3,737 Works

Kinder und Jugendliche mit besonderem Versorgungsbedarf im Follow-up: Ergebnisse der KiGGS-Studie 2003 – 2012

Elvira Mauz, Roma Schmitz & Christina Poethko-Müller
Weltweit ist die Häufigkeit chronischer Erkrankungen bei Kindern stark angestiegen. Chronisch kranke Kinder und ihre Familien haben diagnoseübergreifend besondere Herausforderungen zu meistern. Dazu gehört ein erschwerter Übergang in das Erwachsenenalter mit veränderten Versorgungsbedingungen und Zuständigkeiten. An einer Untergruppe der KiGGS-Kohorte wird untersucht, welche Chance chronisch kranke Kinder und Jugendliche haben, im jungen Erwachsenenalter ein Leben zu führen, ohne sich chronisch krank oder gesundheitsbedingt eingeschränkt zu fühlen und zum anderen, welche Faktoren mit einem ungünstigen Verlauf...

Predicted 10-year risk of cardiovascular mortality in the 40 to 69 year old general population without cardiovascular diseases in Germany

Claudia Diederichs, Hannelore Neuhauser, Viktoria Rücker, Markus A. Busch, Ulrich Keil, Anthony P. Fitzgerald & Peter U. Heuschmann
Aims: To estimate the 10-year risk of fatal cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the 40 to 69 year old general population in Germany stratified by sex and to analyze differences between socio-economic status (SES), region and community size in individuals without CVD. The analysis is based on the newly recalibrated SCORE Deutschland risk charts and considered other comorbidities for the classification of the high CVD risk group according to the guidelines of the European Society of...

Seasonal recurrence of cowpox virus outbreaks in captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus)

Julia Stagegaard, Andreas Kurth, Daniel Stern, Piotr Wojciech Dabrowski, Ann Pocknell, Andreas Nitsche & Livia Schrick
Cowpox virus infections in captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) with high morbidity and mortality have already been reported in the UK and Russia in the 1970s. However, most of the reported cases have been singular events. Here, we report a total of five cowpox virus outbreaks in cheetahs in the same safari park in Denmark between 2010 and 2014. Nine cheetahs showed varying severity of clinical disease; two of them died (22%). All episodes occurred between...

Health and health risk behaviour of adolescents—Differences according to family structure. Results of the German KiGGS cohort study

Petra Rattay, Elena Von Der Lippe, Elvira Mauz, Felicitas Richter, Heike Hölling, Cornelia Lange & Thomas Lampert
Objective: This study’s aim was to investigate the association between family structure and different health-related outcomes in adolescence (self-rated health, emotional and behavioural problems, health-related quality of life, regular smoking, and heavy episodic drinking). Furthermore, we analysed the extent to which socio-economic status, family cohesion and the pre-transition health status explain family structure-related health disparities. Methods: We used longitudinal data from the first two waves of the German KiGGS cohort study carried out by the...

Find and treat or find and lose? Tuberculosis treatment outcomes among screened newly arrived asylum seekers in Germany 2002 to 2014

Anna Kuehne, Barbara Hauer, Bonita Brodhun, Walter Haas & Lena Fiebig
Background: Germany has a low tuberculosis (TB) incidence. A relevant and increasing proportion of TB cases is diagnosed among asylum seekers upon screening. Aim: We aimed to assess whether cases identified by screening asylum seekers had equally successful and completely reported treatment outcomes as cases diagnosed by passive case finding and contact tracing in the general population. Methods: We analysed characteristics and treatment outcomes of pulmonary TB cases notified in Germany between 2002 and 2014,...

In-season and out-of-season variation of rotavirus genotype distribution and age of infection across 12 European countries before the introduction of routine vaccination, 2007/08 to 2012/13

D. Hungerford, R. Vivancos, J. M. Read, V. E. Pitzer, N. Cunliffe, N. French, M. Iturriza- Gómara & Andreas Mas Marques
The EuroRotaNet surveillance network has conducted rotavirus genotype surveillance since 2007 in 16 European countries. Using epidemiological and microbiological data from 39,786 genotyped rotavirus-positive specimens collected between September 2007 and August 2013, we assessed genotype distribution and age distribution of rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) cases in and out of peak season in 12 countries which were yet to implement routine rotavirus vaccination. In multinomial multivariate logistic regression, adjusting for year, country and age, the odds of...

