3,737 Works

HIV Incidence Estimates Using the Limiting Antigen Avidity EIA Assay at Testing Sites in Kiev City, Ukraine: 2013-2014

Ruth Simmons, Ruslan Malyuta, Nelli Chentsova, Iryna Karnets, Gary Murphy, Antonia Medoeva, Yuri Kruglov, Alexander Yurchenko, Andrew Copas & Kholoud Porter
Objective: To estimate HIV incidence and highlight the characteristics of persons at greatest risk of HIV in the Ukraine capital, Kiev. Method: Residual samples from newly-diagnosed persons attending the Kiev City AIDS Centre were tested for evidence of recent HIV infection using an avidity assay. Questions on possible risk factors for HIV acquisition and testing history were introduced. All persons (≥16yrs) presenting for an HIV test April’13–March’14 were included. Rates per 100,000 population were calculated...

Konzepte zur Mitteilung genetischer Zusatzbefunde in der medizinischen Diagnostik und Forschung

Eva Fisher, Steffi Achilles, Holger Tönnies & J. Schmidtke
Die Hochdurchsatzsequenzierung gesamter Genome ist technisch bereits auf einem hohen Stand und wird als kostengünstigere Alternative zu anderen gezielten analytischen Verfahren in der klinischen Diagnostik genetischer Erkrankungen diskutiert. Andererseits besteht bei Genom- oder Exomsequenzierungen eine hohe Wahrscheinlichkeit, nicht mit dem primären Untersuchungsziel im Zusammenhang stehende Zusatzbefunde zu detektieren. Der vorliegende Beitrag versucht, einen Überblick über den aktuellen wissenschaftlichen und technischen Stand der Genom- und Exomsequenzierung sowie über die nationalen und internationalen Empfehlungen zum Umgang mit...

Enabling Precision Medicine With Digital Case Classification at the Point-of-Care

Patrick Obermeier, Susann Muehlhans, Christian Hoppe, Katharina Karsch, Franziska Tief, Xi Chen, Tim Conrad, Sindy Böttcher, Sabine Diedrich & Barbara Rath
Infectious and inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system are difficult to identify early. Case definitions for aseptic meningitis, encephalitis, myelitis, and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) are available, but rarely put to use. The VACC-Tool (Vienna Vaccine Safety Initiative Automated Case Classification-Tool) is a mobile application enabling immediate case ascertainment based on consensus criteria at the point-of-care. The VACC-Tool was validated in a quality management program in collaboration with the Robert-Koch-Institute. Results were compared to...

Genetic Diversity and New Lineages of Dengue Virus Serotypes 3 and 4 in Returning Travelers, Germany, 2006–2015

Sami Shihada, Petra Emmerich, Corinna Thomé-Bolduan, Stephanie Jansen, Stephan Günther, Christina Frank, Jonas Schmidt-Chanasit & Daniel Cadar
During 2006–2015, we analyzed 70 dengue virus (DENV) strains isolated from febrile travelers returning to Germany. High genetic diversity, including multiple co-circulating DENV lineages and emerging new lineages of DENV-3 and DENV-4, was demonstrated. Our passive surveillance system based on returning travelers yielded substantial information on DENV diversity.

Response to fever and utilization of standby emergency treatment (SBET) for malaria in travellers to Southeast Asia: a questionnaire-based cohort study

Christof D. Vinnemeier, Camilla Rothe, Benno Kreuels, Marylyn M. Addo, Sabine Vygen-Bonnet, Jakob P. Cramer & Thierry Rolling
Background: Guidelines in several European countries recommend standby emergency treatment (SBET) for travellers to regions with low or medium malaria transmission instead of continuous chemoprophylaxis: travellers are advised to seek medical assistance within 24 h in case of fever and to self-administer SBET only if they are not able to consult a doctor within the time period specified. Data on healthcare-seeking behaviour of febrile travellers and utilization of SBET is however scarce as only two...

Physical health-related quality of life in relation to metabolic health and obesity among men and women in Germany

Julia Truthmann, Gert Mensink, Anja Bosy-Westphal, Ulfert Hapke, Christa Scheidt-Nave & Anja Schienkiewitz
Background: This study examined sex-specific differences in physical health-related quality of life (HRQoL) across subgroups of metabolic health and obesity. We specifically asked whether (1) obesity is related to lower HRQoL independent of metabolic health status and potential confounders, and (2) whether associations are similar in men and women. Methods: We used cross-sectional data from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey 2008–11. Physical HRQoL was measured using the Short Form-36 version 2 physical component...

