5,828 Works

A quantitative approach to analyse linkages between antimicrobial resistance properties in Salmonella Typhimurium isolates

I. Ruddat, S. Schwarz, Erhard Tietze, D. Ziehm & L. Kreienbrock
This study used statistical methods to investigate linkages in phenotypic resistance profiles in a population sample of 321 Salmonella Typhimurium isolates from sporadic salmonellosis cases in Lower Saxony, Germany, collected during 2008–2010. A resistance index was applied to calculate the conditional probability of resistance to one antimicrobial agent given the resistance to one or more other antimicrobial agent(s). A susceptibility index was defined analogously. A contingency plot, which visualizes the association between resistances to two...

Demographischer Wandel und Anforderungen an das Gesundheitswesen

Bärbel-Maria Kurth
Das Statistische Bundesamt prognostizierte eine verlängerte individuelle Lebenserwartung der Bevölkerung der Bundesrepublik Deutschland, einhergehend mit einer Verringerung des Anteils jüngerer Menschen. Das wirft die Frage auf, ob diese Entwicklung zu einer verstärkten Inanspruchnahme des Gesundheitswesens führt, die möglicherweise künftig nicht mehr finanzierbar sein wird. Es wird in dieser Stellungnahme versucht, ausschließlich aufgrund vorliegender Gesundheitsdaten eine Antwort zu geben. Dabei wird festgestellt, dass ein längeres Leben nicht unbedingt einhergeht mit einem verlängerten Abschnitt in Krankheit und...

Desperately seeking diarrhoea: outbreak of haemolytic uraemic syndrome caused by emerging sorbitol-fermenting shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H-, Germany, 2009

Stine Nielsen, Christina Frank, Angelika Fruth, Anke Spode, Rita Prager, A. Graff, A. Plenge-Bönig, S. Loos, M. Lütgehetmann, D. E. Müller-Wiefel & Dirk Werber
Infection with sorbitol-fermenting Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H- (sf STEC O157:H-) is rare, but emerging in Europe. The pathogen is typically isolated from paediatric patients with life-threatening haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS). It is unclear whether this observation primarily reflects the pathogen's virulence or its complex laboratory diagnosis, not routinely conducted in diarrhoeal patients. In summer 2009, four boys living in the same suburb in Germany developed diarrhoea-associated HUS: three were infected by sf STEC O157:H-...

Arzneimittelanwendung von Erwachsenen in Deutschland

Hildtraud Knopf & Daniel Grams
In der ersten Erhebungswelle der Studie zur Gesundheit Erwachsener in Deutschland, 2008–2011 (DEGS1), wird die aktuelle Arzneimittelanwendung in den letzten 7 Tagen vor der Untersuchung bei Erwachsenen (Alter: 18 bis 79 Jahre) durch ein standardisiertes ärztliches Interview erfasst. Etwa drei Viertel (74,7%) aller Männer und Frauen geben an, in diesem Zeitraum mindestens 1 Präparat angewendet zu haben. Bei den 70- bis 79-Jährigen ist die diesbezügliche Prävalenz am höchsten (Männer 94,9%; Frauen 96,3%). Bei Frauen findet...

Tularaemia seroprevalence of captured and wild animals in Germany: the fox (Vulpes vulpes) as a biological indicator

Andrea Kühn, C. Schulze, P. Kutzer, C. Probst, A. Hlinak, A. Ochs & Roland Grunow
A total of 2475 animals from Germany, both captive and wild, were tested for antibodies against Francisella tularensis to obtain more knowledge about the presence of this pathogen in Germany. An indirect and a competitive ELISA served as screening methods, positive and inconclusive samples were confirmed by Western blot. Of the zoo animals sampled between 1992 and 2007 (n = 1122), three (0·3%) were seropositive. The seroconversion of a hippopotamus in Berlin Zoo was documented....

Carrier prevalence, secondary household transmission and long-term shedding in two districts during the Escherichia coli O104:H4 outbreak in Germany, 2011

Muna Abu Sin, Anja Takla, Antje Flieger, Rita Prager, Angelika Fruth, Erhard Tietze, Eckhart Fink, Jutta Korte, Susanne Schink, Michael Höhle & Tim Eckmanns
Background: From May-July 2011, Germany experienced a large Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) O104:H4 outbreak. Our objective was to identify the prevalence of STEC O104:H4 carriers in households in highly affected areas, the rate of secondary household transmissions, and the duration of long-term shedding. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, we recruited case and control households to determine STEC household prevalence; we then conducted a prospective cohort study (≥2-persons households with ≥1 case) for rates of household transmission...

