165,834 Works

CREATING A NEW VALUATION TOOL FOR SOUTH AFRICAN AGRICULTURAL CO-OPERATIVES

Mariette Geyser, I.E. Liebenberg, Mariette Geyser & I.E. Liebenberg
Independent of the size of an organization, long-term shareholder wealth is equally important for all profit seeking organizations. This paper examines introducing Economic Value Added (EVA) as a performance measure for agribusinesses and co-ops in South Africa. EVA is an effective measure of the quality of managerial decisions as well as a reliable indicator of an enterprise's value growth in future.

FARM-AGRIBUSINESS LINKAGES IN SOUTH AFRICA: EMPOWERING DISADVANTAGED COMMUNITIES THROUGH LINKS WITH AGRIBUSINESS

Johann F. Kirsten, Kurt Sartorius, Johann F. Kirsten & Kurt Sartorius

PARTICIPATORY ZONING TECHNIQUES AS SUPPORT TO RURAL DEVELOPMENT PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT: PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES, A USER'S GUIDE

Laurent Lhopitallier, Sylvain R. Perret, Patrick Caron, Laurent Lhopitallier, Sylvain R. Perret & Patrick Caron

BILL 187 - THE AGRICULTURAL EMPLOYEES PROTECTION ACT: A SPECIAL REPORT

George Leroux & George Leroux

PROPOSED NEW ENVIRONMENTAL LEGISLATION AFFECTING CANADIAN AGRICULTURE; A SPECIAL REPORT

Cher Brethour, Peter MacGowan, Al Mussell, Holly Mayer, Cher Brethour, Peter MacGowan, Al Mussell & Holly Mayer
Over the last several months there have been numerous moves toward the establishment of new environmental protection standards specifically related to farming operations in various provinces. Existing and proposed provincial requirements regarding nutrient management and environmental standards on farms are at the forefront of many farm and environmentalist groups' agendas. The public is paying more attention to the impact of farming operations on both the natural environment and human health. In particular, a great deal...

Zwischen Hoffen und Bangen - Konjunktur 2003

Gunter Weinert, Eckhardt Wohlers, Christiane Bruck, Eva-Ulrike Fieber, Jorg Hinze, Kai Kirchesch, Klaus Matthies, Christian Schumacher, Gunter Weinert, Eckhardt Wohlers, Christiane Bruck, Eva-Ulrike Fieber, Jorg Hinze, Kai Kirchesch, Klaus Matthies & Christian Schumacher

Development in World Trade 1998 - 2000

Wolfgang Crinius, Gunter Weinert, Wolfgang Crinius & Gunter Weinert
This paper was produced by and for the Working Group on Foreign Trade of the AIECE, the Association of European Conjuncture Institutes (in French: Association d'Instituts Européens de Conjoncture Économique), founded in 1957. The Association now groups 40 members, representing 20 countries and four international organizations (EU, OECD, IMF and ECE). This report processed the results of the Working Group on Foreign Trade meeting of end March 1999. It is based on the contributions by...

The Long-Run Effects of Environmental Reform in Open Economies

Larry S. Karp, Jinhua Zhao, Sandeep Sacheti, Larry S. Karp, Jinhua Zhao & Sandeep Sacheti
We compare the short-run and long-run effects of environmental reform and harmonization under autarky and free trade. When trade is driven by environmental distortions rather than real relative advantages, harmonization of environmental policies, even if achieved by lowering standards in one country, can improve short-run aggregate welfare. With the possibility of multiple steady states, long-run considerations favor a "race to the top" rather than a "race to the bottom" even when upward and downward harmonizations...

Global Warming, Endogenous Risk and Irreversibility

Anthony C. Fisher, Urvashi Narain, Anthony C. Fisher & Urvashi Narain
This paper develops two-period analytical and numerical models to study the question: given a stock of greenhouse gases that poses a risk of future damages of unknown magnitude, and the possibility of learning about damages, how do sunk abatement capital and a nondegradable stock of greenhouse gases affect optimal first-period investment? We show that both affect investment, the former negatively and the latter positively. Additionally, endogenous risk--the risk of damages dependent on the stock of...

