634 Works

The influence of Effective Microorganisms and number of buds per cane in viticulture on chemical composition in fruits

Alicja Auriga, Ireneusz Ochmian, Jacek Wróbel & Jan Oszmianski
As a result of climate warming, wine-growing zones have moved to the north, where conditions exist may result in poor fruit quality. Fruits may develop significant amounts of tannin compounds, which are not acceptable to all consumers. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the influence of selected factors on the quality and content of polyphenols in grapevine fruits. The differentiating factors were as follows: two grapevine cultivars, varied number of buds per cane,...

Physiological responses to drought in three provenances of Discorea nipponica Makino

Runmei Gao, Xiaodong Shi, Zilong Ma, Yong Li & Jinming Wen
Dioscorea nipponica Makino is an optimal candidate to develop the diosgenin industry in North China. Given the large fluctuations in soil water availability induced by global climate change, information on drought tolerance of this species is urgently needed. Thus, seedlings of three provenances, selected from Manghe, Pangquangou nd Luyashan Nature Reserves in Shanxi Province, were exposed to 70%-85%, 55%-60%, 40%-45% and 20%-35% of water holding capacity, representing normal-watered, light drought stress, moderate drought stress and...

Application of 1-methylcyclopropene in fruit of five apple cultivars grown in Serbia

Mira Milinkovic, Blazo Lalevic, Vera Raicevic & Svetlana M. Paunovic
Fruits of five apple cultivars were treated using 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP or SmartFreshTM) after cropping and were stored at normal atmosphere 2 ± 0.5 °C, 90 ± 5% relative humidity (RH) and 20.9 kPa O2 + <0.5 kPa CO2. Fruit firmness was assessed at three periods: 7 d after storing, 120 d after storing and 30 d after the second assessment and storing at room temperature. Contents of K in all of the cultivars and in...

Mites in aromatic, condiment and medicinal dehydrated plants in bulk sale in the city of São Paulo.

Marcia Da Fonseca Valbuza, André Luis Matioli, Mario Eidi Sato, Marcos Roberto Potenza & Ana Eugênia De Carvalho Campos
Julius-Kühn-Archiv, Nr. 463 (2018): Proceedings of the 12th International Working Conference on Stored Product Protection (IWCSPP) in Berlin, Germany, October 7-11, 2018

Computer-aid molecular docking technology in cereal mycotoxin analysis

Jinying Chen, Fusheng Gong & Zi Tai Sang
Computer-aid molecular docking is a simulative process that receptors and ligands recognize each other through energy matching and geometric matching. It is widely used in bioactive compounds simulative screening and preliminary exploring the bioactivity and toxicity of molecular, which plays important guiding role in toxicity and bioactivity study of molecular entities. In our study, we used the computer-aid molecular docking software-discovery studio 3.1 client to test the mechanism of aflatoxins such as aflatoxin B1, B2,...

Evaluation of aflatoxin contamination of stored maize in the Brong-Ahafo region of Ghana

Robert Benson-Obour, Michael Lartey, William Cornelius, James Agyel--Ohemeng, Phyllis Opare, Luciano Cinquanta & Daniel Obeng-Ofori
This study assessed the aflatoxin contamination and the presence of fungi in three maize varieties (Obatanpa, Abontem and Aburohemaa) stored using different storage methods namely storage in hermetic bags, woven polypropylene sacks and local crib in the Nkoranza-South district of the Brong-Ahafo region of Ghana. A factorial design arrangement was laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD). The isolation and identification of fungal pathogens associated with maize samples before and after storage were...

Development of sensitive polyclonal antibodies against dominant stored wheat grain fungus for its immunological detection

Rajana Kumari & Ananta K. Gosch
Fungal infestation causes deterioration of stored food grains. Most fungal species produce secondary metabolites like aflatoxins which are highly toxic to animals and humans. Aspergillus flavus has been found to be the predominant contaminant in stored wheat grains collected from the godowns of Food Corporation of India, West Bengal. The present study focuses on the development of sensitive polyclonal antibodies (PAbs) for molecular immunological detection of dominant toxigenic fungus. Pure A. flavus isolate was cultured...

Colour changes in pulses fumigated with different metal phosphide formulations

Gerhard Jakob, Renate Steuerwald & Dennis Ryman
Many phosphine-emitting products are used globally to control insect pests in dried vegetables, grains and pulses. However, variation in phosphide formulations is associated with colour change in many pulses. This study evaluated the effect of fumigation using Mg3P2 containing ammonium carbamate; AlP containing no ammonium carbamate and pure ammonium carbamate on colour of diferrent pulses. Different pulses showed different reactions towards fumigation with phosphine. A distinctly darker discolouration was observed in broad beans and lentils...

