3,737 Works

Ontogenic, phenotypic, and functional characterization of XCR1+ dendritic cells leads to a consistent classification of intestinal dendritic cells based on the expression of XCR1 and SIRPα

Martina Becker, Steffen Güttler, Annabell Bachem, Evelyn Hartung, Ahmed Mora, Anika Jäkel, Andreas Hutloff, Volker Henn, Hans Werner Mages, Stephanie Gurka & Richard Kroczek
In the past, lack of lineage markers confounded the classification of dendritic cells (DC) in the intestine and impeded a full understanding of their location and function. We have recently shown that the chemokine receptor XCR1 is a lineage marker for cross-presenting DC in the spleen. Now, we provide evidence that intestinal XCR1+ DC largely, but not fully, overlap with CD103+ CD11b− DC, the hypothesized correlate of “cross-presenting DC” in the intestine, and are selectively...

Cross-border comparison of the Dutch and German guidelines on multidrug-resistant Gram-negative microorganisms

Jan Müller, Andreas Voss, Robin Köck, Bhanu Sinha, John W. Rossen, Martin Kaase, Martin Mielke, Inka Daniels-Haardt, Annette Jurke, Ron Hendrix, Jan A. Kluytmans, Marjolein F. Kluytmans-Van Den Bergh, Matthias Pulz, Jörg Herrmann, Winfried V. Kern, Constanze Wendt & Alex W. Friedrich
Background: In all European countries, hospital-acquired infections caused by Gram-negative multidrug-resistant microorganisms (GN-MDRO) are a major health threat, as these pathogens cannot be adequately treated anymore, or the start of effective antibiotic treatment is delayed. The efforts to limit the selection and spread of GN-MDRO remains a problem in cross-border healthcare, as the national guidelines on hygiene standards applicable for patients colonized or infected with GN-MDRO in hospitals are not harmonized between European countries. Methods:...

Methodological quality of systematic reviews on influenza vaccination

Cornelius Remschmidt, Ole Wichmann & Thomas Harder
Background: There is a growing body of evidence on the risks and benefits of influenza vaccination in various target groups. Systematic reviews are of particular importance for policy decisions. However, their methodological quality can vary considerably. Objectives: To investigate the methodological quality of systematic reviews on influenza vaccination (efficacy, effectiveness, safety) and to identify influencing factors. Methods: A systematic literature search on systematic reviews on influenza vaccination was performed, using MEDLINE, EMBASE and three additional...

Activation of the Mitochondrial Apoptotic Signaling Platform during Rubella Virus Infection

Claudia Claus, Lena Manssen, Denise Hübner, Sarah Roßmark, Viktoria Bothe, Alice Petzold, Claudia Große, Mareen Reins, Annette Mankertz, Teryl K. Frey & Uwe G. Liebert
Mitochondria- as well as p53-based signaling pathways are central for the execution of the intrinsic apoptotic cascade. Their contribution to rubella virus (RV)-induced apoptosis was addressed through time-specific evaluation of characteristic parameters such as permeabilization of the mitochondrial membrane and subsequent release of the pro-apoptotic proteins apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) and cytochrome c from mitochondria. Additionally, expression and localization pattern of p53 and selected members of the multifunctional and stress-inducible cyclophilin family were examined. The application...

RKI-Ratgeber für Ärzte - Zoonotische Influenza

Robert Koch-Institut

Characterization of attaching and effacing Escherichia coli (AEEC) isolated from pigs and sheep

Erik Fröhlicher, Gladys Krause, Claudio Zweifel, Lothar Beutin & Roger Stephan
Background: Attaching and effacing Escherichia coli (AEEC) are characterized by their ability to cause attaching-and-effacing (A/E) lesions in the gut mucosa of human and animal hosts leading to diarrhoea. The genetic determinants for the production of A/E lesions are located on the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE), a pathogenicity island that also contains the genes encoding intimin (eae). This study reports data on the occurrence of eae positive E. coli carried by healthy pigs and...

Knockdown of porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV) expression by PERV-specific shRNA in transgenic pigs

Britta Dieckhoff, Björn Petersen, Wilfried A. Kues, Reinhard Kurth, Heiner Niemann & Joachim Denner
Background: Xenotransplantation using porcine cells, tissues or organs may be associated with the transmission of porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs). More than 50 viral copies have been identified in the pig genome and three different subtypes of PERV were released from pig cells, two of them were able to infect human cells in vitro. RNA interference is a promising option to inhibit PERV transmission. Methods: We recently selected an efficient si (small interfering) RNA corresponding to...

