22,734 Works

Understanding Human Actions and Institutional Change: What Are the Impacts of Power Asymmetries on Efficiency in Pasture Use?

Ulan Kasymov & Dimitrios Zikos
The paper investigates actions and decisions of agricultural resource users and explores their implications for institutional change and natural resource management in the post-socialist context of Central Asia. More specifically, the authors propose a novel methodological approach for the aforementioned context to support policy-relevant research that explicitly addresses behavioral responses of pastoralists in Kyrgyzstan. The paper builds on distributive and economic theories of institutional change and combines findings from lab and field framed economic experiments...

African Nightshade (Solanum scabrum Mill.): Impact of Cultivation and Plant Processing on Its Health Promoting Potential as Determined in a Human Liver Cell Model

Grace Akinyi Odongo, Nina Schlotz, Susanne Baldermann, Susanne Neugart, Susanne Huyskens-Keil, Benard Ngwene, Bernhard Trierweiler, Monika Schreiner & Evelyn Lamy
Plant cultivation and processing may impact nutrient and phytochemical content of vegetables. The present study aimed at determining the influence of cultivation and processing on the health promoting capacity of African nightshade (Solanum scabrum Mill.) leaves, an indigenous vegetable, rich in nutrients and phytochemicals. Anti-genotoxicity against the human liver carcinogen aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) as determined by the comet assay and radical oxygen species (ROS) scavenging capacity of ethanolic and aqueous extracts were investigated in human...

On the System. Boundary Choices, Implications, and Solutions in Telecoupling Land Use Change Research

Cecilie Friis & Jonas Østergaard Nielsen
Land-based production provides societies with indispensable goods such as food, feed, fibre, and energy. Yet, with economic globalisation and global population growth, the environmental and social trade-offs of their production are ever more complex. This is particularly so since land use changes are increasingly embedded in networks of long-distance flows of, e.g., material, energy, and information. The resulting scientific and governance challenge is captured in the emerging telecoupling framework addressing socioeconomic and environmental interactions and...

Free Decolonized Education - Revisiting South African Utopias

Soph Petzelberger
Beginning in 2015, the South African Fallist student movement grew rapidly and sparked uprisings across the whole country, calling for free decolonized education. In January 2017, when the movement was in a phase of slow retreat, Kagiso Mogotsi, a black South African history student and I, a white German anthropologist, spent one semester at the University of Pretoria collaborating on a militantly engaged film project. Changing Utopias? A South African Protest Documentary involved a number...

Effects of the Lake Sobradinho Reservoir (Northeastern Brazil) on the Regional Climate

Nikoo Ekhtiari, Susanne Grossman-Clarke, Hagen Koch, Werônica Meira De Souza, Reik Donner & Jan Volkholz
This study investigates the effects of Lake Sobradinho, a large reservoir in Northeastern Brazil, on the local near-surface atmospheric and boundary layer conditions. For this purpose, simulations with the regional climate model COSMO-CLM are compared for two different scenarios: (1) with the lake being replaced by the average normal native vegetation cover and (2) with the lake as it exists today, for two different two-month periods reflecting average and very dry conditions, respectively. The performance...

Exploring Farmers’ Indigenous Knowledge of Soil Quality and Fertility Management Practices in Selected Farming Communities of the Guinea Savannah Agro-Ecological Zone of Ghana

Richard Omari, Dorothea Sonoko Bellingrath-Kimura, Elsie Sarkodee-Addo, Yosei Oikawa & Yoshiharu Fujii
Efforts to improve soil productive capacity aimed at boosting crop production in the Northern Ghana has primarily focused on field-based experiments with little documentation on farmer practice and local indigenous knowledge of soil management. A sample group of 114 farmers from five farming communities in the Guinea Savannah was interviewed to evaluate their indigenous knowledge of crop production practices in the context of soil health, fertilization management, and crop yield. Data were collected using semi-structured...

Smallholder Telecoupling and Climate Governance in Jambi Province, Indonesia

Yvonne Kunz, Fenna Otten, Rina Mardiana, Katrin Martens, Imke Roedel & Heiko Faust
Current debates on climate change have led to an increased demand for sustainable commodities. Serving this demand, sustainability certification schemes and eco-friendly labels have become prominent mechanisms of climate governance. Smallholder farmers in Jambi province, Indonesia, producing palm oil and rubber as the two dominant smallholder crops, are impacted by this distal demand. Zimmerer et al. (2018) suggest analyzing the potential sustainability in such a context with the multilevel smallholder telecoupling framework. Applying this framework...