Hyperspectral infrared nanoimaging of organic samples based on Fourier transform infrared nanospectroscopy

Iban Amenabar, Simon Poly, Monika Goikoetxea, Wiwat Nuansing, Peter Lasch & Rainer Hillenbrand
Infrared nanospectroscopy enables novel possibilities for chemical and structural analysis of nanocomposites, biomaterials or optoelectronic devices. Here we introduce hyperspectral infrared nanoimaging based on Fourier transform infrared nanospectroscopy with a tunable bandwidth-limited laser continuum. We describe the technical implementations and present hyperspectral infrared near-field images of about 5,000 pixel, each one covering the spectral range from 1,000 to 1,900 cm−1. To verify the technique and to demonstrate its application potential, we imaged a three-component polymer blend...

Reiseassoziierte Krankheiten 2015

Robert Koch-Institut
Der Bericht basiert auf den Meldedaten nach Infektionsschutzgesetz (IfSG), die dem Robert Koch-Institut (RKI) mit Datenstand 1. März 2016 übermittelt worden waren. Diese wurden ergänzt um Angaben aus anderen Erfassungssystemen, soweit diese verfügbar waren. Eine Ausnahme bilden Leishmaniose und Zikavirus- Erkrankung. Beide Erkrankungen waren 2015 nicht meldepflichtig. Die Daten zur Leishmaniose stammen vom Institut für Tropenmedizin Berlin. Bezüglich Zikavirus-Erkrankungen wurden die Daten der Fälle ausgewertet, die gemäß IfSG § 7 Abs. 2 (Meldung bedrohlicher Erkrankungen,...

Folatversorgung in Deutschland

Gert Mensink, Anke Weißenborn & Almut Richter
Folat ist wichtig für die Zellteilung und somit für das Wachstum und die Entwicklung des Körpers. Zur Einschätzung der Versorgungslage in der Bevölkerung können im Serum gemessene Folatkonzentrationen herangezogen werden. Der Median des Serumfolats liegt für Erwachsene im Alter von 18 bis 79 Jahren bei 7,5 ng/ml (für Frauen bei 7,9 ng/ml, für Männer bei 7,2 ng/ml). Etwa 86 % der erwachsenen Bevölkerung in Deutschland sind adäquat mit Folat versorgt. In höheren Altersgruppen sowie bei...

Ongoing haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS) outbreak caused by sorbitol-fermenting (SF) Shiga toxinproducing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157, Germany, December 2016 to May 2017

Sabine Vygen-Bonnet, Bettina Rosner, Hendrik Wilking, Angelika Fruth, Rita Prager, A. Kossow, Christina Lang, Sandra Simon, Juliane Seidel, Mirko Faber, Anika Schielke, Kai Michaelis, Alexandra Holzer, R. Kamphausen, D. Kalhöfer, S. Thole, Alexander Mellmann, Antje Flieger & Klaus Stark
We report an ongoing, protracted and geographically dispersed outbreak of haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS) and gastroenteritis in Germany, involving 30 cases since December 2016. The outbreak was caused by the sorbitol-fermenting immotile variant of Shiga toxin-producing (STEC) Escherichia coli O157. Molecular typing revealed close relatedness between isolates from 14 cases. One HUS patient died. Results of a case–control study suggest packaged minced meat as the most likely food vehicle. Food safety investigations are ongoing.

Recommendations of the Standing Committee on Vaccination (STIKO) at the Robert Koch Institute – 2016/2017

Robert Koch-Institut
These STIKO vaccination recommendations were endorsed during the 82nd and 84th STIKO meetings and are considered enacted upon their publication on 29 August 2016. This 2016 version replaces the previous STIKO vaccination recommendations pub-lished in August 2015 in Epidemiologisches Bulletin (Epid. Bull.) 34/2015 of the Robert Koch Institute (RKI). The scientific rationale for the modified STIKO recommendations will be available in Epid. Bull. 35/2016, 36/2016, and 37/2016 on the RKI website.

Changes to cholesterol trafficking in macrophages by Leishmania parasites infection

Geo Semini, Daniel Paape, Athina Paterou, Juliane Schroeder, Martin Barrios-Llerena & Toni Aebischer
Leishmania spp. are protozoan parasites that are transmitted by sandfly vectors during blood sucking to vertebrate hosts and cause a spectrum of diseases called leishmaniases. It has been demonstrated that host cholesterol plays an important role during Leishmania infection. Nevertheless, little is known about the intracellular distribution of this lipid early after internalization of the parasite. Here, pulse-chase experiments with radiolabeled cholesteryl esterified to fatty acids bound to low-density lipoproteins indicated that retention of this...