Evaluation of 41 Candidate Gene Variants for Obesity in the EPIC-Potsdam Cohort by Multi-Locus Stepwise Regression

Sven Knüppel, Klaus Rohde, Karina Meidtner, Dagmar Drogan, Hermann-Georg Holzhütter, Heiner Boeing & Eva Fisher
Objective: Obesity has become a leading preventable cause of morbidity and mortality in many parts of the world. It is thought to originate from multiple genetic and environmental determinants. The aim of the current study was to introduce haplotype-based multi-locus stepwise regression (MSR) as a method to investigate combinations of unlinked single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for obesity phenotypes. Methods: In 2,122 healthy randomly selected men and women of the EPIC-Potsdam cohort, the association between 41...

Hygieneleitlinie als Ergänzung zum Dialysestandard 2006

STIKO-Empfehlungen 1989

Phylogeny and Disease Association of Shiga toxin-Producing Escherichia coli O91

Alexander Mellmann, Angelika Fruth, Alexander W. Friedrich, Lothar H. Wieler, Dag Harmsen, Dirk Werber, Barbara Middendorf, Martina Bielaszewska & Helge Karch
The diversity and relatedness of 100 Shiga toxin–producing Escherichia coli O91 isolates from different patients were examined by multilocus sequence typing. We identified 10 specific sequence types (ST) and 4 distinct clonal groups. ST442 was significantly associated with hemolytic uremic syndrome.

Infektionsschutz europäisch – von staatlicher Souveränität zu internationaler Vernetzung

Gérard Krause

Highly variable use of diagnostic methods for sexually transmitted infections-results of a nationwide survey, Germany 2005

Andreas Gilsdorf, Alexandra Hofmann, Osamah Hamouda & Viviane Bremer
Background: Sexual transmitted infections (STIs) have increased in Germany and other countries in Europe since the mid-nineties. To obtain a better picture of diagnostic methods used in STI testing institutions in Germany, we performed a nationwide survey amongst STI specialists in order to evaluate the quality of STI reports and provide recommendations to harmonize and possibly improve STI diagnostics in Germany. Methods: We asked sentinel physicians and randomly chosen gynaecologists, urologists and dermato-venerologists, about the...

A longitudinal study of urinary dipstick parameters in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) in Côte d'ivoire

Siv Aina J. Leendertz, Sonja Metzger, Eystein Skjerve, Tobias Deschner, Christophe Boesch, Julia Riedel & Fabian Leendertz
We performed 796 dip-stick tests on urine from 100 wild West African chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) from 4 habituated groups in the tropical rain forest of Taï National Park, Cote d'Ivoire, to establish reference values for health monitoring. Specific gravity was also measured on 359 urine samples from 62 chimpanzees. The effect of age, sex, group, month, estrus, pregnancy, meat consumption, and acute respiratory disease on pH, leucocytes, protein, blood, hemoglobin, and glucose was examined...

Clusters of infectious diseases in German nursing homes – observations from a prospective infection surveillance study, October 2008 to August 2009

Mathias Schulz, Martin Mielke & Nicoletta Wischnewski
A prospective infection surveillance study was carried out among residents of seven nursing homes in and around Berlin, Germany, from October 2008 to August 2009. A considerable number of infections were found to occur in clusters. Active surveillance was carried out using pre-established case definitions of infections in nursing homes (McGeer criteria). Case finding was based on routine nursing files. Infection rates were calculated per 1,000 resident days. Clusters were identified using a pre-established definition....

Chromosomal instability in enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7: impact on adherence, tellurite resistance and colony phenotype.

Martina Bielaszewska, Barbara Middendorf, Phillip I. Tarr, Wenlan Zhang, Rita Prager, Thomas Aldick, Ulrich Dobrindt, Helge Karch & Alexander Mellmann
Tellurite (Tel) resistant enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 is a global pathogen. In strain EDL933 Tel resistance (Tel(R) ) is encoded by duplicate ter cluster in O islands (OI) 43 and 48, which also harbour iha, encoding the adhesin and siderophore receptor Iha. We identified five EHEC O157:H7 strains that differentiate into large (L) colonies and small (S) colonies with high and low Tel minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) respectively. S colonies (Tel-MICs ≤ 4 µg...

Risk factors for severe outcomes following 2009 influenza A (H1N1) infection: a global pooled analysis.

Maria D. Van Kerkhove, Katelijn A. H. Vandemaele, Vivek Shinde, Giovanna Jaramillo-Gutierrez, Artemis Koukounari, Christl A. Donnelly, Luis O. Carlino, Rhonda Owen, Beverly Paterson, Louise Pelletier, Julie Vachon, Claudia Gonzalez, Yu Hongjie, Feng Zijian, Shuk Kwan Chuang, Albert Au, Silke Buda, Gérard Krause & Walter Haas
Background: Since the start of the 2009 influenza A pandemic (H1N1pdm), the World Health Organization and its member states have gathered information to characterize the clinical severity of H1N1pdm infection and to assist policy makers to determine risk groups for targeted control measures. Methods and Findings: Data were collected on approximately 70,000 laboratory-confirmed hospitalized H1N1pdm patients, 9,700 patients admitted to intensive care units (ICUs), and 2,500 deaths reported between 1 April 2009 and 1 January...