Raman Microspectroscopic Imaging of Binder Remnants in Historical Mortars Reveals Processing Conditions

Thomas Schmid & Petra Dariz
Binder remnants in historical mortars represent a record of the connection between the raw materials that enter the kiln, the process parameters, and the end product of the calcination. Raman microspectroscopy combines high structural sensitivity with micrometre to sub-micrometre spatial resolution and compatibility with conventional thin-sectional samples in an almost unique fashion, making it an interesting complementary extension of the existing methodological arsenal for mortar analysis. Raman spectra are vibrational fingerprints of crystalline and amorphous...

Targeting Bacterial Biofilms by the Green Tea Polyphenol EGCG

Regine Hengge
Bacterial biofilms are multicellular aggregates in which cells are embedded in an extracellular matrix of self-produced biopolymers. Being refractory to antibiotic treatment and host immune systems, biofilms are involved in most chronic infections, and anti-biofilm agents are being searched for urgently. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) was recently shown to act against biofilms by strongly interfering with the assembly of amyloid fibres and the production of phosphoethanolamin-modified cellulose fibrils. Mechanistically, this includes a direct inhibition of the fibre...

Analyzing the neural transcriptional landscape in time and space

Christin Sünkel
Zirkuläre RNAs sind eine Klasse endogener, tierischer RNAs. Obwohl sie hoch abundant sind, ist weder ihre Funktion noch ihre Expression im Nervensystem bekannt. Es wurde ein Katalog zirkulärer RNAs in neuralen Proben erstellt. Es konnten tausende zirkuläre RNAs von Mensch und Maus entdeckt und analysiert werden. Zirkuläre RNAs sind außerordentlich angereichert im Säugetiergehirn, ihre Sequenz ist gut konserviert und sie sind häufig gemeinsam in Mensch und Maus exprimiert. Zirkuläre RNAs waren generell höher exprimiert im...

Wireless Networking in Future Factories: Protocol Design and Evaluation Strategies

Roman Naumann
Industrie-4.0 bringt eine wachsende Nachfrage an Netzwerkprotokollen mit sich, die es erlauben, Informationen vom Produktionsprozess einzelner Maschinen zu erfassen und verfügbar zu machen. Drahtlose Übertragung erfüllt hierbei die für industrielle Anwendungen benötigte Flexibilität, kann in herausfordernden Industrieumgebungen aber nicht immer zeitnahe und zuverlässige Übertragung gewährleisten. Die Beiträge dieser Arbeit behandeln schwerpunktmäßig Protokollentwurf und Protokollevaluation für industrielle Anwendungsfälle. Zunächst identifizieren wir Anforderungen für den industriellen Anwendungsfall und leiten daraus konkrete Entwufskriterien ab, die Protokolle erfüllen sollten....

Muscle and Tendon Adaptation in Adolescence: Elite Volleyball Athletes Compared to Untrained Boys and Girls

Falk Mersmann, Georgios Charcharis, Sebastian Bohm & Adamantios Arampatzis
Though the plasticity of human tendons is well explored in adults, it is still unknown how superimposed mechanical loading by means of athletic training affects the properties of tendons during maturation. Due to the increased responsiveness of muscle to mechanical loading, adolescence is an important phase to investigate the effects of training on the mechanical properties of tendons. Hence, in the present study we compared vastus lateralis (VL) architecture, muscle strength of the knee extensor...

Diminished heart beat non-stationarities in congestive heart failure

Sabrina Camargo, Maik Riedl, Celia Anteneodo, Jürgen Kurths & Niels Wessel
Studies on heart rate variability (HRV) have become popular and the possibility of diagnosis based on non-invasive techniques compels us to overcome the difficulties originated on the environmental changes that can affect the signal. We perform a non-parametric segmentation which consists of locating the points where the signal can be split into stationary segments. By finding stationary segments we are able to analyze the size of these segments and evaluate how the signal changes from...

