9,357 Works

Role of roadside vegetation as a passive method for urban air particulate matter absorption and its capturing efficiency under different conditions

Chen He
It has been widely discussed that air particulate matter (PM) has become a serious environmental issue which put great threats to human health and life-span. The respiratory and neurodegenerative disease are considered highly related to PM pollution. Most European urban residents are considered under the threat from PM2.5, and ultra-fine PM has even been reported to harm human DNA. With the acceleration of urbanization, traffic-related PM is becoming a large portion of anthropogenic PM in...

Photoelectrochemical behavior of the ternary heterostructured systems CdS/WO3/TiO2

A.A. Murashkina, T.V. Bakiev, Y.M. Artemev, A.V. Rudakova, A.V. Emeline & Detlef W. Bahnemann
In this article, we report the results of comparative studies of photoelectrochemical behavior of the binary CdS/TiO2 and WO3/TiO2 and ternary CdS/WO3/TiO2 heterostructures based on titania nanotube and planar structures. Physical–chemical characterization by XRD, XPS, and electron microscopy methods together with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements confirm a successful formation of heterostructured electrodes, both nanotube-based and planar. The results of photoelectrochemical studies of the heterostructures demonstrate a significant difference in their behavior depending on the structure...

Numerical investigation of optimized piled raft foundation for high-rise building in Germany

O.A. Abdel-Azim, K. Abdel-Rahman & Y.M. El-Mossallamy
Piled rafts have been used as a foundation system for high-rise buildings worldwide in different soil conditions, e.g., in soft to stiff clay as well as in medium-to-dense sand. Piled raft is currently used not only to control the foundation settlement but also to minimize the required raft thickness to reach the most optimized foundation design. The purpose of this study is to investigate the behavior of piled raft as a foundation system for Frankfurt...

When you don’t know with whom to collaborate: Towards an interactive system connecting contributors in a research project

J. Klünder, W. Brunotte & K. Schneider
Stakeholders are important for software projects as they help to define the requirements. However, in case of multiple stakeholders with different viewpoints, it is often difficult to find a suitable solution for almost everybody. We faced this situation in a large interdisciplinary research project with contributors from different natural sciences. The contributors have to collaborate with each other, i.e., they need to share and exchange knowledge, data, and research strategies from their disciplines. In order...

Volatility term structures in commodity markets

F. Hollstein, M. Prokopczuk & C. Würsig
In this study, we comprehensively examine the volatility term structures in commodity markets. We model state-dependent spillovers in principal components (PCs) of the volatility term structures of different commodities, as well as that of the equity market. We detect strong economic links and a substantial interconnectedness of the volatility term structures of commodities. Accounting for intra-commodity-market spillovers significantly improves out-of-sample forecasts of the components of the volatility term structure. Spillovers following macroeconomic news announcements account...

Sand mining in the Mekong Delta revisited - current scales of local sediment deficits

Christian Jordan, Jan Tiede, Oliver Lojek, Jan Visscher, Heiko Apel, Hong Quan Nguyen, Chau Nguyen Xuan Quang & Torsten Schlurmann
The delta of the Mekong River in Vietnam has been heavily impacted by anthropogenic stresses in recent years, such as upstream dam construction and sand mining within the main and distributary channels, leading to riverbank and coastal erosion. Intensive bathymetric surveys, conducted within the Tien River branch during the dry and wet season 2018, reveal a high magnitude of sand mining activities. For the year 2018, an analysis of bathymetric maps and the local refilling...

Recent advances in niobium-based materials for photocatalytic solar fuel production

Barbara Nascimento Nunes, Osmando Ferreira Lopes, Antonio Otavio T. Patrocinio & Detlef W. Bahnemann
The search for renewable and clean energy sources is a key aspect for sustainable development as energy consumption has continuously increased over the years concomitantly with environmental concerns caused by the use of fossil fuels. Semiconductor materials have great potential for acting as photocatalysts for solar fuel production, a potential energy source able to solve both energy and environmental concerns. Among the studied semiconductor materials, those based on niobium pentacation are still shallowly explored, although...

Healthcare providers' perception of the referral system in maternal care facilities in Aceh, Indonesia: A cross-sectional study

Farah Diba, Ichsan Ichsan, Muhsin Muhsin, Marthoenis Marthoenis, Hizir Sofyan, Mohammad Andalas, Ida Monfared, Katharina Richert, Lennart Kaplan, Lisa Rogge, Siobhan Doria, Samadi Samadi & Sebastian Vollmer
Objectives Our study investigates the barriers perceived by staff in the referral systems in maternal healthcare facilities across Aceh province in Indonesia. Design With a cross-sectional approach, two sets of surveys were administered during September to October 2016 in 32 sampling units of our study. We also collected referral data in the form of the frequency of ingoing and outgoing referral cases per facility. Setting In three districts, Aceh Besar, Banda Aceh and Bireuen, a...

