165,844 Works

MONITORING MINNESOTA'S ECONOMIC PERFORMANCE IN THE 1990S

Wilbur R. Maki & Wilbur R. Maki

THE IMPORTANCE OF BARGE TRANSPORTATION FOR AMERICA'S AGRICULTURE

Jerry E. Fruin & Jerry E. Fruin
A healthy, shallow, draft barge industry is essential to the well-being of U.S. agriculture. Sixty percent of U.S. farm grain, oilseed and feed exports (which is 25 percent of the world trade in grain and oilseeds) is transported on the Mississippi River system. This low cost transportation system is also used to transport 25 percent of U.S. farm fertilizer and is important for other farm inputs. U.S. farm exports are a major factor in reducing...

THE DEMAND FOR HIRED FARM LABOR

Kassahun Abebe, Dale C. Dahl, Kent D. Olson, Kassahun Abebe, Dale C. Dahl & Kent D. Olson

Gender, Networks and Mexico-U.S. Migration

Paul C. Winters, Benjamin Davis, Paul C. Winters & Benjamin Davis
In this paper, we examine whether the causes and patterns of Mexican rural female migration differ significantly from rural male migration. A number of hypotheses are discussed to explain why female migration may differ from male migration, with a particular emphasis on the role of migrant networks. Using data from a national survey of rural Mexican households in the ejido sector, significant differences between the determinants of male and female migration are found. While evidence...

Localized and Incomplete Mutual Insurance

Alain De Janvry, Elisabeth Sadoulet, Paul C. Winters, Rinku Murgai, Alain De Janvry, Elisabeth Sadoulet, Paul C. Winters & Rinku Murgai
The practice of mutual insurance is conditioned by two types of transaction costs: "association" costs in establishing links with insurance partners and "extraction" costs in using these links to implement insurance transfers. Data on insurance-motivated water exchanges among households along two irrigation canals in Pakistan show that households exchange bilaterally with neighbors and family members but the majority exchange with members of tightly knit clusters. We, therefore, develop a model that endogenizes both cluster formation...

Efficiency and Productivity Analysis of Cooperative Dairy Plants in Haryana and Punjab States of India

Satbir Singh, Tim J. Coelli, Euan M. Fleming, Satbir Singh, Tim J. Coelli & Euan M. Fleming
Since the 1970s, the policy of Indian government has been to promote dairy development on the basis of the cooperative organisations. During the 1990s the dairy industry in India was liberalised. This study examines the impact of the liberalisation policy on the cooperative dairy plants in India. Data envelopment analysis (DEA) and the Fisher index approach are applied to measure economic efficiency and total productivity changes, respectively. The data involves 65 observations from a complete...

Economic Surplus Measurement in Multi-Market Models

Xueyan Zhao, John D. Mullen, Garry R. Griffith, Xueyan Zhao, John D. Mullen & Garry R. Griffith
Despite continuing controversy, economic surplus concepts have continued to be used in empirical cost-benefit analyses as measures of welfare to producers and consumers. In this paper, the issue of measuring changes in producer and consumer surplus resulting from exogenous supply or demand shifts in multi-market models is examined using a two-input and two-output equilibrium displacement model. When markets are related through both demand and supply, it is shown that significant errors are possible when conventional...

What Price for the Right to Go a-Droving? A Derived Demand Approach

Graham R. Marshall, Oscar J. Cacho, Fatmata John, Graham R. Marshall, Oscar J. Cacho & Fatmata John
Travelling stock reserves (TSRs) were established in Australia as a way of allowing the passage of livestock through settled lands to facilitate stocking of new lands. Subsequently, they remained important as a way of moving livestock from property to property or from property to market. Today, the area of land dedicated to TSRs in NSW is estimated at 2.3 million hectares, which are used more as a source of feed than as a livestock thoroughfare....

ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF NOXIOUS WEEDS, OTHER WEEDS, AND TREE GROWTH, ON AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION IN THE NEW ENGLAND TABLELANDS, NEW SOUTH WALES

J. Townsend, Jack A. Sinden, J. Townsend & Jack A. Sinden
The economic impact of weeds on farms in the New England Region of New South Wales is estimated from data from a cross -sectional survey. Weeds can be classed as noxious or declared plants, plants that the farmers perceived as weeds, and trees -- which many farmers also perceived as weeds. Variables were defined for several levels of intensity of infestation for each of these three classes of weeds. The impact of each these variables,...

Demand for Wine in Australia: Systems Versus Single Equation Approach

, Nicholas Bettington, & Nicholas Bettington
The objective of the study is to estimate demand for wine in Australia, based on both the systems approach and the single equation approach. Both approaches consider demand for three categories of alcoholic drinks (beer, wine and spirits) in a seemingly unrelated regression framework to take account of cross-equation correlations. Time series data on retail price indexes and apparent per capita consumption of alcoholic beverages for Australia for the period 1975/76 to 1998/99 are used...