A Stochastic Model of Epigenetic Dynamics in Somatic Cell Reprogramming

Max Flöttmann, Till Scharp & Edda Klipp
Somatic cell reprogramming has dramatically changed stem cell research in recent years. The high pace of new findings in the field and an ever increasing amount of data from new high throughput techniques make it challenging to isolate core principles of the process. In order to analyze such mechanisms, we developed an abstract mechanistic model of a subset of the known regulatory processes during cell differentiation and production of induced pluripotent stem cells. This probabilistic...

Singular BSDEs and PDEs Arising in Optimal Liquidation Problems

Xiaonyu Xia
Diese Dissertation analysiert BSDEs und PDEs mit singulären Endbedingungen, welche in Problemen der optimalen Portfolioliquidierung auftreten. In den vergangenen Jahren haben Portfolioliquidierungsprobleme in der Literatur zur Finanzmathematik große Aufmerksamkeit erhalten. Ihre wichtigste Eigenschaft ist die singuläre Endbedingung der durch die Liquidierungsbedingung induzierten Wertfunktion, welche eine singuläre Endbedingung der zugehörigen BSDE oder PDE impliziert. Diese Arbeit besteht aus drei Kapiteln. Das erste Kapitel analysiert ein Portfolioliquidierungsproblem für mehrere Wertpapiere mit sofortigem und anhaltendem Preiseinfluss und stochastischer...

Ultrafast Soft Mode Dynamics in Ferroelectrics studied with Femtosecond X-Ray Diffraction

Antonio Hernandez
Ferroelektrische Materialien sind ein Schlüsselbereich der aktuellen Forschung und weisen zahlreiche wichtige technologische Anwendungen auf. Diese Klasse kristalliner Feststoffe zeichnet sich üblicherweise durch eine Vielzahl von para- und ferroelektrischen Phasen auf. Letztere sind dadurch charakterisiert, dass sie auch in Abwesenheit eines äußeren Feldes eine spontane elektrische Polarisation aufweisen. Diese Eigenschaft hat ihren Ursprung in der besonderen elektronischen Struktur ferroelektrischer Materialien, die sich aus einer großen Vielfalt von Gittergeometrien und mikroskopischen Ladungsdichteverteilungen ergibt. Auf atomarer Ebene...

Complex systems methods for detecting dynamical anomalies in past climate variability

Jaqueline Stefanie Lekscha
Die Analyse von Proxy-Zeitreihen aus Paläoklimaarchiven wie zum Beispiel Baumringen, Seesedimenten, Tropfsteinen und Eisbohrkernen mittels gefensterter Rekurrenznetzwerkanalyse ermöglicht die Identifizierung und Charakterisierung dynamischer Anomalien in der Klimavariabilität der Vergangenheit. Das Ziel der vorliegenden Arbeit ist die Entwicklung einer zuverlässigeren Routine zur gefensterten Rekurrenznetzwerkanalyse. Aufbauend auf dem bestehenden methodischen Rahmen werden die Bereiche der Phasenraumrekonstruktion und des Signifikanztests als verbesserungsfähig identifiziert. Deshalb werden verschiedene Methoden zur Rekonstruktion des Phasenraums aus unregelmäßig abgetasteten, verrauschten Daten verglichen. Außerdem...

Forschungsdatenmanagement schulen – ein Train-the-Trainer Programm zur Kompetenzvermittlung

Katarzyna Biernacka, Kerstin Helbig, Petra Buchholz & Dominika Dolzycka
Forschungsdatenmanagement bedarf in den kommenden Jahren einer Vielzahl an qualifiziertem Personal, um Aufgaben in Instituten, Forschungsprojekten und im Rahmen der zu schaffenden Nationalen Forschungsdateninfrastruktur zu erfüllen. Im Hinblick auf fehlende Aus- und Fortbildungswege zum entsprechenden Kompetenzerwerb erscheint ein Fachkräftemangel kaum vermeidbar. Um Forschende und Infrastrukturpersonal schnell und umfassend für die Wissensvermittlung zu qualifizieren, wurde im Rahmen des Projekts FDMentor ein Train-the-Trainer Programm entwickelt.