Intersectoral Adjustment and Policy Intervention: the Importance of General Equilibrium Effects

Larry S. Karp, Thierry Paul, Larry S. Karp & Thierry Paul
We model adjustment costs in a general equilibrium setting using a "transport sector". This sector provides services needed to re-allocate a factor of production across two other sectors. A market imperfection in the transport sector causes adjustment to occur too slowly in the absence of government intervention. The government has a restricted menu of second best policies to remedy this imperfection. Given this restricted menu, the optimal policy choice depends on the government's ability to...

Review of Trade Agreements and Issues

Marianne Kurzweil, Oliver Von Ledebur, Petra Salamon, Marianne Kurzweil, Oliver Von Ledebur & Petra Salamon
Along with multilateral agreements such as the WTO agreement, the EU evolved different trade agreements to induce European integration, perpetuate economic relations with former colonies and improve relations with developing, emerging and transitional countries by granting trade preferences. Common features of the EU preferential agreements are that they: cover general trade; allow a phasing-in period with a fast implementation in non-agricultural sectors (except for textiles); grant preferences for sensitive products of agri-food sectors (e.g. sugar,...

Political Economy of Structural Adjustment: A General Equilibirum- Interest Group Perspective

Terry L. Roe & Terry L. Roe
Economic policy, policy reform and sustainability are viewed as a political- collective action process. The challenge is to provide incentives for collective action that yield an efficient allocation of a country's resources and to prevent the reemergence of the old policy regime once a crises is resolved. A modified Ricardo-Viner model with rent seeking households is used to provide insights into the factors that cause action to be misdirected, and into how policy reform might...

Existence of Equilibria in Lobbying Economics

Jay S. Coggins, Theodore Graham-Tomasi, Terry L. Roe, Jay S. Coggins, Theodore Graham-Tomasi & Terry L. Roe
Governments often establish economic policy in response to political pressure by interest groups. Since these groups' political activities may alter prices, economies so affected cannot be characterized by perfect competition. We develop a model of a "lobbying economy" in which consumers' choice of political activity simultaneously determines relative prices and income levels. They balance the loss in income due to lobbying payments against the potential gain in wealth from a favorable government price policy. This...

Microeconometric Models of Rationing, Imperfect Markets, and Non-Negativity Constraints

Lung-Fei Lee, Mark M. Pitt, Lung-Fei Lee & Mark M. Pitt
This paper provides a theoretically consistent approach to estimating demand relationships in which kink points occur either in the interior or on the vertices of the budget set. There are important classes of problems in developing countries which demonstrate such kinked budget sets including binding non-negativity constraints. This paper also extends these methods to the estimation of production structures. As an application a translog cost function for three energy inputs is estimated from cross-sections of...

Bargaining over governments in a stochastic environment

Antonio Merlo & Antonio Merlo
In this paper we structurally estimate a game-theoretic model of government formation in a multiparty parliamentary democracy. We focus on the timing and the terms of government agreements in the context of a multilateral stochastic model of sequential bargaining with complete information (Merlo and Wilson (1194, 1995)) where efficient delays may occur in the unique equilibrium. Besides showing that our model yields a good fit to the data on the duration of negotiations over government...

On the political economy of income redistribution and crime

Ayse Imrohoroglu, Antonio Merlo, Peter Rupert, Ayse Imrohoroglu, Antonio Merlo & Peter Rupert
In this paper we consider a general equilibrium model where heterogeneous agents specialize either in legitimate market activities or in criminal activities and majority rule determines the share of income redistributed and the expenditures devoted to the apprehension of criminals. We calibrate our model to the U.S. economy in 1990, and we conduct simulation exercises to evaluate the effectiveness of expenditures on police protection and income redistribution at reducing crime. We find that while expenditures...