Managing immune health in sports – A practical guide for athletes and coaches [Infektprävention im Leistungssport – Ein praktischer Leitfaden für Trainer und Sportler]

J. Palmowski, T.K. Boßlau, L. Ryl, K. Krüger & T. Reichel
The prevention of infectious diseases is particularly important in athletes who need a good all-season health status to be optimally prepared for competition. › Since the immune system is highly responsive to exercise, periods of intensified training induce a transient immune dysfunction. Athletes regularly encounter additional challenges, such as low energy availability, oxidative stress, psychological stress, sleep disruption, long-haul travel, overreaching periods and an imbalance of exercise and recovery. Moreover, exercise training performed in specific...

Low-temperature magnetostriction and distortions in the rare-earth Laves phases

G. Politova, M. Ganin, T. Kaminskaya, A. Mikhailova, B. Nacke, A. Filimonov & G. Burkhanov
The effects of partial substitution of dysprosium in Tb0.2Dy0.8Co2 by terbium and gadolinium on the structure and magnetic properties have been studied. Two compositions, Tb0.3Dy0.7Co2 and Tb0.2Dy0.7Gd0.1Co2 have been synthesized. Their crystal structure, in contrast to the structure of the original compound, has both tetragonal distortions and rhombohedral distortions at lower temperatures. Anomalies of magnetostriction and magnetocaloric effect near the observed magnetic phase transitions have been studied. The sign-alternating temperature dependences of the longitudinal and...

Interaction Network Analysis Using Semantic Similarity Based on Translation Embeddings

Bajwa Manzoor, D. Collarana & M.-E. Vidal
Biomedical knowledge graphs such as STITCH, SIDER, and Drugbank provide the basis for the discovery of associations between biomedical entities, e.g., interactions between drugs and targets. Link prediction is a paramount task and represents a building block for supporting knowledge discovery. Although several approaches have been proposed for effectively predicting links, the role of semantics has not been studied in depth. In this work, we tackle the problem of discovering interactions between drugs and targets,...

Longitudinal effects of task performance and self-concept on preadolescent efl learners’ causal attributions of grammar success and failure

Günter Faber
Learners’ academic self-concepts and attributions have been widely evidenced to substantially regulate their educational development. Develop-mentally, they will not only operate in a mutually reinforcing manner. Rather, self-concepts will directly affect learners’ outcome attributions in a particular academic setting. Current research in the English as a foreign language (EFL) context has increasingly analyzed learners’ attributions and self-concepts on a task-specific construct level. Nevertheless, there still exist certain research gaps in the field, particularly concerning learners’...

Influence of combined functional resistance and endurance exercise over 12 weeks on matrix metalloproteinase-2 serum concentration in persons with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis-a community-based randomized controlled trial

Sebastian Proschinger, Niklas Joisten, Annette Rademacher, M.L. Schlagheck, D. Walzik, A.J. Metcalfe, M. Oberste, C. Warnke, W. Bloch, A. Schenk, J. Bansi & Philipp Zimmer
Background: The relevance of regular moderate to intense exercise for ameliorating psychomotor symptoms in persons with multiple sclerosis (pwMS) is becoming increasingly evident. Over the last two decades, emerging evidence from clinical studies and animal models indicate immune regulatory mechanisms in both periphery and the central nervous system that may underlie these beneficial effects. The integrity of the blood-brain barrier as the main structural interface between periphery and brain seems to play an important role...

Factors determining microbial colonization of liquid nitrogen storage tanks used for archiving biological samples

F. Bajerski, A. Bürger, B. Glasmacher, E.R.J. Keller, K. Müller, K. Mühldorfer, M. Nagel, H. Rüdel, T. Müller, J. Schenkel & J. Overmann
The availability of bioresources is a precondition for life science research, medical applications, and diagnostics, but requires a dedicated quality management to guarantee reliable and safe storage. Anecdotal reports of bacterial isolates and sample contamination indicate that organisms may persist in liquid nitrogen (LN) storage tanks. To evaluate the safety status of cryocollections, we systematically screened organisms in the LN phase and in ice layers covering inner surfaces of storage tanks maintained in different biobanking...

Experimental validation of a compact mixed-flow compressor for an active high-lift system

Felix Kauth, Niklas Maroldt & Jörg R. Seume
Compact, electrically-driven compressors are a core component of a novel active high-lift system for future commercial aircraft. A newly-developed aeromechanical optimization process was used to design the compressor stage. The optimization resulted in an unusual mixed-flow compressor design with very low aspect ratio blades and a high rotational speed of up to 60,000 rpm. Due to the unusual design, experimental validation of the performance predictions by means of CFD is necessary. This paper presents the...

Experimental study of self-induced transparency mode-locking in Ti:sapphire laser

M.V. Arkhipov, R.M. Arkhipov, A.A. Shimko, I. Babushkin & N.N. Rosanov
In this paper, passive mode-locking in Ti:sapphire laser with a coherent absorber cells with rubidium vapor placed in the cavity is demonstrated experimentally. For the best of our knowledge these experiments are the first time experimental demonstration of passive mode-locking based on self-induced transparency regime in the coherent absorber. Up to now, such a regime has not been observed experimentally and was predicted only theoretically. © Published under licence by IOP Publishing Ltd.