Händedesinfektionsmittel: Welche Bedeutung und Konsequenzen hat der neue Wirkbereich „begrenzt viruzid PLUS“?

Ingeborg Schwebke, Maren Eggers, Jürgen Gebel, Bertram Geisel, Jochen Steinmann, Nils-Olaf Hübner, Ingrid Rapp & Holger F. Rabenau

Hintergrundpapier der STIKO: Evaluation der bestehenden Influenzaimpfempfehlung für Indikationsgruppen und für Senioren (Standardimpfung ab 60 Jahren)

Cornelius Remschmidt, Thomas Harder, Ole Wichmann, Edeltraut Garbe, Thomas Ledig, Martin Terhardt, Sabine Wicker, Fred Zepp & Thomas Mertens

Immunological recovery in tuberculosis/HIV co-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy: implication for tuberculosis preventive therapy

Basel Karo, Gérard Krause, Stefanie Castell, Christian Kollan, Osamah Hamouda & Walter Haas
Background: Understanding the immune response to combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) is essential for a clear approach to tuberculosis (TB) preventive therapy. We investigated the immunological recovery in cART-treated HIV-infected patients developing TB compared to those who remained free of TB. Methods: We extracted data of HIV-infected patients from a multicenter cohort for the HIV clinical surveillance in Germany. No patients included in our study had TB at the beginning of the observation. Using a longitudinal...

German Environmental Survey for Children and Adolescents 2014-2017 (GerES V) – the environmental module of KiGGS Wave 2

Christine Schulz, Marike Kolossa-Gehring & Andreas Gies
Health-relevant exposures to environmental pollutants, fungi, bacteria, noise, and air pollution have to be identified at an early stage. At the same time, impacts on health and their potential environmental causes need to be investigated and documented. The German Environmental Survey for Children and Adolescents 2014-2017 (GerES V) is the environmental module of KiGGS Wave 2 of the Robert Koch Institute and takes a deeper look at the sections living conditions and health status of...

Use of RNALater® Preservation for Virome Sequencing in Outbreak Settings

Claudia Kohl, Merle Wegener, Andreas Nitsche & Andreas Kurth
Outbreaks of infectious diseases may occur in animal and human populations; this underlines the need for suitable One Health approaches. During outbreak situations, straightforward identification of etiological agents is indispensable for taking countermeasures. A recently published protocol for metagenomic virus detection in clinical specimens (TUViD-VM) was developed for snap-frozen tissues which can be challenging to obtain. Here, we describe the use of RNALater®-treated tissue at ambient temperatures for virome sequencing. This study demonstrates that samples...

Recombinant IFN-γ from the bank vole Myodes glareolus: a novel tool for research on rodent reservoirs of zoonotic pathogens

Francesca Torelli, Steffen Zander, Heinz Ellerbrok, Georg Kochs, Rainer G. Ulrich, Christian Klotz & Frank Seeber
Rodent species like Myodes glareolus and Microtus spp. are natural reservoirs for many zoonotic pathogens causing human diseases and are gaining increasing interest in the field of eco-immunology as candidate animal models. Despite their importance the lack of immunological reagents has hampered research in these animal species. Here we report the recombinant production and functional characterization of IFN-γ, a central mediator of host’s innate and adaptive immune responses, from the bank vole M. glareolus. Soluble...

Neuerungen in den aktuellen Empfehlungen der Ständigen Impfkommission (STIKO) am RKI für 2016/2017

Robert Koch-Institut

Antibiotika-resistente Erreger in Deutschland

Evgeny A. Idelevich, Christian Lanckohr, Dagmar Horn, Lothar H. Wieler, Karsten Becker & Robin Köck
Hintergrund: Die Frage, ob die zunehmende Verbreitung von Erregern mit Antibiotika-Multiresistenzen (MRE) beim Menschen durch Übertragungen von Tieren erklärbar ist, wird öffentlich diskutiert. Ziel der Arbeit: Diese Übersichtsarbeit trägt Daten zum Vorkommen von Methicillin-resistenten Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) und Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL) bildenden Enterobakterien bei Mensch und Tier zusammen und beschreibt die Erkenntnisse zur zoonotischen Transmission. Material und Methoden: Es wurde eine Literaturrecherche durchgeführt. Relevante Literatur wurde durch Screening von Überschriften und Abstracts identifiziert und ergänzt...