Insecticide treated packaging for the control of stored product insects

Deanna S. Scheff, Frank H. Arthur & James F. Campbell
Improper or poor post-harvest handling and storage of stored grains contributes significantly to product loss, and bagged stored grain presents an option for safe storage and handling. Bagged grain is intended to maintain quality and safety, while protecting it from infestations. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of deltamethrin-treated packaging material on adults and larvae of common stored product pests. Adults or larvae of several species of stored product insects were...

Postharvest knowledge, perceptions and practices of African small-scale maize and sorghum farmers

Honest Machekano, Brighton M. Mvumi, Richard Rwafa, Susan J. Richardson Kageler & Tinashe Nyabako
Due to a single annual food production season in southern Africa, small-scale maize and sorghum farmers store grain until the next harvest. The farmers’ postharvest knowledge, perceptions and practices (KPP) is important in reducing postharvest losses (PHLs); a key component of household food and nutritional security. Using random sampling, 310 farmers from two districts of Zimbabwe with contrasting agroecologies and agricultural systems (maize and sorghum) were interviewed to assess their KPP on post-production aspects. Maize...

Insecticidal efficacy of abamectin against red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae): influence of dose, exposure interval, relative humidity and temperature

A. Guray Ferizli, Sadi Pamuk & Mevlut Emekci
Julius-Kühn-Archiv, Nr. 463 (2018): Proceedings of the 12th International Working Conference on Stored Product Protection (IWCSPP) in Berlin, Germany, October 7-11, 2018

Binary mixture efficacy of NeemAzal and Plectranthus glandulosus leaf powder against cowpea and maize weevils

Katamssadan H. Tofel, Cornel Adler & Elias Nchiwan Nukenine
The aim of this study was to determine the insecticidal efficacy of mixture of NeemAzal a commercial neem product and Plectranthus glandulosus leaf powder against Callosubruchus maculatus and Sitophilus zeamais. Mixed at various proportions (100 + 0, 75 + 25, 50 + 50, 25 + 75 and 0 +100%, these powders were tested on adult mortality, inhibition of offspring production and their persistence on C. maculatus and S. zeamais. All the mixed NeemAzal and P....

Fogging loads of California fresh citrus for control of Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri

Stephen Corbett, David Sorenson, Nastaran Tofangsazi, Sandipa G. Gautam & Spencer Walse
Contact insecticides are commonly applied as fogs to disinfest and disinfect spaces. Recently, these fogs have been adapted to treat commodity within the spaces, and much has been learned regarding the efficacy of this process. When considering fresh citrus in California, fogs are applied to control both insects and microbes. One insect pest, the Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri, is a quarantine pest in California and limiting its geographic distribution is a major goal...

Residual efficacy of spinosad-treated surfaces on Rhyzopertha dominica and Tribolium castaneum adults

Leanage Kanaka Wolly Wijayaratne, Dissanayaka Mudiyanselage Saman Kumara Dissanayaka, Abeysinghe Mudiyanselage Prabodha Sammani & Rohan Harshalal Sarathchandra Rajapakse
Rhyzopertha dominica and Tribolium castaneum cause massive losses in stored food. These insects are effectively controlled by synthetic insecticides and fumigants but they accompany many demerits on biotic and abiotic environment. Spinosad is a bacterial formulation and a reduced-risk insecticide which is registered for stored grain protection in many countries. Despite many avenues of research on spinosad, its residual efficacy on certain insect species remains undiscovered. The objective of this research was to evaluate the...

A new concept for controlling tiny-scale insect pest in green house – noval technology to apply liquid ethyl formate

Chung-Gyoo Park, Tae-Hyung Kwon, In-Hong Jeong, Min-Soo Kim, Hei-Geun Kim, Sung-Hwan Ji, YongLin Ren & Byung-Ho Lee
As increased agricultural insecticide uses and trends in insecticide resistance, increased labor cost to apply insecticide and limited its application to fertility season in green house. There is a need of a safe, labor-saving and confined space application concept to manage control tiny-scale insect pest such as thrips and whitefly. Fumigation with ethyl formate (EF), which is considered as effective to various insect pest and safely use in quarantine treatment, was evaluated in the confined...