IMPOSING REGULARITY CONDITIONS ON A SYSTEM OF COST AND FACTOR SHARE EQUATIONS

William E. Griffiths, Christopher J. O'Donnell, Agustina Tan Cruz, William E. Griffiths, Christopher J. O'Donnell & Agustina Tan Cruz
Systems of equations comprising cost functions and first-order derivative equations are often used to estimate characteristics of production technologies. Unfortunately, many estimated systems violate the regularity conditions implied by economic theory. Sampling theory methods can be used to impose these conditions globally, but these methods destroy the flexibility properties of most functional forms. We demonstrate how Bayesian methods can be used to maintain flexibility by imposing regularity conditions locally. The Bayesian approach is used to...

VALUING AGROFORESTRY IN THE PRESENCE OF LAND DEGRADATION

Oscar J. Cacho & Oscar J. Cacho
Agroforestry can help prevent land degradation while allowing continuing use of land to produce crops and livestock. A problem with the evaluation of agroforestry using long-run static models and traditional discounting techniques is that the present value of the forestry enterprise is generally much lower than that of other production activities. This problem is common with Australian native species which tend to have a high environmental value but a low market value. This paper presents...

MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES FOR INDONESIAN SMALL-HOLDER RUBBER PRODUCTION IN SOUTH SUMATRA: A BIOECONOMIC ANALYSIS

Ririn S. Purnamasari, Oscar J. Cacho, Phil Simmons, Ririn S. Purnamasari, Oscar J. Cacho & Phil Simmons
A simplified version of the BEAM Rubber Agroforestry Model is embedded in a dynamic economic model to examine the impact of uncertainty about prices and climate on decision variables. Solutions, in terms of optimal levels for decision variables are found using a Monte Carlo stochastic framework. These solutions were used to derive risk-efficient frontiers corresponding to different levels of the decision variables. The results underline the importance of including uncertainty in dynamic bioeconomic systems since...

Export Performance in South Pacific Countries Comparatively Well Endowed with Natural Resources: Solomon Islands and Vanuatu, 1960 to 1999

Euan M. Fleming, Anita Blowes, Euan M. Fleming & Anita Blowes
Stochastic dominance analysis was used to assess export performance in two Melanesian countries of similar size and structure that are comparatively well endowed with natural resources: Solomon Islands and Vanuatu. Total export values increased over the study period in Solomon Islands, brought about by a significant increase in the value of non-agricultural resource exports. Agricultural exports showed small increases but the average annual rate of growth was only 1.3 per cent for agricultural export values...

A Positivist Approach to Pigouvian Taxes based on an Evolutionary Algorithm

Phil Simmons, Oscar J. Cacho, Phil Simmons & Oscar J. Cacho

Measuring the performance of equity-share schemes in South African agriculture: A focus on financial criteria

B.C. Gray, Michael C. Lyne, Stuart R.D. Ferrer, B.C. Gray, Michael C. Lyne & Stuart R.D. Ferrer
This study aims to develop a robust methodology for measuring financial performance of equity-share schemes. Several studies have investigated various aspects of performance of these schemes but no single study has yet measured their performance using an objective set of criteria. Four categories of such objective criteria are proposed: poverty alleviation; empowerment and participation; institutional arrangements and governance; and financial performance. This paper focuses only on the financial performance criteria. Recognised indicators of financial performance...

Measuring the agribusiness decision environment: Constructing an agribusiness confidence index for South Africa

Dirk Esterhuizen, C.J. Van Rooyen, Dirk Esterhuizen & C.J. Van Rooyen
South African agribusinesses are experiencing far reaching changes. Economists have developed indicators, generally known as indexes, to measure relative change in the industry. In this article the methodology to construct a business confidence index for agribusiness in South Africa is discussed. The objective of such an index is to determine the business confidence of agribusinesses as accurately as possible. Some 80 agribusinesses in South Africa are at present participating in the AGRIBUSINESS CONFIDENCE INDEX. For...

An analysis of factors contributing to the use of an income equalisation deposit scheme by commercial farmers in South Africa

J.-L. Lishman, W. Lieb Nieuwoudt, J.-L. Lishman & W. Lieb Nieuwoudt
Recent research suggests that an Income Equalisation Deposit (IED) scheme could be a feasible new risk management tool for commercial farmers in South Africa. This prompted a study of practicing consultants (tax experts) views on determining what types of farmers would be likely to use the scheme. During 2000, a postal survey of 24 consultants was conducted mainly in KwaZulu-Natal, and in the Maize Triangle and surrounding areas. Each consultant was to review nine scenarios...

