45 Works

Investigation and conservation of salt damaged epitaphs in the church of Werben (Saxony-Anhalt, Germany)

Steffen Laue, Dörte Poerschke & Benjamin Hübner
The case study of the St. Johannis church in Werben (Saxony-Anhalt) is one of those instances where conservators and restorers working in the field of building heritage have to find sustainable solutions for a cultural heritage site affected by high humidity levels and salt content for centuries. In the church of Werben, the ground floor of the steeple houses a remarkable collection of predominantly polychrome epitaphs from the 16th – 18th centuries. These epitaphs reflect...

Investigation and examination of a degraded Egyptian painted limestone relief from Tell Hebua (Sinai)

Eid Mertah, Moamen Othman, Mohamed Abdelrahman, Mohamed Fatoh & S. Connor
This paper presents a study bas-relief from the New Kingdom (1550-1070 BC), which was found in Sinai in 2009 and came the Egyptian Museum, Cairo, in a quite challenging condition. The interest of this piece lies in the danger that the salt causes to the block’s surface, and particularly to the pigments of its decoration. The block is sculpted on two opposite sides, which both need to be consolidated, in order to be safely displayed...

Diagnostics and monitoring of moisture and salt in porous materials by evanescent field dielectrometry

Cristiano Riminesi & R. Olmi
Moisture and salts are the main causes of decay of porous materials, like wall paintings, stones, plasters and cement-based artefacts. Water is the ‚driving force‘ of decay, such as the detachment of the painted layer, the whitening of surfaces due to the crystallization of salts (efflorescence), and the weakening of the cementing binder. Early diagnostics of water content and detection of the presence of soluble salts inside the material is a key issue for understanding...

Determination of the water uptake and drying behavior of masonry using a non-destructive method

Amelie Stahlbuhk, Michael Niermann & Michael Steiger
Historic masonry of different types often suffers from various enrichments in surface and near-surface areas. Salts, atmospheric pollutants and other materials from external sources are possible causes for these enrichments which can directly influence the water uptake and drying of the masonry. Thus, a compaction of the superficial porous network can be expected in the case of crust formation, an enhanced water uptake in the case of hygroscopic salts. Both of these lead to a...

Proceedings of SWBSS 2017

The conference aims to bring together conservators, restorers, engineers, architects, academics, students and experienced researchers and hence contributes to the promotion of research and development within the field of salt weathering of porous materials. Main topics: Salts in monumental built heritage and stone sculptures are still today a major problem in preservation caused mainly by environmental influences. Therefore, the conference will focus on Environmental aspects related to salt sources, Transport phenomena and salt crystallisation, Measurement...

Deicing Salts: An Overview

Elena Charola, Bénédicte Rousset & Christine Bläuer
The world production of salt (NaCl) was over two hundred million tons in 2015. The US is the second larger producer of salt after China, produced over four million tons of which 43 % were consumed in highway deicing. While NaCl is the most commonly used salt, other salts are added to it to improve its performance, such as CaCl2, MgCl2. To reduce the use of the deteriorating NaCl, other salts are also used, such...

Projekt: Beispielhafte Erhaltung von umweltgeschädigten Kulturgütern aus Oolithkalkstein des Savonnières-Typs

Gerhard Lehrberger & Esther Von Plehwe-Leisen
Das Projekt zur Erhaltung von Barrois-Oolithen, die früher pauschal als »Savonnières-Oolithe/Kalksteine« bezeichnet wurden, geht auf die Entdeckung der bis dahin völlig unbekannten Verwendung dieser Gesteine im Kloster Teplá (Tschechien) zurück. Das Projekt spannt mit seinen vielfältigen und umfangreichen Aktivitäten einen weiten Bogen: Von der Geologie der Oolithvorkommen in Lothringen, die Steinbrüche mit den darin aufgeschlossenen Werksteinlagen, deren spezifische Eigenschaften, Aspekte des Transports und der Verwendung in Mitteleuropa, die Untersuchung ausgewählter Pilotobjekte mit einer Charakterisierung ihrer...

EwaGlos - European Illustrated Glossary of Conservation Terms for Wall Paintings and Architectural Surfaces

Angela Weyer, Pilar Roig Picazo, Daniel Pop, JoAnn Cassar, Aysun Özköse, Vallet Jean-Marc, Srša Ivan &
EwaGlos, which has been developed in eleven languages, highlights the crucial role that professionally developed multilingual vocabularies play in international preservation campaigns. The illustrated glossary stresses the importance of common language in the conservation field, and the role that international cooperation plays in creating this common terminology. The core of the glossary comprises approximately 200 definitions of terms frequently used in specifications in the field of conservation-restoration of wall paintings and architectural surfaces. The prefaces...

