3,737 Works

HIV-Jahresbericht 2015

Robert Koch-Institut

12-Monats-Prävalenz von Arthrose in Deutschland

Judith Fuchs, Ronny Kuhnert & Christa Scheidt-Nave
Arthrose ist die weltweit häufigste Gelenkerkrankung, die insbesondere in fortgeschrittenem Stadium zu Schmerzen und Funktionseinbußen der Gelenke führt. In der Studie GEDA 2014/2015-EHIS des Robert Koch-Instituts berichten 17,9 % der Erwachsenen ab 18 Jahren das Vorliegen einer Arthrose in den letzten 12 Monaten, wobei die Prävalenz bei Frauen mit 21,8 % höher liegt als bei Männern mit 13,9 %. Der Anteil von Personen mit Arthrose steigt mit zunehmendem Lebensalter deutlich an; bei den Personen ab...

Neue S2k-Leitlinie zur Tuberkulose im Erwachsenenalter

Ralf Otto-Knapp

SLIMM: species level identification of microorganisms from metagenomes

Temesgen Hailemariam Dadi, Bernhard Y. Renard, Lothar H. Wieler, Torsten Semmler & Knut Reinert
Identification and quantification of microorganisms is a significant step in studying the alpha and beta diversities within and between microbial communities respectively. Both identification and quantification of a given microbial community can be carried out using whole genome shotgun sequences with less bias than when using 16S-rDNA sequences. However, shared regions of DNA among reference genomes and taxonomic units pose a significant challenge in assigning reads correctly to their true origins. The existing microbial community...

Porcine Circoviruses and Xenotransplantation

Joachim Denner & Annette Mankertz
Allotransplantation and xenotransplantation may be associated with the transmission of pathogens from the donor to the recipient. Whereas in the case of allotransplantation the transmitted microorganisms and their pathogenic effect are well characterized, the possible influence of porcine microorganisms on humans is mostly unknown. Porcine circoviruses (PCVs) are common in pig breeds and they belong to porcine microorganisms that still have not been fully addressed in terms of evaluating the potential risk of xenotransplantation using...

Die Polioeradikation ist ohne Laborcontainment chancenlos

Sabine Diedrich & Kathrin Keeren
Als die globale Polioeradikationsinitiative (GPEI) 1988 von der Weltgesundheitsorganisation (WHO) und ihren Partnern ins Leben gerufen wurde, erkrankten täglich mehr als 1.000 Kinder weltweit an Polio. Seither wurden mehr als 2,5 Milliarden Kinder gegen Polio immunisiert. Dies war möglich durch die Zusammenarbeit von mehr als 200 Ländern und 20 Millionen Freiwilligen, unterstützt durch internationale Investitionen von mehr als 11 Milliarden US-Dollar. Inzwischen gibt es nur drei Länder, in denen die Poliovirus-Zirkulation nicht beendet werden konnte:...

Temporal changes in predicted risk of type 2 diabetes in Germany: findings from the German Health Interview and Examination Surveys 1997–1999 and 2008–2011

Rebecca Paprott, Gert Mensink, Matthias B. Schulze, Silke Thiele, Kristin Mühlenbruch, Christa Scheidt-Nave & Christin Heidemann
Objective: Over time, prevalence changes in individual diabetes risk factors have been observed for Germany and other European countries. We aimed to investigate the temporal change of a summary measure of type 2 diabetes risk in Germany. Design: Comparison of data from two cross-sectional surveys that are about 12 years apart. Setting Two nationwide health examination surveys representative for the non-institutionalised population aged 18–79 years in Germany. Participants The study included participants without diagnosed diabetes...

No significant HTLV seroprevalence in German people who inject drugs

Oliver Hohn, Stephen Norley, Claudia Kücherer, Ali Bazarbachi, Hiba El Hajj, Ulrich Marcus, Ruth Zimmermann & Norbert Bannert
Background: Although human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV) is transmitted via the same routes as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), its worldwide seroprevalence differs drastically because HTLV is transmitted mainly via infected cells rather than free virus. The sharing of needles and other equipment places people who inject drugs (PWID) at particularly high-risk for such blood-borne diseases. Methods: To validate the methodology used to process and analyze the dried blood spots (DBS) utilized in the study, dried serum...