External quality assessment study for ebolavirus PCR-diagnostic promotes international preparedness during the 2014 – 2016 Ebola outbreak in West Africa

Heinz Ellerbrok, Sonja Jacobsen, Pranav Patel, Toni Rieger, Markus Eickmann, Stephan Becker, Stephan Günther, Dhamari Naidoo, Livia Schrick, Kathrin Keeren, Angelina Targosz, Anette Teichmann, Pierre Formenty & Matthias Niedrig
During the recent Ebola outbreak in West Africa several international mobile laboratories were deployed to the mainly affected countries Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia to provide ebolavirus diagnostic capacity. Additionally, imported cases and small outbreaks in other countries required global preparedness for Ebola diagnostics. Detection of viral RNA by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction has proven effective for diagnosis of ebolavirus disease and several assays are available. However, reliability of these assays is largely unknown...

Rauchen bei Erwachsenen in Deutschland

Johannes Zeiher & Benjamin Kuntz
Rauchen ist ein bedeutendes Gesundheitsrisiko und die führende Ursache vorzeitiger Sterblichkeit. In Deutschland wurden zahlreiche Maßnahmen (z. B. Steuererhöhungen, Nichtraucherschutz und Warnhinweise) auf den Weg gebracht, um den Tabakkonsum der Bevölkerung zu senken. Nach GEDA 2014/2015-EHIS rauchen 20,8 % der Frauen und 27,0 % der Männer ab 18 Jahren zumindest gelegentlich. Bei beiden Geschlechtern ist der Anteil der aktuell Rauchenden in den jüngeren Altersgruppen am höchsten. Das Rauchen ist in höheren Bildungsgruppen bei Frauen und...

Ernährung, Bewegung und Substanzkonsum von Kindern und Jugendlichen

Laura Krause, Christine Anding & Panagiotis Kamtsiuris
Unter dem Begriff des Gesundheitsverhaltens werden gesundheitsförderliche sowie gesundheitsriskante Komponenten des Verhaltens verstanden. Untersucht wird in dieser Arbeit das Gesundheitsverhalten von Kindern und Jugendlichen in Thüringen. Datenbasis ist eine repräsentative Teilstichprobe aus dem in KiGGS Welle 1 (Studie zur Gesundheit von Kindern und Jugendlichen in Deutschland) durchgeführten Landesmodul Thüringen (2010–2012; n = 4096; 3–17 Jahre). Das Gesundheitsverhalten wird entlang von neun Indikatoren beschrieben: Obst- und Gemüseverzehr, Softdrinkkonsum, Frühstück zu Hause, körperliche Aktivität, Sport, Schwimmfähigkeit, Alkoholkonsum,...

Comparative Genomics of Escherichia coli Isolated from Skin and Soft Tissue and Other Extraintestinal Infections

Amit Ranjan, Sabiha Shaik, Nishant Nandanwar, Arif Hussain, Sumeet K. Tiwari, Torsten Semmler, Savita Jadhav, Lothar H. Wieler, Munirul Alam, Rita R. Colwell & Niyaz Ahmed
Escherichia coli, an intestinal Gram-negative bacterium, has been shown to be associated with a variety of diseases in addition to intestinal infections, such as urinary tract infections (UTIs), meningitis in neonates, septicemia, skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs), and colisepticemia. Thus, for nonintestinal infections, it is categorized as extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC). It is also an opportunistic pathogen, causing cross infections, notably as an agent of zoonotic diseases. However, comparative genomic data providing functional...

Handlungsempfehlungen für die Erstellung von Hitzeaktionsplänen zum Schutz der menschlichen Gesundheit

Robert Koch-Institut
Die im nachfolgenden Dokument gegebenen Empfehlungen zur Prävention hitzebedingter Erkrankungen wurden von einem Autorenteam der oben genannten Ad-hoc Arbeitsgruppe erstellt. Sie sollen eine hohe Bekanntheit und eine möglichst breite Anwendung u.a. im öffentlichen Gesundheitsdienst erfahren.

Implementation of the European health interview survey (EHIS) into the German health update (GEDA)

Cornelia Lange, Jonas D. Finger, Jennifer Allen, Sabine Born, Jens Hoebel, Ronny Kuhnert, Stephan Müters, Jürgen Thelen, Patrick Schmich, Marike Varga, Elena Von Der Lippe, Matthias Wetzstein & Thomas Ziese
Background: This methodological paper describes the integration of the ‘European Health Interview Survey wave 2’ (EHIS 2) into the ‘German Health Update’ 2014/2015 (GEDA 2014/2015-EHIS). Methods: GEDA 2014/2015-EHIS is a cross-sectional health survey. A two-stage stratified cluster sampling approach was used to recruit persons aged 15 years and older with permanent residence in Germany. Two different modes of data collection were used, self-administered web questionnaire and self-administered paper questionnaire. The survey instrument implemented the EHIS...