Fumigant toxicity of essential oils and their combinations on population buildup of three stored product coleoptera in stored wheat and effect on quality of wheat

Ranjeet Kumar, S. N. Tiwari & P. S. Pandey
Experiments carried out to find the fumigant toxicity of three essential oils and their combinations from Murraya koenigii, Citrus reticulata, Curcuma longa on population buildup of Sitophilus oryzae, Rhyzopertha dominica, Tribolium castaneum in stored wheat at different days of infestation. The oil of M. koenigii, C. reticulata at 0.2% and M. koenigii+C. reticulata, M. koenigii+C. longa at 0.1% each were found highly effective against S. oryzae fumigated after 5, 10, 15 and 20 days. The...

Residual behaviour of phosphine in different commodities

Marie-Carolin Goetze & Gehard Jakob
Phosphine is one of the most common active substances used in storage protection worldwide. As it is very efficient amongst a broad range of living organisms, it has become the favoured product after phasing out methyl bromide in 2010, as it can be used in many commodities. In 2005, the regulation 396/2005 was enacted and came into force in 2008. With this, the European commission started to evaluate residues arising from the use of a...

Improved analysis of propylene oxide, propylene chlorohydrin and propylene bromohydrin

Wiley A. Hall, Spencer S. Walse & Leonel Jimenez
The benefits and deficiencies of several methods of analysis for PPO and PXH, including the aqueous extraction used in ASTA method 23.1 and the MTBE extraction method previously reported by the authors, will be discussed. Novel methods utilizing dynamic headspace extraction and solid phase microextraction (SPME) will also be reported with particular emphasis on preventing artefactual effects. Preliminary experiments have found that dynamic headspace sampling can lower detection limits by up to 3 orders of...

Update on ProFume® gas fumigant (sulfuryl fluoride) use for post-harvest pest control

Barbara Nead-Nylander & Ellen Thoms
Julius-Kühn-Archiv, Nr. 463 (2018): Proceedings of the 12th International Working Conference on Stored Product Protection (IWCSPP) in Berlin, Germany, October 7-11, 2018

Toxic effects of ozone on selected stored product insects and germ quality of germinating seeds

Rizana Mahroof & Barbara Amoah
The merchant grain beetle (MGB), Oryzaephilus mercator (Fauvel), the cigarette beetle (CB) Lasioderma serricorne (F.) and the rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L.) cause significant damage to stored grain, grain-based products, and other durable commodities. Ozone, a highly oxidative toxic gas, has the potent to kill insects, meantime degrades rapidly to oxygen, making it a potential alternative to phosphine, a fumigant to which insects are developing resistance. The adults of MGB and CB were exposed to...

Efficacy of pheromones for managing of the Mediterranean flour moth, Ephestia kuehniella Zeller, in food and feed processing facilities

Pasquale Trematerra
In recent years, considerable progress has been made in the monitoring and control of Lepidoptera, by pheromones also used in mass-trapping, attracticide (lure and kill), mating-disruption, auto-confusion methods. In context of IPM "insectistasis" can be readily achieved by continual supervision of environments by traps in combination with a limited number of preventive and curative measures appropriately timed. In the present paper are reported some promising results offering efficient control of the Mediterranean flour moth, Ephestia...

Phytochemical-based nano emulsions for stored grain protection

Moshe Kostyukovsky, Elazar Quinn, Gilad Golden, Aviv Rapaport, Eli Shaaya & Elena Poverenov
Stored grain losses caused by pest insects contribute significantly to the global food crisis. Currently, there are two main chemical control methods against stored product insect pests: fumigation with very toxic gases and grain protection by residual contact insecticides. Today, the global tendency is to prevent/reduce the wide use of insecticides, which have high toxicity to humans and harm the environment. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop alternative eco-friendly approaches for stored insect...

Static and dynamic stress analysis of flat bottom-bamboo reinforced concrete silo for rough rice storage

Lakshmi E. Jayachandran & Pavuluri Srinivasa Rao
Concrete silos are one of the most robust and reliable structures for grain storage in tropical countries. This study analysed the structural behavior of a low cost, flat bottom bamboo-reinforced concrete (BRC) silo for rough rice storage. This research included the design and development of a BRC silo in accordance with the guidelines mentioned by the Indian Standard (IS) codes. The Finite Element Method was employed to develop the stress profile in the silo walls...

Food industry practices affecting integrated pest management

Pasquale Trematerra & Francis Fleurat-Lessard
Manufacturers of dry food products have a real challenge to exclude pests everywhere along the food chain because of the rather complex and different environments of food industry buildings. Current practices that influence pest presence and development in food industry facilities have been identified in the stages of food plant design, food ingredient reception and storage, processing or conditioning of finished food, and marketing. The preventive pest control measures in the food industry may be...

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