Producer Behaviour Under Strict Rationing and Quai-Fixed Factors

Herve Guyomard, Louis Adrien Pascal Mahe, Herve Guyomard & Louis Adrien Pascal Mahe
The paper examines the effect of rationing outputs and inputs on producer behaviour. Full representation of the modified supply-demand system after rationing, including shadow prices for the constrained netputs, is derived from the unrestricted profit function before rationing, and vice-versa. Attention is focused on cross-price effects which have been less explored than own-price effects which obey to the Le Chatelier principle. The theoretical framework is applied to the EC agricultural sector in order to analyse...

An Open Economy Model of Political Influence and Competition Among Rent Seeking Groups

Terry L. Roe, A. Erinc Yeldan, Terry L. Roe & A. Erinc Yeldan
The paper develops a formal model of government's economic decisions as influenced by private agents within the context of neoclassical political economy. The government is assumed to form preferences over interest groups in the economy; in turn these preferences are influenced by the rent seeking behavior of these groups. An open, two-household, two-sector general equilibrium model is constructed to depict an environment in which preference-maximizing (rational) individuals allocate otherwise productive labor to directly unproductive rent...

Political Economy of Endogenous Growth (Revised)

Hamid Mohtadi, Terry L. Roe, Hamid Mohtadi & Terry L. Roe
Using an endogenous growth framework, this paper analyzes the impact of lobbying for public goods on the long run steady-state growth rate of the economy. A socially optimal level of lobbying can be found to exist in the absence of a social planner. Atomistic households, however, exceed this level by viewing taxes as fixed, ignoring the aggregate tax impact of lobbying via increased public expenditures. Two extensions are presented. In one, anti-tax lobbying is analyzed,...

Education, Job Signaling, and Dual Labor Markets in Developing Countries

Sunwoong Kim, Hamid Mohtadi, Sunwoong Kim & Hamid Mohtadi
An overlapping generational model of educational investment in a dual labor markets is presented in which education serves both as a screening device and as investment in human capital. Labor market dualism arises not only via the conventional technology (productivity) differential between a primary and a secondary sector, but also by a higher than a labor market clearing wage in the primary sector, to insure no shirking by the workers (an element shared with the...

Cultural Endowments and Economic Development: What Can We Learn from Anthropology?

Vernon W. Ruttan & Vernon W. Ruttan

Neighbourhood Characteristics and Adjacent Ravines on House Prices

Shahidul Islam & Shahidul Islam

FARM PROGRAMS AND LAND VALUES IN MOUNTAIN STATES: ALTERNATIVE PANEL ESTIMATORS

Saleem Shaik & Saleem Shaik
Relative proportion of agricultural land values generated by farm program payments, farm returns, and non-farm activity in the mountain region and the U.S are estimated for the period 1939 to 2005. Results suggest the contribution of farm program payments to agricultural land values in the mountain region and the U.S. is quite similar and robust across the four alternative panel estimators for the period, 1939-2005. The contribution of the farm returns to value of land...

Specification of Micro Risk Models for Farm Management and Policy Research

Lindon J. Robison, Robert P. King, Lindon J. Robison & Robert P. King
This paper illustrates a new methodology for finding preferred action choice(s) under uncertainty for well-defined classes of decision-makers The methodology does not replace the expected utility maximizing rule, which has been used to identify preferred action choices; rather it extends the rule's accuracy as a positivistic tool and its reliability as a normative guide. The methodology used in this paper does, however, alter the kinds of information needed about decision- makers. Hence, it is related...

Forestry and the Carbon Market Response to Stabilize Climate

Massimo Tavoni, Valentina Bosetti, Brent Sohngen, Massimo Tavoni, Valentina Bosetti & Brent Sohngen
This paper investigates the potential contribution of forestry management in meeting a CO2 stabilization policy of 550 ppmv by 2100. In order to assess the optimal response of the carbon market to forest sequestration we couple two global models. An energy-economy-climate model for the study of climate policies is linked with a detailed forestry model through an iterative procedure to provide the optimal abatement strategy. Results show that forestry is a determinant abatement option and...

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