3,738 Works

MRSA: Sekundäre Linezolidresistenz bei einem Patienten mit Beatmungspneumonie

Wolfgang Witte
Linezolidresistenz ist bei Staphylococcus (S.) aureus / Methicillin-resistenten Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) auch sieben Jahre nach der Einführung des Medikaments aus der Substanzgruppe der Oxazolidinone weltweit noch selten. Unter den diesbezüglich im Jahr 2007 an das Nationale Referenzzentrum (NRZ) für Staphylokokken aus Deutschland eingesandten 2.527 MRSA vom Menschen gab es nur ein Isolat mit Linezolidresistenz (spa-Sequenztyp t032, MRSA der klonalen Linie ST22, Barnim- Epidemiestamm). Das Isolat mit Resistenzen gegen Erythromycin, Clindamycin, Ciprofloxacin und Moxifloxacin wurde bei...

Das Auftreten alter und neuer Seuchen als Konsequenz menschlichen Handelns

Reinhard Kurth
Im Zeitalter der Antibiotika und Impfstoffe wurde vor dem Auftreten von AIDS den bekannten Infektionskrankheiten nicht selten eine abnehmende klinische Bedeutung beigemessen. Darüber hinaus wurde zuweilen die Ansicht vertreten, dass bisher unbekannte Infektionskrankheiten kaum noch zu erwarten seien. Bei genauer Analyse der Lage der Infektiologie ergibt sich jedoch ein sehr anderes Bild. In den letzten Jahrzehnten sind zahlreiche neuartige Infektionskrankheiten klinisch erkannt worden. Neue humanpathogene Viren, Bakterien und Parasiten sind entdeckt worden, altbekannte haben ihre...

The Presence of a vpu Gene and the Lack of Nef-Mediated Downmodulation of T Cell Receptor-CD3 Are Not Always Linked in Primate Lentiviruses

Jan Schmökel, Daniel Sauter, Michael Schindler, Fabian Leendertz, Elizabeth Bailes, Marie-Christine Dazza, Sentob Saragosti, Frederic Bibollet-Ruche, Martine Peeters, Beatrice H. Hahn & Frank Kirchhoff
Nef is an accessory protein critical for the ability of human and simian immunodeficiency viruses (HIV and SIV) to replicate efficiently in their respective hosts. Previous analyses of members of 15 different primate lentivirus lineages revealed a link between Nef function and the presence of a vpu gene. In particular, Nef proteins of all vpu-containing viruses had lost their ability to downmodulate the T cell (TCR-CD3) receptor. Here we examined Nef proteins from eight additional...

Illegitimate recombination: An efficient method for random mutagenesis in Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis

Faisal A. Khattak, Ashutosh Kumar, Elisabeth Kamal, Ralph Kunisch & Astrid Lewin
Background: The genus Mycobacterium (M.) comprises highly pathogenic bacteria such as M. tuberculosis as well as environmental opportunistic bacteria called non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). While the incidence of tuberculosis is declining in the developed world, infection rates by NTM are increasing. NTM are ubiquitous and have been isolated from soil, natural water sources, tap water, biofilms, aerosols, dust and sawdust. Lung infections as well as lymphadenitis are most often caused by M. avium subsp. hominissuis (MAH),...

Associations of dietary indices with biomarkers of dietary exposure and cardiovascular status among adolescents in Germany

Julia Truthmann, Almut Richter, Silke Thiele, Larissa Drescher, Jutta Roosen & Gert Mensink
Background: Adolescence is an important life stage for the development of dietary preferences and health behaviour. Longitudinal studies indicated that cardiovascular status in adolescence predicts cardiovascular risk marker values in adulthood. Several diet quality indices for adolescents have been developed in the past, but literature concerning associations between indices and biomarkers of dietary exposure and cardiovascular status is rather sparse. Hence, the aim of this study was to analyse associations of dietary indices with biomarkers...