Characteristics of participants in a randomized trial of an Internet intervention for depression (EVIDENT) in comparison to a national sample (DEGS1)

Christina Späth, Ulfert Hapke, Ulrike Maske, Johanna Schröder, Steffen Moritz, Thomas Berger, Björn Meyer, Matthias Rose, Sandra Nolte & Jan Philipp Klein
Background: While the efficacy of Internet interventions for depression has been demonstrated in numerous studies, there is concern that the participants in these studies may systematically differ from depressed subjects in the general population. The goal of this study was to compare participants in a large trial of an Internet intervention for depression with a population-based sample that reported depressive symptomatology in the same range of severity. Methodology: The analysis is based on a sample...

Health monitoring and health indicators in Europe

Angela Fehr, Cornelia Lange, Judith Fuchs, Hannelore Neuhauser & Roma Schmitz
Demographic change, new health threats and inequalities in health and healthcare provision in and between European Union (EU) member states pose a great challenge to European health care systems. Not only for these reasons does it make sense to collect comparable European health data. Such information provides insights on the distribution of risk and protection factors, the prevalence of chronic diseases and the levels of care provided in the member states and supports the planning...

GrippeWeb als wichtiges Instrument in der Vorbereitung und Bewältigung einer zukünftigen Pandemie

Udo Buchholz, Pauline Gau, Silke Buda & Kerstin Prahm
GrippeWeb ist ein vom RKI entwickeltes, bevölkerungsbasiertes Überwachungsinstrument für akute Atemwegserkrankungen. Es ging 2011 online und die Teilnehmerzahl wuchs seitdem kontinuierlich. Es ist ein robustes System, welches Daten generiert, die auf die in Deutschland lebende Bevölkerung übertragbar sind. Der Anteil der gegen Influenza geimpften Teilnehmer wird wöchentlich abgefragt bzw. kann wöchentlich berechnet werden. Es werden nicht nur Grippewellen abgebildet, sondern das System vermag auch zu zeigen, wie häufig akute Atemwegserkrankungen bei Personen verschiedenen Alters im...

Hepatitis A virus infections and outbreaks in asylum seekers arriving to Germany, September 2015 to March 2016

Kai Michaelis, Jürgen J. Wenzel, Klaus Stark & Mirko Faber
From September 2015 to March 2016, hepatitis A notifications in Germany increased by 45% to 699 cases compared to 482 cases in the same period of the previous year. Children aged five to nine years were predominantly affected (22% of all cases in this period). We hypothesized that this increase could be explained by the marked influx of asylum seekers in this time period. We analysed national surveillance data and estimated the number of imported...

Neuerungen in den Empfehlungen der Ständigen Impfkommission (STIKO) am RKI für 2017/2018

Robert Koch-Institut
Die STIKO hat im Epidemiologischen Bulletin (Epid. Bull.) 34/2017 ihre aktualisierten Impfempfehlungen für 2017/2018 veröffentlicht. Die ausführlichen wissenschaftlichen Begründungen zu den geänderten Empfehlungen werden in dieser und der folgenden Ausgabe des Epid. Bull. publiziert. Im Folgenden gibt die Geschäftsstelle der STIKO einen Überblick über die wichtigsten Änderungen in den STIKO-Empfehlungen.

Equination (inoculation of horsepox): An early alternative to vaccination (inoculation of cowpox) and the potential role of horsepox virus in the origin of the smallpox vaccine

José Esparza, Livia Schrick, Clarissa R. Damaso & Andreas Nitsche
For almost 150 years after Edward Jenner had published the “Inquiry” in 1798, it was generally assumed that the cowpox virus was the vaccine against smallpox. It was not until 1939 when it was shown that vaccinia, the smallpox vaccine virus, was serologically related but different from the cowpox virus. In the absence of a known natural host, vaccinia has been considered to be a laboratory virus that may have originated from mutational or recombinational events...