Fertilizer trade and pricing in Uganda

Steven Were Omamo & Steven Were Omamo
Liberalized fertilizer markets in eastern Africa typically deliver fertilizer to smallholder farming regions at prices that render its use unprofitable. Simultaneously, faced with little demand for fertilizer in these regions, fertilizer traders appear unwilling to invest in measures that might reduce farm-gate prices. A basic question throughout the region is therefore how to cost-effectively increase smallholders' access to fertilizer, under conditions of liberalized and privatised trade in the input. This paper explores that question for...

Stochastic maize production technology and production risk analysis in Dadar district, East Ethiopia

B. Fufa, Rashid M. Hassan, B. Fufa & Rashid M. Hassan
A stochastic production technology that allows risk effects of factor inputs was estimated for maize farmers in Ethiopia. The results suggested that the promoted improved maize technology exhibits constant returns to scale whereas non-adopters use decreasing returns to scale technology. The study showed that timely planting is critical for maize yield stability among both adopters and non-adopters and suggests the importance of using oxen and higher efforts to achieve that. Nevertheless, the results showed that...

Patterns of access to rural service infrastructure: the case of farming households in Limpopo Province

Moraka Nakedi Makhura, W.S.K. Wasike, Moraka Nakedi Makhura & W.S.K. Wasike
Inadequate infrastructure is a major development challenges in developing countries. This paper applies factor analysis to determine the pattern of access to rural service infrastructure on 158 farming households in the Limpopo Province. The nine components of access to service infrastructure (distance to Polokwane, nearest town, local government, hospital, magistrate office, post office, traditional authority, district agricultural offices and extension service) were subjected to factor analysis. The results support the concept of centre-periphery pattern of...

Market Performance of Selected Pulses in Myanmar

Nyein Nyein Thaung, Kyu Seob Choi, Nyein Nyein Thaung & Kyu Seob Choi
This paper shows to investigate the performance and efficiency of marketing system of chick pea, green gram and pigeon pea in each selected townships. This study assessed the marketing channel, distributed marketing margins and spatial market price integration to evaluate the performance of pulses marketing in Myanmar. The result showed that producer received the largest net margin followed by the exporter, town wholesaler, wholesaler in Bayintnaung market and finally by the primary collector, pigeon pea...

Breaking the \"Fertilizer Poverty\" and Food Insecurity Traps in Smallholder Maize Based Farming System in Southern Africa: Experiences and Lessons from Soil Fertility Network/Economics and Policy Working Group (EPWG)

Mulugetta Mekuria, Stephen R. Waddington, Shephard Siziba, Mulugetta Mekuria, Stephen R. Waddington & Shephard Siziba
Smallholder farmers in southern Africa face acute food insecurity because the productive capacity of their soils has declined. These resource-poor farmers increasingly cannot afford mineral fertilizers Farmers mentioned the lack of fertilizers for their depleted soils as the most important constraint- "Empty Soils, stomachs and pockets." In response to this challenge, Soil Fert Net researchers in southern Africa have developed and promoted a range of "best-bet" soil fertility management technological (SFMT) options for farmers. This...

The Food Security Equation: What is the Role of Gender and Social Amenities in this Paradigm? A Focus on Rural Households in Yala division, Siaya district, Kenya.

Willis Oluoch-Kosura, David Jakinda Otieno, Paswel Phiri Marenya, Willis Oluoch-Kosura, David Jakinda Otieno & Paswel Phiri Marenya
Food security remains a key challenge to the development efforts of most poor nations. This study investigated the significance of gender (denoted by number of male, female and children in a household) and social amenities in the food security equation. Frequency of food-related illnesses in a household was used as proxy for food security situation, while the entitlement/food utilization side of the equation was represented by the number of male and female children in the...

Economics of Insecticide use and Potential for Bt Maize Varieties in the Control of Stalkborer in Kenya.

Joseph M. Wanyama, Hugo De Groote, Lawrence Obae Mose, Martins Odendo, James Okuro Ouma, George Owuor, M. Lutta, J. Ndung'U, M.C. Mutoko, Joseph M. Wanyama, Hugo De Groote, Lawrence Obae Mose, Martins Odendo, James Okuro Ouma, George Owuor, M. Lutta, J. Ndung'U & M.C. Mutoko
Maize is the staple food crop and source of income for majority of the Kenyan population and many sub-Saharan African countries. The increasing Kenyan population demands an increase in maize production if intermittent food deficits have to be averted. Since the introduction of improved maize varieties in mid-1960, the start of Green Revolution period, maize yields increased drastically up to 1970s and started declining from 1980s to-date. The key contributory factors are nutrient mining, sub-optimal...

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