxiliary as a sensing electrode, and its CO2 sensing properties were examined under 30% RH (relative humidity) in the temperature range of 30 to 100 °C. When the Li2CO3-In2O3-attached sensor was operated in the range of 250 to 2500 ppm CO2 at 30 °C, the EMF (electromotive...

1.2.5 Optimization of Spirulina Biofilm for in-situ Heavy Metals Detection with Microfluidic-Acoustic Sensor and AFM

N. Tekaya, H. Gammoudi, V. Raimbault, D. Rebière, C. Dejous, H. Tarbague, T. Cohen-Bouhacina, F. Moroté, N. Sakly, B. Ouada Haf., B. Ouada Hat., N. Jaffrezic-Renault & F. Lagarde
Arthrospira platensis, called spirulina (Sp), is known to bind a wide range of heavy metals. We propose an innovative approach, based on Spirulina as bioreceptor combined with highly sensitive Love wave platform for fast detection of heavy metals in solution. Our goal is to optimize the biofunctionalization of the sensor surface with microalgae, based on real-time responses of the acoustic sensor during Spirulina immobilization then heavy metals detection, combined with atomic force microscopy characterization to...

P2.9.24 Simple graphene based multisensor array for gas analysis

A. Varezhnikov, V. Sysoev, A. Sinitskii, M. Augustin, M. Bruns, M. Sommer & A. Kolmakov
We have developed the fabrication protocols and tested the performance of multisensor arrays based on single graphene sheet operating at room temperature. The first prototypes have been tested against ethanol, isopropanol and methanol vapors mixed with synthetic air to address the healthcare issue of detection of methanol traces in the food and beverages. The vector signal of the multisensor array has been processed by artificial neural network (ANN) trained under back-propagation Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm and showed...

4.2.4 Piezoelectric Olfactory Receptor Biosensor with Aptamer assisted Immobilization Technique

Liping Du, Chunsheng Wu, Ping Wang, He Peng & Luhang Zhao
This paper presents an olfactory receptor-based piezoelectric biosensor for sensitive odor detection, in which aptamer-assisted olfactory receptor immobilization method is employed for the purpose of performance enhancement. Olfactory receptors (ORs) with a his-tag were employed as the sensitive elements. Anti-his aptamers were immobilized covalently onto the gold surface of piezoelectric quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) electrode to capture his-tagged ORs specifically. By this method, the covalent immobilization as well as the purification of ORs was obtained...

Auswertung aktiv erzeugter Körperschallsignale im Fahrzeug

P. Scherrmann, M. Kohlhuber & T. Brandmeier
Das dargestellte Verfahren liefert durch eine optimierte Crasherkennung einen wertvollen Beitrag zur Verbesserung des Insassenschutzes. Durch eine mechanische Vorrichtung in der Crashbox wird ein von der Crashgeschwindigkeit abhängiges Körperschallsignal erzeugt. Das Signal wird über die Fahrzeugkarosserie übertragen und in der Mitte des Fahrzeugs gemessen. Durch ein Modulationsverfahren kann das Körperschallnutzsignal von den Störungen getrennt und somit die ursprüngliche Crashgeschwindigkeit ermittelt werden. Die Auslegung der Signalverarbeitungsschritte erfolgt anhand generisch erzeugter Daten. Der Einfluss der Übertragungsstrecke (Karosserie)...

P1.2.5 Piezosensors for Monitoring Degradation of Automotive Engine Oil

Ali Jasim Mohammed & Marwa Abdul Muhsien Hassan
Effect of heating times on piezoelectric sensing of engine oil has been investigated with different heating times (0, 15, 30, 45 and 60) min. Sensing signals (piezoelectric) characterized and achieved by using transducer which transmits a mechanical waves towards the glucose solution cell, and then the receptor received the attenuated signals. The range of operating frequencies was (950 kHz - 50MHz), the results of measurement which included recording the resonance frequencies (in the first order)...