Comparing research contributions in a scholarly knowledge graph

A. Oelen, M.Y. Jaradeh, K.E. Farfar, M. Stocker & S. Auer
Conducting a scientific literature review is a time consuming activity. This holds for both finding and comparing the related literature. In this paper, we present a workflow and system designed to, among other things, compare research contributions in a scientific knowledge graph. In order to compare contributions, multiple tasks are performed, including finding similar contributions, mapping properties and visualizing the comparison. The presented workflow is implemented in the Open Research Knowledge Graph (ORKG) which enables...

Approach for modelling the Taylor-Quinney coefficient of high strength steels

B.-A. Behrens, A. Chugreev, F. Bohne & R. Lorenz
Precise knowledge of the temperature that arises in the material during plastic forming is of crucial importance, as it has a significant influence on material behaviour and therefore on the forming process. In order to describe the amount of heat that is generated during plastic forming accurately, the Taylor-Quinney coefficient β was introduced as the ratio of dissipated heat to plastic work and generally assumed to be a constant value. However, recent studies have shown...

Compact and efficient sub-10 ps pump sources at 2 µm for the generation of coherent mid-infrared radiation

Moritz Hinkelmann
Ultrashort pulse laser systems in the 2 µm wavelength region featuring high pulse energies are powerful tools for driving a multitude of different applications in industry, medicine, and fundamental science. The implementation of such laser sources remains challenging and usually relies on the chirped-pulse amplification (CPA) in regenerative amplifiers. Here, a much more simplified concept based on a CPA-free multipass amplification scheme operating at room temperature has been investigated. I show that optical pulses with...

Torsionstragmodell extern vorgespannter Kreisringsegmente mit trockenen Fugen

Steffen Hartwig
Die Konstruktion der Segmentbauweise ist im Brückenbau schon seit vielen Jahren eine etablierte Bauweise. Seit einigen Jahren kommt diese Bauweise auch für die Errichtung von Windenergieanlagen (WEA) zum Einsatz. Die aus dieser Bauweise heraus entstehenden Fugen werden je nach Lage und Beanspruchung unterschiedlich ausgebildet. In der vorliegenden Arbeit werden die horizontalen Fugen von WEA aus Kreisringsegmenten behandelt. Diese Fugen werden seit einiger Zeit als Trockenfugen ohne ein Verfüllmaterial oder der Ausbildung von Schubnocken ausgeführt. Die...

Basic studies for sterile filtration processing of therapeutic protein formulations

Susanne Maria Hilda Haindl
The sterilization of protein formulations by filtration was investigated. The influence of process conditions (e.g. temperature) on filter fouling, protein adsorption and scale-up of the filtration process are examined.

Digital transformation in the manufacturing industry : business models and smart service systems

Sonja Dreyer
The digital transformation enables innovative business models and smart services, i.e. individual services that are based on data analyses in real-time as well as information and communications technology. Smart services are not only a theoretical construct but are also highly relevant in practice. Nine research questions are answered, all related to aspects of smart services and corresponding business models. The dissertation proceeds from a general overview, over the topic of installed base management as precondition...

Auswirkungen landnutzungs- und klimawandelbedingter Umweltveränderungen auf Tierarten und naturschutzfachliche Handlungsoptionen

Janine Sybertz
Der Schutz der biologischen Vielfalt ist eine gesellschaftlich sehr wichtige Aufgabe, deren Bedeutung in den letzten Jahrzehnten zunehmend auch politisch erkannt wird. Nationale wie globale Zielsetzungen, den Verlust der biologischen Vielfalt aufzuhalten und eine positive Trendwende zu erreichen, wurden bislang allerdings verfehlt. Als wichtige Ursachen für den Verlust der Artenvielfalt werden sowohl der Landnutzungswandel als auch Klimaveränderungen gesehen. Landnutzungsintensivierungen haben insbesondere seit der zweiten Hälfte des 20. Jahrhunderts zu einem zunehmenden Rückgang der Artenvielfalt in...

Vergewisserungssignale in der digitalen Interaktion. Detailanalysen und Bedeutung für den DaF/DaZ-Unterricht

Christina Nömer
Sie sind in aller Munde und treten in den verschiedensten Bereichen des medial beeinflussten Alltags auf: Vergewisserungssignale. Was heutzutage ebenso eine große Bedeutung einnimmt, ist der Umgang mit Smartphones. Die vorliegende Arbeit untersucht, inwiefern die im alltäglichen Leben so häufig auftretenden Vergewisserungssignale als typische Elemente der gesprochenen Sprache tatsächlich in der täglichen digitalen Kurznachrichteninteraktion eingesetzt werden. Dazu werden zunächst die Termini Vergewisserungssignal und digitale Interaktion definiert und der bisherige Forschungsstand skizziert. Im Zuge dessen werden...

Modeling, Discretization, Optimization, and Simulation of Multiphysics Problems (IIT Indore)

Thomas Wick
The goal of this winter school is to give an introduction to numerical modeling of multiphysics problems. These are nonstationary, nonlinear, coupled partial differential equations. The philosophy of this school is to provide a mixture of very basic techniques that are immediately applied to `complicated' practical and/or current research problems.

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