Die erste Welle der Studie zur Gesundheit Erwachsener in Deutschland (DEGS1)

Panagiotis Kamtsiuris, Michael Lange, Robert Hoffmann, Angelika Schaffrath Rosario, Stefan Dahm, Ronny Kuhnert & Bärbel-Maria Kurth
Die „Studie zur Gesundheit Erwachsener in Deutschland“ (DEGS) ist Bestandteil des Gesundheitsmonitorings des Robert Koch-Instituts (RKI) und als kombinierte Quer- und Längsschnitterhebung konzipiert. Die erste Erhebungswelle (DEGS1; 2008–2011) umfasste Befragungen und Untersuchungen. Zielpopulation waren die in Deutschland lebenden Erwachsenen bis zum Alter von 79 Jahren. Das Mischdesign der Studie umfasste eine neue Einwohnermeldeamtsstichprobe, die durch Teilnehmende des Bundes-Gesundheitssurveys 1998 (BGS98) ergänzt wurde. Insgesamt nahmen 8152 Personen teil, darunter 4193 Ersteingeladene (Response 42%) und 3959 Wiedereingeladene...

Aktionsprogramm Umwelt und Gesundheit

B. Seifert, H. Schreiber, Bärbel-Maria Bellach, U. Gundert-Remy & T. Jung
Das gemeinsame Aktionsprogramm “Umwelt und Gesundheit” des Ministeriums für Gesundheit und des Ministeriums für Umwelt, Naturschutz und Reaktorsicherheit löst die eingegangene Verpflichtung ein, die aus den europäischen Umweltkonferenzen resultiert. Das Programm dient dem Ziel, eine Handlungsbasis aufzustellen, auf welcher der Gesundheitszustand der Bürger und Bürgerinnen in Bereichen sichergestellt wird, die durch ungünstige Einflüsse von Umweltnoxen physikalischer Natur, mediengetragenen Umweltnoxen oder durch Aufnahme beim Umgang mit Verbraucherprodukten des täglichen Bedarfs oder durch die Nahrung gefährdet sein...

Prevalence of hysterectomy in women 18 to 79 years old

Franziska Prütz, Hildtraud Knopf, Elena Von Der Lippe, Christa Scheidt-Nave, Anne Starker & Judith Fuchs
In many countries, hysterectomy is one of the most frequently performed surgical procedures in gynaecology. The aim of this study is to analyse the prevalence of hysterectomy in Germany by sociodemographic factors and factors of (reproductive) health. Analyses are based on data from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1), which is part of the health monitoring of the Robert Koch Institute (RKI). The prevalence of hysterectomy among participating women (18–79 years...

Laboratory preparedness for detection and monitoring of Shiga toxin 2-producing Escherichia coli O104:H4 in Europe and response to the 2011 outbreak

Polyia Rosin, T. Niskanen, D. Palm, M. Struelens & J. Takkinen
A hybrid strain of enteroaggregative and Shiga toxin 2-producing Escherichia coli (EAEC-STEC) serotype O104:H4 strain caused a large outbreak of haemolytic uraemic syndrome and bloody diarrhoea in 2011 in Europe. Two surveys were performed in the European Union (EU) and European Economic Area (EEA) countries to assess their laboratory capabilities to detect and characterise this previously uncommon STEC strain. Prior to the outbreak, 11 of the 32 countries in this survey had capacity at national...

Teenage-Schwangerschaften

Heidrun Kahl, R. L. Bergmann & G. Röseler

Complete Genome Sequence of the English Isolate of Rat Cytomegalovirus (Murid Herpesvirus 8)

Jakob Ettinger, Henriette Geyer, Andreas Nitsche, Albert Zimmermann, Wolfram Brune, Gordon R. Sandford, Gary S. Hayward & Sebastian Voigt
The complete genome of the English isolate of rat cytomegalovirus (RCMV-E) was determined. RCMV-E has a 202,946-bp genome with noninverting repeats but without terminal repeats. Thus, it differs significantly in size and genomic arrangement from closely related rodent cytomegaloviruses (CMVs). To account for the differences between the rat CMV isolates of Maastricht and England, RCMV-E was classified as Murid herpesvirus 8 by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses.