Impacts of Public and Private Sector Policies on Soybean and Pasture Expansion in Mato Grosso—Brazil from 2001 to 2017

Michelle Picoli, Ana Claudia Rorato Vitor, Pedro Leitão, Gilberto Camara, Adeline Marinho Maciel, Patrick Hostert & Ieda Sanches
Demand for agricultural exports in Brazil has stimulated the expansion of crop production and cattle raising, which has caused environmental impacts. In response, Brazil developed public policies such as the new Forest Code (FC) and supply chain arrangements such the Soy and the Cattle Moratoriums. This paper analyzes the effectiveness of these policies, considering the trajectories of agricultural expansion in the state of Mato Grosso in three years: 2005 (pre-moratorium and before the new FC),...

Temporal Drag – Scores for Memory: Reflections on an Interview with Christina Kubisch

Clélia Barbut
Focused on Christina Kubisch’s performance art works in the1970s, the article gives an account of Kubisch’s interview with Clélia Barbut, recorded during the artist’s exhibition at the Musée des beaux-arts de Rennes, Échos magnétiques, in spring 2019. It also aims at questioning the intertwining of oral narratives and material mediums like scripts photographs, stating with Kubisch that “there is always a score”. Relying both on her memories and documentation of the works, three of Kubisch’s...

Akustische Räume, Für Augen und Ohren, Musique en conteneur, Der befreite Klang: Retracing the Heard and Unheard Curatorial Practice of René Block from the 1960s to the 1980s

Anne Zeitz
The starting point of this article is the exhibition Der befreite Klang, Kunst für Augen und Ohren (Liberated Sound, Art for the Eyes and the Ears) conceived by the German curator René Block in 1986 for a castle in Austria which was cancelled at short notice. Block had organized major exhibitions and concert programmes concentrating on sonic practices starting from the 1970s, notably Für Augen und Ohren, Von der Spieluhr zum akustischen Environment (For the...

Sound Unheard: Editorial and Contents

Anne Zeitz
The unheard often remains unnoticed. What we hear and what we do not, what we notice and what we do not is determined not only by our physiological aural capacities but by a complex intermingling of social, cultural, political and technological factors. The different contributions to this publication focus on artistic and literary works that concentrate on the unheard sonic spectrum of the past and present. The cultural, social or political phenomena questioned here are...

Aerial river management for future water in the context of land use change in Amazonia

Wei Weng
Diese Arbeit beschäftigt sich mit Aerial Rivers („luftgetragenen Flüssen“), den bevorzugten Wegen des Flusses von Feuchte in der Atmosphäre. Ziel ist es, die Voraussetzung für deren Integration in aktuelle Paradigmen der Wasserwirtschaft zu schaffen. Im Mittelpunkt der Arbeit stehen Amazonien und die angrenzenden Gebiete, also Regionen der Erde, in denen sich derzeit der Landnutzungswandel mit am schnellsten vollzieht. Aus theoretischer Sicht wird das Wissen über die Verbindung zwischen Aerial Rivers und Oberflächenflüssen erweitert. Mit Hilfe...

Lokale Anwerbe- und Abwehrpolitiken im Kontext von Migration und Flucht

Susen Engel, Marie-Sophie Deuter, Valentin Domann, Henning Nuissl & Alice Baumgärtner
How well migrants and refugees integrate into their new communities depends to a large extent on a range of circumstances at local level, which, in turn, can vary from case to case. Local integration policies build upon specific local discourses about particular “problems” related to urban development and migration issues. These discourses are not only conditioned by structural and socio-economic circumstances, but also by which policy options appear legitimate against the background of specific spatial...

Is One’s Own Ethnic Prejudice Always Subtle? The Inconsistency of Prejudice Endorsement and Prejudice Awareness Depends on Self-Related Egalitarian Standards and Motivations

Karolina Fetz & Tim Sven Müller
In light of current egalitarian norms, it seems intuitive to assume that people endorsing ethnically prejudicial beliefs are largely unaware of their xenophobic content. However, a cognitive consistency perspective would suggest that individuals with low anti-prejudice standards might care less if their opinions are prejudiced. Corroborating this idea, Study 1 (N = 919) reveals that intra-individually the endorsement of prejudicial beliefs was negatively related to their evaluation as xenophobic (prejudice awareness), but more so among...

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