Highly sensitive detection of the group A Rotavirus using Apolipoprotein H-coated ELISA plates compared to quantitative real-time PCR

Cornelia Adlhoch, Marco Kaiser, Marina Hoehne, Andreas Mas Marques, Ilias Stefas, Francisco Veas & Heinz Ellerbrok
Background: The principle of a capture ELISA is binding of specific capture antibodies (polyclonal or monoclonal) to the surface of a suitable 96 well plate. These immobilized antibodies are capable of specifically binding a virus present in a clinical sample. Subsequently, the captured virus is detected using a specific detection antibody. The drawback of this method is that a capture ELISA can only function for a single virus captured by the primary antibody. Human Apolipoprotein...

Health risk factors and self-rated health among job-seekers

Jennis Freyer-Adam, Beate Gaertner, Stefanie Tobschall & Ulrich John
Background: To determine a) proportions of behavior related health risk factors among job-seekers and b) to what extend these are related to self-rated health. Methods: Over 12 months, job-seekers were recruited at three job-agencies in northeastern Germany. Among all individuals eligible for study inclusion, 7,906 (79.8%) provided information on smoking, risky drinking, overweight/ obesity (body mass index), fruit and vegetable intake, physical inactivity, illicit drug use, and self-rated health. Proportions and 95% confidence intervals stratified...

Umweltstress, Sozialstatus und Verhaltensauffälligkeiten bei Kindern und Jugendlichen im KiGGS

Dieter Helm & Detlef Laußmann
One aspect of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adole-scents (KiGGS 2003-2006, Principal publication 2007) was to investigate the relationship between social status and health. Socio-economic status, often expressed as an index (e.g. Ducan’s SEI or Winkler’s Index), is known to correlate with health outcomes like behavioural problems. We constructed a new index that en-capsulated not only economic and social but also environmental stressors (ESES), using data of the German Health...

Epidemiologischer Steckbrief der pandemischen Influenza (H1N1) 2009 basierend auf Einzelfallmeldungen nach Infektionsschutzgesetz

Silke Buda, Karla Köpke & Walter Haas
Ziel der Untersuchung ist die Beschreibung und Analyse gemäß Infektionsschutzgesetz (IfSG) übermittelter Daten zu Einzelfällen von pandemischer Influenza (H1N1) 2009 im ersten Jahr ihres Auftretens in Deutschland. Neben dem epidemiologischen Verlauf sollen auch spezifische Risiken für einen schweren Krankheitsverlauf identifiziert werden. Die Daten werden hinsichtlich der Angaben zu Hospitalisierungen und Todesfällen in vier Zeitabschnitten beschrieben, während die Angaben zu Risikofaktoren stratifiziert nach Geschlecht und Alter über den gesamten Zeitraum untersucht werden. Die Altersverteilung der übermittelten...

Early estimates of seasonal influenza vaccine effectiveness in Europe: results from the i-move multicentre case–control study, 2012/13

M. Valenciano & E. Kissling
We conducted a test-negative case–control study based in five European sentinel surveillance networks. The early 2012/13 adjusted influenza vaccine effectiveness was 78.2% (95% CI: 18.0 to 94.2) against influenza B, 62.1% (95% CI: −22.9 to 88.3%) against A(H1)pdm09, 41.9 (95% CI: −67.1 to 79.8) against A(H3N2) and 50.4% (95% CI: −20.7 to 79.6) against all influenza types in the target groups for vaccination. Efforts to improve influenza vaccines should continue to better protect those at...

External quality assurance of the first wave of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1)

I. Pelz, H. Pohlabeln, A. Reineke & W. Ahrens
The quality management concept for the first wave of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1) included in addition to conducting internal quality assurance (QS) also the supervision by an external independent institute. After a restricted tendering procedure, the Leibniz Institute for Prevention Research and Epidemiology–BIPS was commissioned to conduct the external quality assurance. The external quality control included the review of the operation manuals, the training of the field staff, the...