EwaGlos - European Illustrated Glossary of Conservation Terms for Wall Paintings and Architectural Surfaces

Angela Weyer, Pilar Roig Picazo, Daniel Pop, JoAnn Cassar, Aysun Özköse, Vallet Jean-Marc, Srša Ivan &
EwaGlos, which has been developed in eleven languages, highlights the crucial role that professionally developed multilingual vocabularies play in international preservation campaigns. The illustrated glossary stresses the importance of common language in the conservation field, and the role that international cooperation plays in creating this common terminology. The core of the glossary comprises approximately 200 definitions of terms frequently used in specifications in the field of conservation-restoration of wall paintings and architectural surfaces. The prefaces...

Literatur zur Möbelrestaurierung

Ralf Buchholz & Gerdi Maierbacher-Legl
Diese Liste mit „Literatur zur Möbelrestaurierung“ beinhaltet rund 790 Einträge veröffentlichter Literatur, Hochschularbeiten und sog. Graue Literatur, also unveröffentlichte Dokumente, an der HAWK. Viele davon sind Bestandteil der Sammlung Heine, eine der Studienrichtung vermachten Privatsammlung. Alle Infos stammen aus einer Datenbank, die 2002-2004 im Rahmen eines Projekts der Studienrichtung „Konservierung und Restaurierung von Möbel und Holzobjekte“ unter der Leitung von Prof. Dr. Gertraud Maierbacher-Legl und Dr. Ralf Buchholz für eine lokale Literatur-Datenbank entwickelt wurde und...

Jahresbericht 2016

Angela Weyer
Jahresbericht des Hornemann-Instituts als wissenschaftliche Service-Einrichtung im Bereich Erhaltung von Kulturgut / Annual report of the Hornemann Institute, a scientific service center in the field of conservation and restoration

Granite and schist masonry desalination by poultices at Jacobine Church in Morlaix, France

Barbara Brunet-Imbault, Benjamin Reidiboym & Clément Guinamard
The Jacobine Church of Morlaix in France has been deconsecrated in the XIXth century. Afterwards, it has been used as a stable and then turned into a market which included salt storage for food preservation. Moreover, the church is built downhill of a significant slope next to the Jarlot river. The church, built with granite and schist, presents important salt resurgences, granular disintegrations and moisture areas on joint mortars. The project of the city is...

Salt extraction by poulticing in the archaeological site of Coudenberg

Sebastiaan Godts, Roald Hayen & Hilde De Clercq
A common method for the extraction of salts is the use of poultice materials. Despite extensive scientific research, the salt extraction process in practice often remains empiric. This paper aims to further the understanding of a salt extraction by poulticing in practical experiments. Three types of poultice materials are tested on brick masonry in 12 different locations in the subterranean archaeological site of Coudenberg in Brussels. The tested poultice materials have different compositions including kaolin...

Mitigating salt damage in lime-based mortars with mixed-in crystallization modifiers

Sanne J. C. Granneman, Barbara Lubelli & Van Hees Rob P. J.
This paper presents the most important results of a research project which focused on the use of crystallization modifiers mixed in lime mortar to mitigate salt crystallization damage. The research focused on two of the most damaging salts, sodium chloride and sodium sulfate, and suitable crystallization modifiers (sodium ferrocyanide and borax). We report the major findings related to the effectiveness of the modifiers when mixed in the mortar, and the results of characterization of the...

Local strain measurements during water imbibition in tuffeau polluted by gypsum

Mohamed Ahmed Hassine, Kévin Beck, Xavier Brunetaud & Muzahim Al-Mukhtar
The research presented in this communication aimed to evaluate the mechanism of spalling generated by mechanical stresses and strains developed due to imbibition and the link with atmospheric pollution generating gypsum in the stone. Tests were carried out on a French limestone, called tuffeau. Local strains were measured using strain gage rosettes during water imbibition in polluted and unpolluted samples. Three rosettes were placed on a sample at different distances from the surface (1, 4,...

Assessment of the durability of lime renders with Phase Change Material (PCM) additives against salt crystallization

Loucas Kyriakou, Magdalini Theodoridou & Ioannis Ioannou
Energy consumption in buildings is mostly associated with the use of heating and cooling systems. Renders with the addition of Phase Change Materials (PCMs) have the ability to absorb and release thermal energy, when the temperature changes accordingly, thus enhancing the thermal comfort and energy efficiency of buildings. Nevertheless, the performance of such renders with traditional binders lacks international experimental data, especially regarding their durability against salt weathering. This paper focuses on the effect of...

Electrode placement during electro-desalination of NaCl contaminated sandstone – simulating treatment of carved stones

Lisbeth M. Ottosen & Lovisa C. H. Andersson
Carved stone sculptures and ornaments can be severely damaged by salt induced decay. Often the irregular surfaces are decomposed, and the artwork is lost. The present paper is an experimental investigation on the possibility for using electro-desalination for treatment of stone with irregular shape with only two electrodes. The used Gotland sandstones were contaminated by NaCl in the laboratory. Due to the relatively good homogeneity in initial salt concentration obtained in this way, interpretation of...