Berlin Squirrelpox Virus, a New Poxvirus in Red Squirrels, Berlin, Germany

Gudrun Wibbelt, Simon H. Tausch, Piotr Wojtek Dabrowski, Olivia Kershaw, Andreas Nitsche & Livia Schrick
Near Berlin, Germany, several juvenile red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris) were found with moist, crusty skin lesions. Histology, electron microscopy, and cell culture isolation revealed an orthopoxvirus-like infection. Subsequent PCR and genome analysis identified a new poxvirus (Berlin squirrelpox virus) that could not be assigned to any known poxvirus genera.

Coronavirus and paramyxovirus in bats from Northwest Italy

Francesca Rizzo, Kathryn M. Edenborough, Roberto Toffoli, Paola Culasso, Simona Zoppi, Alessandro Dondo, Serena Robetto, Sergio Rosati, Angelika Lander, Andreas Kurth, Riccardo Orusa, Luigi Bertolotti & Maria Lucia Mandola
Background: Bat-borne virus surveillance is necessary for determining inter-species transmission risks and is important due to the wide-range of bat species which may harbour potential pathogens. This study aimed to monitor coronaviruses (CoVs) and paramyxoviruses (PMVs) in bats roosting in northwest Italian regions. Our investigation was focused on CoVs and PMVs due to their proven ability to switch host and their zoonotic potential. Here we provide the phylogenetic characterization of the highly conserved polymerase gene...

Dietary Acid Load and Potassium Intake Associate with Blood Pressure and Hypertension Prevalence in a Representative Sample of the German Adult Population

Danika Krupp, Jonas Esche, Gert Mensink, Stefanie Klenow, Michael Thamm & Thomas Remer
Diets rich in fruits and vegetables, like the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH)-diet, are usually characterized by high potassium intake and reduced dietary acid load, and have been shown to reduce blood pressure (BP). However, the relevance of potential renal acid load (PRAL) for BP has not been compared with the relevance to BP of urinary biomarker (K-urine)- and dietary food frequency questionnaire (K-FFQ)-based estimates of potassium intake in a general adult population sample....

MPA Portable: A Stand-Alone Software Package for Analyzing Metaproteome Samples on the Go

Thilo Muth, Fabian Kohrs, Robert Heyer, Dirk Benndorf, Erdmann Rapp, Udo Reichl, Lennart Martens & Bernhard Y. Renard
Metaproteomics, the mass spectrometry-based analysis of proteins from multispecies samples faces severe challenges concerning data analysis and results interpretation. To overcome these shortcomings, we here introduce the MetaProteomeAnalyzer (MPA) Portable software. In contrast to the original server-based MPA application, this newly developed tool no longer requires computational expertise for installation and is now independent of any relational database system. In addition, MPA Portable now supports state-of-theart database search engines and a convenient command line interface...

Prevalence of human norovirus and Clostridium difficile coinfections in adult hospitalized patients

Janelle N. Stokely, Sandra Niendorf, Stefan Taube, Marina Höhne, Vincent B. Young, Mary A. M. Rogers & Christiane E. Wobus
Objective: Human norovirus (HuNoV) and Clostridium difficile are common causes of infectious gastroenteritis in adults in the US. However, limited information is available regarding HuNoV and C. difficile coinfections. Our study was designed to evaluate the prevalence of HuNoV and C. difficile coinfections among adult patients in a hospital setting and disease symptomatology. Study design and setting: For a cross-sectional analysis, 384 fecal samples were tested for the presence of C. difficile toxins from patients...