First report of a Chinese strain of coxsackie B3 virus infection in a newborn in Germany in 2011: a case report

Sebastian Ronellenfitsch, Julia Tabatabai, Sindy Böttcher, Sabine Diedrich, David Frommhold, Susanne Schubert-Bast, Johannes Poeschl & Paul Schnitzler
Introduction: Enteroviruses commonly encounter babies and children and infections present in a wide variety of symptoms ranging from asymptomatic infection, benign illness, and aseptic meningitis, hand-foot-and-mouth disease to severe life-threatening disease. Some newborns develop severe disease in the first 2 weeks of life and long-term sequelae may occur among survivors. Case presentation: We present a case report of a Caucasian newborn baby boy with severe encephalitis and systemic coxsackievirus B3 infection. The coincidence of maternal...

Trends and Predictors of Transmitted Drug Resistance (TDR) and Clusters with TDR in a Local Belgian HIV-1 Epidemic

Andrea-Clemencia Pineda-Peña, Yoeri Schrooten, Lore Vinken, Fossie Ferreira, Guangdi Li, Nídia Sequeira Trovão, Ricardo Khouri, Inge Derdelinckx, Paul De Munter, Claudia Kücherer, Leondios G. Kostrikis, Claus Nielsen, Kirsi Littsola, Annemarie Wensing, Maja Stanojevic, Roger Paredes, Claudia Balotta, Jan Albert, Charles Boucher, Arley Gomez-Lopez, Eric Van Wijngaerden, Marc Van Ranst, Jurgen Vercauteren, Anne-Mieke Vandamme & Kristel Van Laethem
We aimed to study epidemic trends and predictors for transmitted drug resistance (TDR) in our region, its clinical impact and its association with transmission clusters. We included 778 patients from the AIDS Reference Center in Leuven (Belgium) diagnosed from 1998 to 2012. Resistance testing was performed using population-based sequencing and TDR was estimated using the WHO-2009 surveillance list. Phylogenetic analysis was performed using maximum likelihood and Bayesian techniques. The cohort was predominantly Belgian (58.4%), men...

Characteristics and practices of National Immunisation Technical Advisory Groups in Europe and potential for collaboration, April 2014

Anja Takla, Ole Wichmann, P. Carrillo-Santisteve, S. Cotter, D. Lévy-Bruhl, I. Paradowska-Stankiewicz, P. Valentiner-Branth, F. D’Ancona &
In many countries, national vaccination recommendations are developed by independent expert committees, so-called national immunisation technical advisory groups (NITAG). Since the evaluation of vaccines is complex and resource-demanding, collaboration between NITAGs that evaluate the same vaccines could be beneficial. We conducted a cross-sectional survey among 30 European countries in February 2014, to explore basic characteristics and current practices of European NITAGs and identify potential modes and barriers for collaboration. Of 28 responding countries, 26 reported...

Die Ergebnisse des Kinder und Jugendgesundheitssurveys (KiGGS) – eine einzigartige Datensammlung zur Gesundheit der heranwachsenden Bevölkerung in Deutschland

P. C. Scriba

Gesundheit von Kindern alleinerziehender Mütter

Christine Hagen & Bärbel-Maria Kurth

2nd International External Quality Control Assessment for the Molecular Diagnosis of Dengue Infections

Cristina Domingo, Matthias Niedrig, Anette Teichmann, Marco Kaiser, Leonid Rumer, Richard G. Jarman & Oliver Donoso Mantke
Background: Currently dengue viruses (DENV) pose an increasing threat to over 2.5 billion people in over 100 tropical and sub-tropical countries worldwide. International air travel is facilitating rapid global movement of DENV, increasing the risk of severe dengue epidemics by introducing different serotypes. Accurate diagnosis is critical for early initiation of preventive measures. Different reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) methods are available, which should be evaluated and standardized. Epidemiological and laboratory-based surveillance is required to monitor...

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Europe, 1999–2002

Edine W. Tiemersma, Stef L.A.M. Bronzwaer, Outi Lyytikäinen, John E. Degener, Paul Schrijnemakers, Nienke Bruinsma, Jos Monen, Wolfgang Witte & Hajo Grundmann
We explored the variation in proportions of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) between and within countries participating in the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System and temporal trends in its occurrence. This system collects routine antimicrobial susceptibility tests for S. aureus. We examined data collected from January 1999 through December 2002 (50,759 isolates from 495 hospitals in 26 countries). MRSA prevalence varied almost 100-fold, from 40% in southern and western Europe. MRSA proportions significantly increased in Belgium,...