Numerical analysis on salt damage suppression of the Buddha statue carved into the cliff by controlling the room temperature and humidity in the shelter

Nobumitsu Takatori, Daisuke Ogura, Soichiro Wakiya, Masaru Abuku, Kyoko Kiriyama & Yoshei Kohdzuma
Motomachi Sekibutsu is a Buddha statue that was carved into a cliff in Oita City, Japan, during the 11th or 12th century. It was designated as a national historic site in 1934. The stone statue is constantly affected by the penetration of heat and moisture into the cliff, and concerns have been raised about its deterioration. Various preservation measures have been taken to prevent this; however, the main cause of deterioration, salt damage, has not...

Salt-induced flaking of wall paintings at the Mogao Grottoes, China

Lori Wong, Su Bomin, Wang Xiaowe, Amarilli Rava & Neville Agnew
The Mogao Grottoes, a World Heritage Site in northwest China, is known for its surviving 492 painted Buddhist cave temples. Commissioned over a thousand year period, from the fourth to the fourteenth centuries, the caves were hewn into a 1.6 km long cliff face and the wall paintings executed on earthen plasters. Situated in a remote and arid desert landscape, these painted caves have endured throughout the centuries but many have also suffered from salt-related...

Sgraffito in Israel

Shay Farkash & Mika Tal
Poster by Shay Farkash and Mika Tal, introducing a brief historyof sgraffito murals in Israel an case study–conservation and Restoration of sgraffito at mMishmar-Ha’Emek kibbutz. Event details: Sgraffito in Change. Materials, Techniques, Topics, and Preservation by HAWK Hochschule Hildesheim/Holzminden/Göttingen, Niedersächsisches Landesamt für Denkmalpflege (NLD), 2.-4. November 2017, Hildesheim

Sgraffito Murals at an Israeli Kibbutz

Shay Farkash & Yossi Gabriel
Poster by Shay Farkash and Gabriel Yossi, introducing the Or-Haner kibbutz in the south part of Israel were a culture of sgraffito paintings was created characterized by a variety of attributes. Event details: Sgraffito in Change. Materials, Techniques, Topics, and Preservation by HAWK Hochschule Hildesheim/Holzminden/Göttingen, Niedersächsisches Landesamt für Denkmalpflege (NLD, 2.-4. November 2017, Hildesheim

A preliminary study on dynamic measurement of salt crystallization and deliquescence on a porous material surface using optical microscope

Masaru Abuku, D. Ogura & S. Hokoi
This paper reports on our preliminary attempt to perform dynamic laboratory measurements of salt crystallization and subsequent deliquescence on a surface of a porous material specimen (autoclaved aerated concrete as a model material) by using a high-resolution digital optical microscope that allows generating three-dimensional images. A specimen that is initially filled with a NaCl solution is dried in a room at ~26°C and ~40% RH for 14 days and is then wetted in a desiccator...

Traffic-induced salt deposition on facades

Michael Auras
Air pollution has been reduced significantly in Germany during the last decades. Nevertheless high pollution levels are recorded in urban environment along heavy-trafficked roads. Relevant portions of the emissions of nitrogen oxides and fine particulate matter are caused by car traffic. The change of environmental conditions has led to a change of salt deposition on facades. Actual research results show high concentrations of nitrogen oxides at historical facades but contradictory data for the deposition of...

Tracing back the origins of sodium sulfate formation on limestone as a consequence of a cleaning campaign: the case study on Charité and Espérance sculptures of Chartres cathedral

Sara Benkhalifa, Véronique Vergès-Belmin, Olivier Rolland & Lise Leroux
In 2012, five years after cleaning by Mora paste, sodium sulfate related deterioration was noticed on two XVIIIth century limestone sculptures of Chartres cathedral. This paper presents the results of the diagnostic study and of the conservation intervention performed on these sculptures, with a focus on trials to determine the salt phases responsible for their deterioration. The methodology chosen includes mineralogical and chemical analyses of samples collected on the sculptures during the diagnostic phase and...

The application of hydroxyapatite-based treatments to salt-bearing porous limestones: A study on sodium sulphate-contaminated Lecce Stone

Gabriela Graziani, Enrico Sassoni, George W. Scherer & Elisa Franzoni
Salt weathering is among the most severe phenomena affecting porous limestone, often leading to the loss of precious material from historical sculptures and building facades. Together with exerting a weathering action, salts can also hamper the success of consolidation treatments, by interfering with consolidants’ penetration and/or curing reactions. On site, application of consolidants on non-contaminated stone is rarely feasible, especially in the case of porous limestones; for this reason, testing application of consolidants on salt...

Registration Year

  • 2017
    45

Resource Types

  • Text
    45