Host cell interactions of outer membrane vesicle-associated virulence factors of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157: Intracellular delivery, trafficking and mechanisms of cell injury

Martina Bielaszewska, Christian Rüter, Andreas Bauwens, Lilo Greune, Kevin-André Jarosch, Daniel Steil, Wenlan Zhang, Xiaohua He, Roland Lloubes, Angelika Fruth, Kwang Sik Kim, M. Alexander Schmidt, Ulrich Dobrindt, Alexander Mellmann & Helge Karch
Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are important tools in bacterial virulence but their role in the pathogenesis of infections caused by enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157, the leading cause of life-threatening hemolytic uremic syndrome, is poorly understood. Using proteomics, electron and confocal laser scanning microscopy, immunoblotting, and bioassays, we investigated OMVs secreted by EHEC O157 clinical isolates for virulence factors cargoes, interactions with pathogenetically relevant human cells, and mechanisms of cell injury. We demonstrate that O157...

Von der Zulassung von Impfstoffen zur Empfehlung durch die Ständige Impfkommission in Deutschland

Michael Pfleiderer & Ole Wichmann
Impfungen gehören zu den effektivsten Präventionsmaßnahmen der modernen Medizin und haben seit ihrer Einführung im letzten Jahrhundert zu einem drastischen Rückgang, in Einzelfällen sogar zur Eliminierung schwerer Infektionskrankheiten geführt. Die Nutzenbewertung von Impfstoffen weist einige Besonderheiten auf. Dazu gehört, dass Impfstoffe zur Verhinderung von Infektionskrankheiten an Gesunden, Therapeutika hingegen zur Behandlung von bereits Erkrankten eingesetzt werden. Die mit der Anwendung von Impfstoffen verbundenen Risiken dürfen daher – um für den Impfling noch akzeptabel zu sein...

Work-related physical activity among adults in Germany

Jonas D. Finger, Gert Mensink, Cornelia Lange & Kristin Manz
In GEDA 2014/2015-EHIS the prevalence of work-related physical activity was estimated based on respondents’ self-reported data. 47.5% of women and 47.2% of men mostly sit or stand during work. The highest proportion of people who mostly sit or stand during work is found among 18- to 29-year-old women (55.5%) and men aged 30 to 44 (50.2%). A significantly higher proportion of men (14.8%) than women (3.2%) have jobs involving mostly heavy manual labour. For both...

Mortality, Morbidity and Health-Seeking Behaviour during the Ebola Epidemic 2014– 2015 in Monrovia Results from a Mobile Phone Survey

Anna Kühne, Emily Lynch, Esaie Marshall, Amanda Tiffany, Ian Alley, Luke Bawo, Moses Massaquoi, Claudia Lodesani, Philippe Le Vaillant, Klaudia Porten & Etienne Gignoux
Between March 2014 and July 2015 at least 10,500 Ebola cases including more than 4,800 deaths occurred in Liberia, the majority in Monrovia. However, official numbers may have underestimated the size of the outbreak. Closure of health facilities and mistrust in existing structures may have additionally impacted on all-cause morbidity and mortality. To quantify mortality and morbidity and describe health-seeking behaviour in Monrovia, Médecins sans Frontières (MSF) conducted a mobile phone survey from December 2014...

Changes in physical functioning among men and women aged 50–79 years in Germany: an analysis of National Health Interview and Examination Surveys, 1997–1999 and 2008–2011

Amanda K. Buttery, Yong Du, Markus Busch, Judith Fuchs, Beate Gaertner, Hildtraud Knopf & Christa Scheidt-Nave
Background: This study examines changes in physical functioning among adults aged 50-79 years in Germany based on data from two German National Health Interview and Examination Surveys conducted in 1997–1999 (GNHIES98) and 2008–2011 (DEGS1). Methods Using cross-sectional data from the two surveys (GNHIES98, n = 2884 and DEGS1, n = 3732), we examined changes in self-reported physical functioning scores (Short Form-36 physical functioning subscale (SF-36 PF)) by sex and age groups (50–64 and 65–79 years). Covariables included educational level,...