CAMCR: Computer-assisted mixture model analysis for capture-recapture count data

Ronny Kuhnert & Dankmar Böhning
Population size estimation with discrete or nonparametric mixture models is considered, and reliable ways of construction of the nonparametric mixture model estimator are reviewed and set into perspective. Construction of the maximum likelihood estimator of the mixing distribution is done for any number of components up to the global nonparametric maximum likelihood bound using the EM algorithm. In addition, the estimators of Chao and Zelterman are considered with some generalisations of Zelterman’s estimator. All computations...

Immunity status of adults and children against poliomyelitis virus type 1 strains CHAT and Sabin (LSc-2ab) in Germany

Maren Eggers, Elena Terletskaia-Ladwig, Holger F. Rabenau, Hans W. Doerr, Sabine Diedrich, Gisela Enders & Martin Enders
Background: In October 2007, the working group CEN/TC 216 of the European Committee for standardisation suggested that the Sabin oral poliovirus vaccine type 1 strain (LSc-2ab) presently used for virucidal tests should be replaced by another attenuated vaccine poliovirus type 1 strain, CHAT. Both strains were historically used as oral vaccines, but the Sabin type 1 strain was acknowledged to be more attenuated. In Germany, vaccination against poliomyelitis was introduced in 1962 using the oral...

Virological diagnosis of dengue fever in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia: Comparison between RT-PCR and virus isolation in cell culture

Esam Azhar, Moujahed Kao, Matthias Niedrig, Badr Masri, Azad Godus, Raed Badierah, Nassem Khan, Adnan Almazrooa, Ahmad Ashshi & Ghazi Jamjoom
A total of 233 serum samples were collected from patients presenting to King Abdulaziz University Hospital with suspected cases of Dengue Fever (DF) from 2006 to 2008. Dengue virus was successfully isolated from 70 samples by culture on C6/36 and LLC-MK2 cells; it was then detected by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA). The cytopathic effect (CPE) of dengue virus on C6/36 appeared in most of the samples within 1-4 days post-inoculation comparing to 7-12 days on...

Arbeitsgemeinschaft Influenza: Um Unterstützung wird gebeten

Silke Buda & Walter Haas
Die Arbeitsgemeinschaft Influenza informiert als einziges System rasch und zuverlässig über die Virusepidemiologie und Krankheitslast. In einigen Regionen werden allerdings mehr Sentinelpraxen zur Datenerhebung benötigt.

Untersuchung von Infektionsausbrüchen im Krankenhaus

Katharina Alpers, Klaus Weist, Tim Eckmanns & Gérard Krause
Von einem Ausbruch nosokomialer Infektionen wird gesprochen, wenn es zu einer Häufung einer Infektionskrankheit oder der Besiedlung mit einem bestimmten Erreger kommt, die im zeitlichen Zusammenhang mit einer stationären oder einer ambulanten medizinischen Maßnahme steht, soweit die Krankheit nicht bereits vorher bestand oder in Inkubation war. Um einen Ausbruch zu bekämpfen, ist eine genaue wissenschaftliche Untersuchung unter Anwendung epidemiologischer Methoden notwendig.

Mumps virus small hydrophobic protein targets ataxin-1 ubiquitin-like interacting protein (ubiquilin 4)

Maria Woznik, Claudia Rödner, Ken Lemon, Bert Rima, Annette Mankertz & Tim Finsterbusch
The small hydrophobic (SH) protein of mumps virus has been reported to interfere with innate immunity by inhibiting tumour necrosis factor alpha-mediated apoptosis. In a yeast two-hybrid screen we have identified the ataxin-1 ubiquitin-like interacting protein (A1Up) as a cellular target of the SH protein. A1Up contains an amino-terminal ubiquitin-like (UbL) domain, a carboxyterminal ubiquitin-associated (UbA) domain and two stress-inducible heat shock chaperoninbinding (Sti1) motifs. This places it within the ubiquitin-like protein family that is...

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