### Cotton Production and Farm Income Estimates under Selected Alternative Farm Programs

P. L. Strickland, W. H. Brown, W. C. McArthur, W. W. Pawson, P. L. Strickland, W. H. Brown, W. C. McArthur & W. W. Pawson
Alternative farm programs for cotton were examined for their effect on acreage and production of cotton and other crops in the Cotton Belt, farm income there, and Government costs. A moderate reduction in the market price of cotton would have little effect on production of cotton or other crops if support payments were made as in 1969. If cotton support payments and marketing quotas were removed, cotton acreage would be reduced 18 to 50 percent...

### Corporations with Farming Operations

George W. Coffman & George W. Coffman
In 1968, some 13,300 farming corporations accounted for 1 percent of all commercial farms and operated 7 percent of the farmland. California and Florida had about one-fifth of the total number and some of the largest corporate farming operations. Nearly two-thirds of farming corporations were family owned and controlled. Since farming corporations tend to be closely held, the owners were usually involved in management. However, only one-third of the 12 average employees were either stockholders...

### Pricing Milk and Dairy Products -- Principles, Practices, and Problems

Alden C. Manchester & Alden C. Manchester
Excerpt from the report Introduction: An understanding of milk and daily product pricing—how prices are made and the competitive environment in which they are formed—is essential in considering policy issues. This report discusses the nature of the pricing process in the U.S. dairy industry, and analyzes developments which have resulted in its modification. It examines policy issues in pricing dairy products in light of these changes, and identifies emerging problems.

### Changes in Commodity-Income Support Programs and Commodity Prices Have Caused Increased Variability in Support Payments

David Boussios, Erik O'Donoghue, David Boussios & Erik O'Donoghue
A recent ERS analysis estimated the potential range of the Government’s cost for the Agriculture Risk Coverage (ARC) and Price Loss Coverage (PLC) programs over the next 10 years for the three largest covered commodities—corn, soybeans, and wheat. Simulating program costs at both the county and national levels indicates program expenditures could vary widely due to uncertainty in commodity markets.

### U.S. Hired Farm Workforce Is Aging

Thomas Hertz & Thomas Hertz
In 2017, roughly 2 million people spent all or part of their year as agricultural wage and salary workers. Over the past decade, the average age of hired farm laborers has risen steadily, from age 35.8 years in 2006 to 38.8 years in 2017. This increase has been entirely driven by the aging of foreign-born farm laborers, who comprised between 54 and 58 percent of the workforce over this period. Their average age rose from...

### Brazil Once Again Becomes the World’s Largest Beef Exporter

Mustafa Zia, James Hansen, Kim Hjort, Constanza Valdes, Mustafa Zia, James Hansen, Kim Hjort & Constanza Valdes
In 2018, Brazil was the world’s largest exporter of beef, providing close to 20 percent of total global beef exports, outpacing India, the second largest exporter, by 527,000 metric tons.

### Retail Food Price Inflation Has Slowed Over Time

Abigail Okrent, Annemarie Kuhns, Abigail Okrent & Annemarie Kuhns
Grocery store food prices generally rise each year. However, in 2016, retail food prices actually fell 1.3 percent and fell again in 2017 (0.2 percent). These back-to-back years of deflation helped lower the 20-year moving average for grocery store price inflation from 3.6 percent in 1999 to 2.0 percent in 2018. ERS researchers identify the multiple factors contributing to recent retail food price deflation.

### MAIN FOCUSES OF ENGLISH PAPERS OF ANNALS (PAAAE) DURING THE LAST TEN YEARS

ISTVÁN TAKÁCS, KATALIN TAKÁCS-GYÖRGY, ISTVÁN TAKÁCS & KATALIN TAKÁCS-GYÖRGY
The aim of the research is to analyze English language scientific articles that have been published in the scientific journal entitled Annals PAAAE from 2009 to 2018 by using tools of text mining and text analysis, measuring how the frequency of key terms has changed, and to conclude the probable change of research focus of authors based on it. The subjects of the research are 393 English language articles that have been issued in the...