Gesundheitsbezogene Lebensqualität bei Erwachsenen in Deutschland

Ute Ellert & Bärbel-Maria Kurth
Ziel der vorliegenden Arbeit ist es, die gesundheitsbezogene Lebensqualität der deutschen Erwachsenenbevölkerung darzustellen und aktuelle repräsentative Normdaten für die Version 2 des SF-36 (SF-36V2) in der deutschen Bevölkerung zu liefern. In der Studie zur Gesundheit Erwachsener in Deutschland (DEGS1) wurde der SF-36V2 zur Messung der gesundheitsbezogenen Lebensqualität eingesetzt. Männer berichten in allen Bereichen eine bessere gesundheitsbezogene Lebensqualität verglichen mit Frauen, ein niedrigerer sozialer Status geht mit geringeren Werten in der gesundheitsbezogenen Lebensqualität einher. Das Vorhandensein...

ATR-FTIR spectroscopy reveals genomic loci regulating the tissue response in high fat diet fed BXD recombinant inbred mouse strains

Ayca Dogan, Peter Lasch, Christina Neuschl, Marion K. Millrose, Rudi Alberts, Klaus Schughart, Dieter Naumann & Gudrun A. Brockmann
Background: Obesity-associated organ-specific pathological states can be ensued from the dysregulation of the functions of the adipose tissues, liver and muscle. However, the influence of genetic differences underlying gross-compositional differences in these tissues is largely unknown. In the present study, the analytical method of ATR-FTIR spectroscopy has been combined with a genetic approach to identify genetic differences responsible for phenotypic alterations in adipose, liver and muscle tissues. Results: Mice from 29 BXD recombinant inbred mouse...

Area Level Deprivation Is an Independent Determinant of Prevalent Type 2 Diabetes and Obesity at the National Level in Germany. Results from the National Telephone Health Interview Surveys ‘German Health Update’ GEDA 2009 and 2010

Werner Maier, Christa Scheidt-Nave, Rolf Holle, Lars Eric Kroll, Thomas Lampert, Yong Du, Christin Heidemann & Andreas Mielck
Objective: There is increasing evidence that prevention programmes for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and obesity need to consider individual and regional risk factors. Our objective is to assess the independent association of area level deprivation with T2DM and obesity controlling for individual risk factors in a large study covering the whole of Germany. Methods: We combined data from two consecutive waves of the national health interview survey ‘GEDA’ conducted by the Robert Koch Institute...

Dietary behaviour and parental socioeconomic position among adolescents: the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents 2003–2006 (KiGGS)

Jonas Finger, Gianni Varnaccia, Thorkild Tylleskär, Thomas Lampert & Gert Mensink
Background: The positive association between parental socioeconomic position (PSEP) and health among adolescents may be partly explained by dietary behaviour. We investigated the associations between fruit intake, vegetable intake, energy-dense food intake, the Healthy Nutrition Score for Kids and Youth (HuSKY) and parental education in a nationwide, cluster-randomized sample of adolescents in Germany. Methods: The German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents 2003–2006 (KiGGS) included 17,641 individuals aged 0–17 years and their...

Der HUS-Ausbruch 2011 in Deutschland

Gérard Krause, Christina Frank, Andreas Gilsdorf, Martin Mielke, Lars Schaade, Klaus Stark & Reinhard Burger
Von Mai bis Juli 2012 ereignete sich in Norddeutschland der weltweit bisher größte Ausbruch von Erkrankungen am hämolytisch-urämischen Syndrom (HUS) mit schweren Folgen für die unmittelbar Betroffenen, das Gesundheitssystem und die Lebensmittelindustrie. Im Folgenden untersuchen wir im Bereich des Infektionsschutzes Aspekte der Ausbrucherkennung, des Ausbruchmanagements und der Kommunikation anhand wissenschaftlicher Publikationen, von Medienberichten und neuen eigenen Datenauswertungen. Die daraus folgenden 17 Empfehlungen betreffen unter anderem die konsequentere Beteiligung an bzw. Umsetzung bestehender und neuer Surveillancesysteme...

The mglA gene and its flanking regions in Brucella: The role of mglA in tolerance to hostile environments, Fe-metabolism and in vivo persistence

Jens Jacob, Antje Finke & Martin Mielke
We previously demonstrated that a spontaneous smooth small-colony variant of Brucella abortus S19 is characterized by increased in vivo persistence and the differential expression of a gene predicted to encode a galactoside transport ATP binding protein (mglA). In order to further investigate the role of this gene in the context of its flanking regions, we analyzed the respective DNA sequences from the formerly described B. abortus S19 as well as from avirulent B. neotomae 5K33...