Communicable Diseases Prioritized for Surveillance and Epidemiological Research: Results of a Standardized Prioritization Procedure in Germany, 2011

Yanina Balabanova, Andreas Gilsdorf, Silke Buda, Reinhard Burger, Tim Eckmanns, Barbara Gärtner, Uwe Groß, Walter Haas, Osamah Hamouda, Johannes Hübner, Thomas Jänisch, Manfred Kist, Michael H. Kramer, Thomas Ledig, Martin Mielke, Matthias Pulz, Klaus Stark, Norbert Suttorp, Uta Ulbrich, Ole Wichmann & Gérard Krause
Introduction: To establish strategic priorities for the German national public health institute (RKI) and guide the institute’s mid-term strategic decisions, we prioritized infectious pathogens in accordance with their importance for national surveillance and epidemiological research. Methods: We used the Delphi process with internal (RKI) and external experts and a metric-consensus approach to score pathogens according to ten three-tiered criteria. Additional experts were invited to weight each criterion, leading to the calculation of a median weight...

XIV. Internationale AIDS-Konferenz in Barcelona, 2002

Ulrich Marcus

Epidemiologie des malignen Melanoms der Haut (ICD'9: 172)

Joachim Bertz
Das maligne Melanom der Haut (MM) verursacht 90% der Todesfälle durch bösartige Neubildungen der Haut. 2% aller auftretenden Krebskrankheiten in Deutschland sind MM. Die Patienten sind im Mittel etwa zehn Jahre jünger als Patienten mit anderen Krebskrankheiten. Die altersstandardisierten Erkrankungsraten von Männern und Frauen an MM haben sich in Deutschland – im Saarland und der DDR – seit Anfang der 70er Jahre bis Ende der 80er Jahre auf 7 bis 8 pro 100 000 im...

Unchanged Severity of Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 Infection in Children during First Postpandemic Season

Mathias Altmann, Lena Fiebig, Silke Buda, Rüdiger Von Kries, Manuel Dehnert & Walter Haas
We conducted a nationwide hospital-based prospective study in Germany of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 cases among children

Will Dengue Vaccines Be Used in the Public Sector and if so, How? Findings from an 8-country Survey of Policymakers and Opinion Leaders

Don L. Douglas, Denise A. DeRoeck, Richard T. Mahoney & Ole Wichmann
Background: A face-to-face survey of 158 policymakers and other influential professionals was conducted in eight dengue-endemic countries in Asia (India, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam) and Latin America (Brazil, Colombia, Mexico, Nicaragua) to provide an indication of the potential demand for dengue vaccination in endemic countries, and to anticipate their research and other requirements in order to make decisions about the introduction of dengue vaccines. The study took place in anticipation of the licensure of the...

Dormancy Associated Translation Inhibitor (DATIN/Rv0079) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis interacts with TLR2 and induces proinflammatory cytokine expression

Ashutosh Kumar, Astrid Lewin, Pittu Sandhya Rani, Insaf A. Qureshi, Savita Devi, Mohammad Majid, Elisabeth Kamal, Stefanie Marek, Seyed E. Hasnain & Niyaz Ahmed
Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the cause of tuberculosis in humans, is present approximately in one third of the world’s population, mostly in a dormant state. The proteins encoded by the dormancy survival regulon (DosR regulon) are mainly responsible for survival of the bacilli in a latent form. To maintain latency, mycobacteria orchestrate a balanced interplay of different cytokines secreted by immune cells during the granulomatous stage. The function of most of the DosR regulon proteins of M....

Measles outbreak spreading from the community to an anthroposophic school, Berlin, 2011

Sofie Gillesberg Lassen, Melanie Schuster, M. Stemmler, A. Steinmüller, Dorothea Matysiak-Klose, Annette Mankertz, Sabine Santibanez, Ole Wichmann & Gerhard Falkenhorst
Between April and July 2011 there was an outbreak of measles virus, genotype D4, in Berlin, Germany. We identified 73 case-patients from the community and among students of an anthroposophic school, who participated in a 4-day school trip, as well as their family and friends. Overall, 27% were aged ≥20 years, 57% were female and 15% were hospitalized. Of 39 community case-patients, 38% were aged ≥20 years, 67% were female and 63% required hospitalization. Unvaccinated...

Faecal shedding, alimentary clearance and intestinal spread of prions in hamsters fed with scrapie

Dominique Krüger, Achim Thomzig, Gudrun Lenz, Kristin Kampf, Patricia McBride & Michael Beekes
Shedding of prions via faeces may be involved in the transmission of contagious prion diseases. Here, we fed hamsters 10mg of 263K scrapie brain homogenate and examined the faecal excretion of disease-associated prion protein (PrPTSE) during the course of infection. The intestinal fate of ingested PrPTSE was further investigated by monitoring the deposition of the protein in components of the gut wall using immunohistochemistry and paraffin-embedded tissue (PET) blotting. Western blotting of faecal extracts showed...

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