### SUPPORTING ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN RURAL AREAS UNDER THE FRAMEWORK OF LOCAL DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES

Social and economic growth relies on the presence of prosperous companies. There are many factors that define the level of entrepreneurship, for example opportunities to undertake cooperation and create networks of companies, or the quality of social capital. The key role is played by actions implemented to strengthen the economic and social activity of local communities. This can be facilitated by one of the sub-measures of the EU programme LEADER, namely “Sub-measure 19.2. Implementation of...

### EVALUATION OF THE TECHNICAL EFFICIENCY AND CARBON FOOTPRINT REDUCTION POTENTIAL OF SPRING BARLEY CULTIVATION

TOMASZ ŻYŁOWSKI & TOMASZ ŻYŁOWSKI
The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficiency of spring barley cultivation to indicate the reasons for its inefficiency and assess the possibility of the carbon footprint reduction potential. Survey data from 113 farms cultivating spring barley in 2016 were used. DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis) input oriented models were applied to assess technical, pure technical and scale efficiency. The carbon footprint of crop cultivation and its reduction potential for inefficient farms were estimated....

### IMPACT OF AGGLOMERATIONS ON SOCIAL, AGRICULTURAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL TRANSFORMATIONS OF NEIGHBOURING MUNICIPALITIES

The main research objective was to define the intensity of migration processes in metropolitan areas, and highlight the scale of deagrarisation processes in neighbouring regions where agricultural functions are on the decline. The article presents the dynamics of changes related to the number of agricultural farms located in suburban areas in the years 1996-2010. It also includes an analysis of population flows between the city and the countryside. The study covers 4 agglomerations – Warszawa,...

### THE SHOEMAKER’S CHILDREN GO BAREFOOT. THE PROBLEM OF FOOD INSECURITY IN SMALL-SCALE FARMS IN POLAND

AGNIESZKA POCZTA-WAJDA & AGNIESZKA POCZTA-WAJDA
The problem of food insecurity of small-scale farms is often addressed in the literature, but there is a research gap with regard to food insecurity of small-scale farms in developed countries. This issue is important especially in countries with a fragmented agrarian structure, including Poland. Hence, this article aims to identify the level of food insecurity of small-scale farms in Poland and its determinants. It is based on a survey (710 questionnaires) distributed among small-scale...

### ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABLE VALUE IN AGRICULTURE REVISITED: HOW INVESTMENT SUBSIDIES FOSTER ECO-EFFICIENCY

BAZYLI CZYŻEWSKI, ANNA MATUSZCZAK, ALEKSANDER GRZELAK, MARTA GUTH, ADAM MAJCHRZAK, BAZYLI CZYŻEWSKI, ANNA MATUSZCZAK, ALEKSANDER GRZELAK, MARTA GUTH & ADAM MAJCHRZAK
Many researchers and policy makers argue that CAP should support small farms mainly through environmental subsidies contributing by this mean to sustainable agriculture. This study offers a methodological contribution to the value-based sustainability approach, consisting of a computing indicator of environmental sustainable value (ESV). In this study, the authors have attempted to combine the value-oriented approach with DEA frontier benchmarking. In the next step, the authors test how investment subsidies contribute to ESV using a...

Anil Rupasingha, John Pender, Anil Rupasingha & John Pender

### RYE PRICE VARIABILITY IN POLAND BETWEEN 2010 AND 2018

KATARZYNA UTNIK-BANAŚ, VIKTAR VASILYEU, KATARZYNA UTNIK-BANAŚ & VIKTAR VASILYEU
In the paper, the range of rye price variability was determined and a decomposition of a time series of prices was carried out, distinguishing seasonal, cyclical and irregular fluctuations. The rye market is a market of a product produced seasonally but with a storage period longer than one season, which influences seasonal changes of prices, on which economic changes overlap. The research material consists of prices of rye in monthly graduation for the years 2010-2018,...

### Beginning Farm Operators and Spouses More Likely To Work Off the Farm Than Established Counterparts

Nigel Key & Nigel Key
Beginning farms and ranches accounted for 17 percent of all U.S. operations between 2013 and 2017. About a third of beginning farms produced at least \$10,000 worth of output, compared with almost half of established farms. Because beginning farms tend to be smaller, they require less farm labor, earn less net farm income, and rely more on off-farm income. In 2017, 67 percent of beginning farm principal operators worked off the farm, compared with 45...