The Flagellar Regulon of Legionella—A Review

Sandra Appelt & Klaus Heuner
The Legionella genus comprises more than 60 species. In particular, Legionella pneumophila is known to cause severe illnesses in humans. Legionellaceae are ubiquitous inhabitants of aquatic environments. Some Legionellaceae are motile and their motility is important to move around in habitats. Motility can be considered as a potential virulence factor as already shown for various human pathogens. The genes of the flagellar system, regulator and structural genes, are structured in hierarchical levels described as the...

Pyoderma outbreak among kindergarten families: Association with a Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL)-producing S. aureus strain

Rasmus Leistner, Axel Kola, Petra Gastmeier, Renate Krüger, Pia-Alice Hoppe, Sylke Schneider-Burrus, Irina Zuschneid, Nicoletta Wischnewski, Jennifer K. Bender, Franziska Layer, Michaela Niebank, Carmen Scheibenbogen & Leif G. Hanitsch
Objectives: We report on an outbreak of skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI) among kindergarten families. We analyzed the transmission route and aimed to control the outbreak. Methods: The transmission route was investigated by nasal screening for Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL)-producing Staphylococcus aureus (PVL-SA), subsequent microbiological investigation including whole genome sequencing and a questionnaire-based analysis of epidemiological information. The control measures included distribution of outbreak information to all individuals at risk and implementation of a Staphylococcus...

High-Throughput Quantification of Bacterial-Cell Interactions Using Virtual Colony Counts

Stefanie Hoffmann, Steffi Walter, Anne-Kathrin Blume, Stephan Fuchs, Christiane Schmidt, Annemarie Scholz & Roman G. Gerlach
The quantification of bacteria in cell culture infection models is of paramount importance for the characterization of host-pathogen interactions and pathogenicity factors involved. The standard to enumerate bacteria in these assays is plating of a dilution series on solid agar and counting of the resulting colony forming units (CFU). In contrast, the virtual colony count (VCC) method is a high-throughput compatible alternative with minimized manual input. Based on the recording of quantitative growth kinetics, VCC...

Rapid Viral Diagnosis of Orthopoxviruses by Electron Microscopy: Optional or a Must?

Hans R. Gelderblom & Dick Madeley
Diagnostic electron microscopy (DEM) was an essential component of viral diagnosis until the development of highly sensitive nucleic acid amplification techniques (NAT). The simple negative staining technique of DEM was applied widely to smallpox diagnosis until the world-wide eradication of the human-specific pathogen in 1980. Since then, the threat of smallpox re-emerging through laboratory escape, molecular manipulation, synthetic biology or bioterrorism has not totally disappeared and would be a major problem in an unvaccinated population....

Pitfalls in PCR troubleshooting: Expect the unexpected?

Livia Schrick & Andreas Nitsche
PCR is a well-understood and established laboratory technique often used in molecular diagnostics. Huge experience has been accumulated over the last years regarding the design of PCR assays and their set-up, including in-depth troubleshooting to obtain the optimal PCR assay for each purpose. Here we report a PCR troubleshooting that came up with a surprising result never observed before. With this report we hope to sensitize the reader to this peculiar problem and to save...

Colistin-Resistenz bei Gram-negativen Bakterien – die Situation in Deutschland

Robert Koch-Institut

Improving Ebola infection prevention and control in primary healthcare facilities in Sierra Leone: a single-group pretest post-test, mixed-methods study

Ruwan Ratnayake, Lara S. Ho, Rashid Ansumana, Hannah Brown, Matthias Borchert, Laura Miller, Thomas Kratz, Shannon A. McMahon & Foday Sahr
Background: Accomplishing infection prevention and control (IPC) in health facilities in Sub-Saharan Africa is challenging. Owing to poor IPC, healthcare workers (HCWs) were frequently infected during Sierra Leone's Ebola epidemic. In late 2014, IPC was rapidly and nationally scaled up. We carried out workshops in sampled facilities to further improve adherence to IPC. We investigated HCW experiences and observed practice gaps, before and after the workshops. Methods: We conducted an uncontrolled, before and after, mixed-methods...

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