Sexual behavior and factors associated with young age at first intercourse and HPV vaccine uptake among young women in Germany: implications for HPV vaccination policies

Cornelius Remschmidt, Michaela Fesenfeld, Andreas M. Kaufmann & Yvonne Deleré
Background: In Germany, immunization against human papillomaviruses (HPV) is free of charge for all females aged 12 to 17 years. Since HPV infection rates rise soon after first intercourse, immunization against HPV should be completed before sexual debut. Knowledge of country-specific data on age at first intercourse and related risk factors is important to optimize prevention of HPV and other sexually transmitted infections. Therefore, the primary aim of this study was to describe sexual behavior...

Survey of pediatricians in Germany reveals important challenges for possible implementation of meningococcal B vaccination

Anja Takla, Ole Wichmann, Judith Koch, Martin Terhardt & Wiebke Hellenbrand
Incidence of invasive meningococcal disease is low in Germany at 0.5 cases/100,000 inhabitants. Serogroup B (MenB) is most common, causing 70% of cases, with highest incidence in infants (5.9/100,000). In 2013, a MenB vaccine was licensed in Europe. To assess pediatricians’ attitudes towards MenB vaccination and its potential use in Germany we conducted a nationwide cross-sectional survey among 5677 pediatricians. Of 3107 participants (response: 55%), 79.1% would recommend a MenB vaccination to parents, with 66.7%...

Prevalence and correlates of frailty among older adults: findings from the German health interview and examination survey

Amanda K. Buttery, Markus Busch, Beate Gaertner, Christa Scheidt-Nave & Judith Fuchs
Background: Despite having the third highest proportion of people aged 60 years and older in the world, Germany has been recently reported as having the lowest prevalence of frailty of 15 European countries. The objective of the study is to describe the prevalence of frailty in a large nationwide population-based sample and examine associations with sociodemographic, social support and health characteristics. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional analysis of the first wave of the German Health...

Falldefinitionen für die Surveillance meldepflichtiger Infektionskrankheiten in Deutschland, Ausgabe 2015

Michaela Diercke, Justus Benzler, Irene Schöneberg, Ingeborg Mücke, Doris Altmann, Hermann Claus & Andreas Gilsdorf
Die Falldefinitionen geben einheitliche Kriterien für die Surveillance von Infektionskrankheiten vor. Seit der letzten Überarbeitung der Gesamtausgabe (Version 2007) ist eine Aktualisierung aufgrund neuer wissenschaftlicher Erkenntnisse, veränderter Gesetzeslage, Terminologien und Klassifikationen notwendig geworden. Gleichzeitig sollten die Falldefinitionen weiter vereinheitlicht und die Arbeit in den Gesundheitsämtern vereinfacht werden. Die Überarbeitung wurde von der Abteilung für Infektionsepidemiologie des Robert Koch-Instituts (RKI) koordiniert. In mehreren Feedbackrunden wurden sowohl RKI-interne als auch externe Expertinnen und Experten aus dem Öffentlichen...

Erratum to: Investigating the mobilome in clinically important lineages of Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis

Theresa Mikalsen, Torunn Pedersen, Rob Willems, Teresa M. Coque, Guido Werner, Ewa Sadowy, Willem Van Schaik, Lars Bogø Jensen, María Victoria Francia, Arnfinn Sundsfjord & Kristin Hegstad

Gene expression profiling of rubella virus infected primary endothelial cells of fetal and adult origin

Henriette Geyer, Michael Bauer, Jennifer Neumann, Amy Lüdde, Paul Rennert, Nicole Friedrich, Claudia Claus, Ludmilla Perelygina & Annette Mankertz
Background: Rubella virus (RV) infection is usually a mild illness in children and adults. However, maternal infection during the first trimester of pregnancy can lead to congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) in the infant. Fetuses with CRS show damage to the endothelium of the heart and blood vessels; thus, it has been speculated that the clinical manifestations associated with CRS may be a result of endothelial cells persistently infected with RV. Here, we compared the effects...

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