### Long-Term U.S. Agricultural Outlook Affected Broadly by Uncertainty of China’s Markets

Fred Gale, James Hansen, Fred Gale & James Hansen
Uncertainty about China’s influence on agricultural markets is an underlying theme in USDA Agricultural Projections to 2028. Tariffs, revised estimates of China’s corn supply, as well the outbreak of swine disease in China continue to be important factors in revising agricultural outlooks

### Schoolchildren Consumed More Whole Grains Following Change in School Meal Standards

Joanne Guthrie, Biing-Hwan Lin, Travis A. Smith, Joanne Guthrie, Biing-Hwan Lin & Travis A. Smith
A study by ERS and University of Georgia researchers found that in 2013-14, the whole grain to total grain consumption ratio for the school foods children ate (USDA school meals and non-USDA snacks or meals obtained at school) was 21.5 percent—higher than the 17.2 percent ratio for home-prepared foods and the 2.6 percent ratio for foods from restaurants and fast food places.

### THE ROLE OF SMALL FARMS IN LOCAL FOOD SYSTEMS

KATARZYNA ŻMIJA, MARTA CZEKAJ, DARIUSZ ŻMIJA, KATARZYNA ŻMIJA, MARTA CZEKAJ & DARIUSZ ŻMIJA
The goal of this paper is to recognize the desired prospective role of small farms in local food systems as well as identify the directions of future-oriented activity for its implementation. The empirical data for the study was provided as a result of workshops hosted in the Rzeszowski subregion in 2019, attended by the stakeholders of the local food system. The methodology of the studies was based on the concept of foresight research, using the...

### Number of Food-Insecure People in Selected Low- and Middle-Income Countries Projected To Fall 45 percent Over Next Decade

The share of food-insecure people in the 76 low- and middle-income countries is projected to fall from 19.3 percent in 2019 to 9.2 percent in 2029. The number of food-insecure people is projected to fall markedly, 45 percent, which is faster than the decline in the intensity of food insecurity, at the aggregate level. Related Topics: Global food security Alt Text:

### Consumer Willingness to Pay for Tennessee Certified Beef

Andrew P. Griffith, Karen L. DeLong, Kimberly L. Jensen, Meagan G. Merritt, Andrew P. Griffith, Karen L. DeLong, Kimberly L. Jensen & Meagan G. Merritt
Tennessee cattle production is primarily composed of cow-calf producers and secondarily by stocker and backgrounding operations. Given the competitive advantage other regions in the nation have in grain-finishing cattle, most Tennessee feeder cattle are sent to feedlots in Midwestern and Western states to be finished and harvested. In 2016, Tennessee commercial cattle slaughter totaled 64,900 head, which represents 6.8 percent of the 950,000 head of cows and heifers calved in Tennessee during 2016 (USDA National...

### Input-output flows and developmental implications for Polish agriculture

Justyna Góral, Aldona Mrówczyńska-Kamińska, Cezary Klimkowski, Justyna Góral, Aldona Mrówczyńska-Kamińska & Cezary Klimkowski
Discussing selected issues referring to input-output analysis, identifying on this basis the role of Polish agribusiness sector in national economy and creating short- and mid-term projections about changes in these parts of input-output tables that concern Polish agriculture and food industry. Chapters: The importance of agriculture in the economy. Analysis of development processes in agriculture at using input-output tables. Projection of input-output flows in agribusiness in Poland after 2020. Projection of changes in the structure...

### The Economic Feasibility of Adopting Plastic Biodegradable Mulches in Pumpkin Production

Margarita Velandia, Aaron Smith, Annette Wszelaki, Suzette Galinato, Margarita Velandia, Aaron Smith, Annette Wszelaki & Suzette Galinato

### Reproductive Failure Impacts on Retained Beef Heifer Profitability

Andrew P. Griffith, Christopher N. Boyer, Karen L. DeLong, Andrew P. Griffith, Christopher N. Boyer & Karen L. DeLong
The lifeblood of most cow-calf operations is the females that make up the herd. Cow-calf producers make culling and retention decisions on a regular basis that influence profitability. The decision to cull a cow, or to add a female to the herd, is largely based on the animal’s structural integrity (i.e., feet, udder), disposition, expected reproductive success, and expected profitability. Thus, there is a certain risk related to cattle prices, cow reproductive efficiency, and calf...

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