8.3.3 UV Assisted Chemical Gas Sensing of Nanoporous TiO2 at Low Temperature

Lipeng Liu, Xiaogan Li, Xiaoying Wang, Jun Yu, Zhenan Tang, Jing Wang, Shiwei Li & Jinjun Liao
Nanoporous TiO2 powders were prepared following a two-step method. The highly ordered uniform TiO2 nanotube arrays were first grown by the electrochemical anodization of a Ti metal sheet and subsequently, mechanically milled to obtain the porous TiO2. The obtained nanoporous TiO2 sample contains nanotube-like particles with a length around 400 nm and inner diameter ~100 nm and also some near-spherical TiO2 single crystals with a diameter around 10 nm. The sensing properties of assynthesized nanoporous...

4.3.4 Nanomess- und Nanopositioniergeräte für die nanometergenaue Positionierung und Messung von Oberflächen und Strukturen

E. Manske, G. Jäger, R. Füßl, F. Balzer & H. Baitinger
Nanomess- und Nanopositioniergeräte sind für die nanometergenaue Positionierung und Messung z.B. von Oberflächen und Strukturen, von mechanischen und optischen Präzisionsteilen sowie für die Materialanalyse erforderlich. Die Notwendigkeit, immer kleinere Objekte in immer größeren Raumbereichen zu beherrschen, ergibt sich durch den anhaltenden Fortschritt der Mikro- und Nanotechnologien, insbesondere der Halbleiterindustrie, der Ultrapräzisionsbearbeitung und vieler damit verbundener Technologien. Um die immer größere Breite und Komplexität an Messaufgaben in der Mikro- und Nanotechnologie erfüllen zu können, ist ein...

P2.0.4 Integration of carbon nanotubes to three-dimensional C-MEMS for glucose sensors

Shuang Xi, Tielin Shi, Lei Zhang, Dan Liu, Hu Long, Shiyuan Liu & Zirong Tang
A novel design and fabrication of glucose sensors based on carbon nanotubes (CNT) integrated with carbon microelectromechanical system (C-MEMS) were reported in this work. Photolithography of CNT mixed SU-8 photoresist and the self-assembly of CNTs during the developing process were followed by the controlled pyrolysis process to form CNT integrated three-dimensional C-MEMS electrode array. Immobilization of enzyme onto these electrodes was carried out through co-deposition of glucose oxidase (GOx) and electrochemically polymerized polypyrrole (PPy) for...

P1.9.22 An Electronic Nose Recognition Algorithm Based on PCA-ICA Preprocessing and Fuzzy Neural Network

Weiping Yan, Zhenan Tang, Jun Yang & Guangfen Wei
To improve the recognition performance of electronic noses detecting gas mixtures, a PCA-ICA signal preprocessing and fuzzy neural network based recognition algorithm is proposed. In this approach, signals of electronic noses are firstly preprocessed effectively by combination of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Independent Component Analysis (ICA), and then processed with a fuzzy Takagi- Sugeno system integrated with multi neural networks for the purpose of quantification of gas concentrations. Experiment results show that the alcohol...

2.4.5 Silicon Cantilever Resonators Integrated with Portable Electrostatic Samplers for Sensing and Characterizing Engineered Nanoparticles in Workplace Air

S. Merzsch, H.S. Wasisto, A. Waag, E. Peiner, I. Kirsch, E. Uhde & T. Salthammer
A portable cantilever-based nanoparticle detector (CANTOR) is developed and manufactured for sensing engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) in workplace air by monitoring the resonant frequency shift induced by the mass of the particles trapped on the resonator. A piezoresistive Wheatstone bridge and a miniaturized electrostatic sampler are integrated with the cantilever resonator for signal sensing and ENP collection, respectively. By using the first higher harmonic bending frequency, the sensor exhibited a mass sensitivity of 36.51 Hz/ng, which...

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