Assessing the feasibility of fly based surveillance of wildlife infectious diseases

Constanze Hoffmann, Melanie Stockhausen, Kevin Merkel, Sébastien Calvignac-Spencer & Fabian H. Leendertz
Monitoring wildlife infectious agents requires acquiring samples suitable for analyses, which is often logistically demanding. A possible alternative to invasive or non-invasive sampling of wild-living vertebrates is the use of vertebrate material contained in invertebrates feeding on them, their feces, or their remains. Carrion flies have been shown to contain vertebrate DNA; here we investigate whether they might also be suitable for wildlife pathogen detection. We collected 498 flies in Taï National Park, Côte d’Ivoire,...

Die Echinokokkose – Eine Übersicht und neue Erkenntnisse in der Diagnostik, Therapie und Parasitenbiologie

Klaus Brehm
Zu den vielen mit dem Attribut „selten aber gefährlich“ versehenen Krankheiten in Deutschland gehören zweifelsfrei die Alveoläre und die Zystische Echinokokkose, die durch die Metazestoden-Larvenstadien des Fuchs- bzw. Hundebandwurms ausgelöst werden. Nach wie vor stellt die Echinokokkose eine Herausforderung für Diagnostiker und behandelnde Ärzte dar und verläuft unbehandelt tödlich. Molekular- und zellbiologische Forschung führte in den letzten Jahren zur Entschlüsselung der Genome der beteiligten Parasiten, Echinococcus (E.) multilocularis und E. granulosus, und lieferte neue Erkenntnisse...

Invaginationsrisiko nach Impfung gegen Rotaviren

Judith Koch, Thomas Harder, Rüdiger Von Kries & Ole Wichmann
Hintergrund: Die Ständige Impfkommission (STIKO) hat 2013 die Rotavirusimpfung (RV-Impfung) für alle Säuglinge empfohlen und auf ein leicht erhöhtes Risiko für Invaginationen hingewiesen. Invaginationen sind potenziell lebensbedrohlich. Seit der Empfehlung wurden Beobachtungsstudien im „self-controlled case series (SCCS)“-Design publiziert, das zur Untersuchung seltener unerwünschter Arzneimittelwirkungen besonders geeignet ist. Methode: Es wurde eine systematische Literaturrecherche nach SCCS-Studien zum Invaginationsrisiko nach RV-Impfung durchgeführt. Relative Risiken (RR) nach den Impfstoffdosen wurden in einer Metaanalyse zusammengefasst und attributable Risiken (AR)...

Gesundheitliche Versorgung von Geflüchteten: Herausforderungen und Lösungsansätze

Oliver Razum, Anke-Christine Saß & Kayvan Bozorgmehr

Seltene hochkontagiöse und lebensbedrohliche Erkrankungen

René Gottschalk & Christian Herzog

Low antibody prevalence against Bacillus cereus biovar anthracis in Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire, indicates high rate of lethal infections in wildlife

Fee Zimmermann, Susanne M. Köhler, Kathrin Nowak, Susann Dupke, Anne Barduhn, Ariane Düx, Alexander Lang, Hélène M. De Nys, Jan F. Gogarten, Roland Grunow, Emmanuel Couacy-Hymann, Roman M. Wittig, Silke Klee & Fabian H. Leendertz
Bacillus cereus biovar anthracis (Bcbva) is a member of the B. cereus group which carries both B. anthracis virulence plasmids, causes anthrax-like disease in various wildlife species and was described in several sub-Saharan African rainforests. Long-term monitoring of carcasses in Taï National Park, Côte d’Ivoire, revealed continuous wildlife mortality due to Bcbva in a broad range of mammalian species. While non-lethal anthrax infections in wildlife have been described for B. anthracis, nothing is known about...

The utilization of psychiatric and psychotherapeutic services in Germany – individual determinants and regional differences

Alexander Rommel, Julia Bretschneider, Lars Eric Kroll, Franziska Prütz & Julia Thom
In Germany, the provision of health services to people with mental disorders is an issue that is subject to controversial debate. On the one hand, regional differences exist in the distribution of psychotherapists in Germany. On the other hand, patients are often willing to accept the extra effort of having to travel further in order to access treatment even in case of a low supply. Thus, in addition to issues of access, an analysis of...

Registration Year

  • 2018

Resource Types

  • Other