Eigenschaften, Häufigkeit und Verbreitung von MRSA in Deutschland

Franziska Layer, Birgit Strommenger, Christiane Cuny, Guido Werner, Ines Noll, Muna Abu Sin & Tim Eckmanns
Zur Erfassung der aktuellen MRSA-Raten für Deutschland existieren verschiedene nationale und internationale Resistenz-Surveillance-Systeme, Resistenz-Surveillance-Studien und weitere Register wie die Meldepflicht von MRSA aus invasiven Infektionen. Diese Daten haben eine unterschiedliche Basis, was bei der Interpretation der abgeleiteten Trends und Entwicklungen zu berücksichtigen ist. Im Bericht des Epidemiologischen Bulletins 5/2018 wird deutlich, dass die MRSA-Prävalenz sowie die Inzidenz von Blutkulturnachweisen rückläufig sind. Bei MRSA-Nachweisen setzt sich zudem der Trend der letzten Jahre in der Verbreitung bestimmter...

Strain-dependent effects of clinical echovirus 30 outbreak isolates at the blood-CSF barrier

Tobias Dahm, Ortwin Adams, Sindy Boettcher, Sabine Diedrich, Vasily Morozov, Grant Hansman, Petra Fallier-Becker, Sebastian Schädler, Claus J. Burkhardt, Christel Weiss, Carolin Stump-Guthier, Hiroshi Ishikawa, Horst Schroten, Christian Schwerk, Tobias Tenenbaum & Henriette Rudolph
Background: Echovirus (E) 30 (E-30) meningitis is characterized by neuroinflammation involving immune cell pleocytosis at the protective barriers of the central nervous system (CNS). In this context, infection of the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB), which has been demonstrated to be involved in enteroviral CNS pathogenesis, may affect the tight junction (TJ) and adherens junction (AJ) function and morphology. Methods: We used an in vitro human choroid plexus epithelial (HIBCPP) cell model to investigate the effect...

Active Replication of Porcine Cytomegalovirus (PCMV) Following Transplantation of a Pig Heart into a Baboon despite Undetected Virus in the Donor Pig

Vladimir A. Morozov, Jan-Michael Abicht, Bruno Reichart, Tanja Mayr, Sonja Guethoff & Joachim Denner
Viral zoonoses may represent a serious problem when xenotransplantation using pig cells, tissues, and organs will be performed. Recently we reported multiorgan failure, mainly liver failure, in a baboon (Papio anubis) after orthotopic transplantation of a heart from a genetically modified pig and showed that the baboon was not infected with hepatitis E virus (HEV). Since pigs are frequently infected with porcine cytomegalovirus (PCMV), and the infection is latent and therefore difficult to detect, screening...

Varicella-zoster virus seroprevalence in children and adolescents in the pre-varicella vaccine era, Germany

Miriam Wiese-Posselt, Anette Siedler, Annette Mankertz, Andreas Sauerbrei, Hartmut Hengel, Ole Wichmann & Christina Poethko-Müller
Background: In 2004, universal childhood varicella vaccination was introduced in Germany. We aimed to determine the age-specific prevalence of anti-varicella zoster virus (VZV) IgG-antibodies among children in the pre-varicella vaccine era in Germany, to identify factors associated with VZV seropositivity, and to assess the suitability of a commercially available ELISA for VZV seroepidemiological studies by comparing it with an in-house fluorescent antibody to membrane antigen test (FAMA) as the gold standard. Methods: Serum samples of...

Evidence for Contemporary Switching of the O-Antigen Gene Cluster between Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Strains Colonizing Cattle

Lutz Geue, Christian Menge, Inga Eichhorn, Torsten Semmler, Lothar H. Wieler, Derek Pickard, Christian Berens & Stefanie A. Barth
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) comprise a group of zoonotic enteric pathogens with ruminants, especially cattle, as the main reservoir. O-antigens are instrumental for host colonization and bacterial niche adaptation. They are highly immunogenic and, therefore, targeted by the adaptive immune system. The O-antigen is one of the most diverse bacterial cell constituents and variation not only exists between different bacterial species, but also between individual isolates/strains within a single species. We recently identified STEC...

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