### Monthly Timing of SNAP Spending Less Smooth for Some Households

Christian A. Gregory & Christian A. Gregory
A recent study found that 38 percent of SNAP households spent an average of 67 percent of their SNAP benefits within 4 days of receiving them; the remaining households spent 18 percent of their benefits during this time period.

### Input-output flows and developmental implications for Polish agriculture

Justyna Góral, Aldona Mrówczyńska-Kamińska, Cezary Klimkowski, Justyna Góral, Aldona Mrówczyńska-Kamińska & Cezary Klimkowski
Discussing selected issues referring to input-output analysis, identifying on this basis the role of Polish agribusiness sector in national economy and creating short- and mid-term projections about changes in these parts of input-output tables that concern Polish agriculture and food industry. Chapters: The importance of agriculture in the economy. Analysis of development processes in agriculture at using input-output tables. Projection of input-output flows in agribusiness in Poland after 2020. Projection of changes in the structure...

### Quantifying the Impact of SNAP Benefits on the U.S. Economy and Jobs

Patrick Canning, Rosanna Mentzer Morrison, Patrick Canning & Rosanna Mentzer Morrison
Participants in USDA’s Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) generally spend their benefits soon after receiving them, spending that has cascading effects through the economy. A recent ERS analysis finds that during a slowing economy, $1 billion in new SNAP benefits would increase GDP by$1.54 billion and support 13,560 jobs, including 480 agricultural jobs.

### Retail Food Price Inflation Has Slowed Over Time

Abigail Okrent, Annemarie Kuhns, Abigail Okrent & Annemarie Kuhns
Grocery store food prices generally rise each year. However, in 2016, retail food prices actually fell 1.3 percent and fell again in 2017 (0.2 percent). These back-to-back years of deflation helped lower the 20-year moving average for grocery store price inflation from 3.6 percent in 1999 to 2.0 percent in 2018. ERS researchers identify the multiple factors contributing to recent retail food price deflation.

### Brazil Once Again Becomes the World’s Largest Beef Exporter

Mustafa Zia, James Hansen, Kim Hjort, Constanza Valdes, Mustafa Zia, James Hansen, Kim Hjort & Constanza Valdes
In 2018, Brazil was the world’s largest exporter of beef, providing close to 20 percent of total global beef exports, outpacing India, the second largest exporter, by 527,000 metric tons.

### Mechanisms and impulses influencing development of agriculture and rural areas (4)

Barbara Wieliczko, Agnieszka Kurdyś-Kujawska, Barbara Wieliczko & Agnieszka Kurdyś-Kujawska
The paper aims at assessment of the proposal for the shape of the CAP for 2021-2027 presented by the European Commission and analysis of regionalization of subsidies for the Polish agriculture.

### Volume of Purchases and Regional Location Have Strong Effects on Food Costs for School Meals

Michael Ollinger, Joanne Guthrie, Michael Ollinger & Joanne Guthrie
An ERS study found that food costs for USDA school meals were highest in the Northern Plains, Mountain, and Southern Plains States and lowest in the Southeast States. The volume of food purchases was also found to affect costs.

### Reproductive Failure Impacts on Retained Beef Heifer Profitability

Andrew P. Griffith, Christopher N. Boyer, Karen L. DeLong, Andrew P. Griffith, Christopher N. Boyer & Karen L. DeLong
The lifeblood of most cow-calf operations is the females that make up the herd. Cow-calf producers make culling and retention decisions on a regular basis that influence profitability. The decision to cull a cow, or to add a female to the herd, is largely based on the animal’s structural integrity (i.e., feet, udder), disposition, expected reproductive success, and expected profitability. Thus, there is a certain risk related to cattle prices, cow reproductive efficiency, and calf...

### RESOURCES AND EFFECTIVE CONDITIONS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF CEREAL AND OIL PLANTS IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

DARIUSZ CZAKOWSKI, ANDRZEJ CZYŻEWSKI, DARIUSZ CZAKOWSKI & ANDRZEJ CZYŻEWSKI
The aim of the article was to compare the resource conditions and efficiency of cereal and oil plant production in individual EU member states and assess changes over the analyzed decade 2007- 2016. This implementation was used to construct three indicators regarding resource conditions, which are the relation of land and labor (area of agricultural land/labor input AWU), capital and land (value of fixed assets/area of agricultural land), and capital and labor (value of fixed...

### The Common Agricultural Policy of the European Union – the present and the future. EU Member States point of view

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This monograph was prepared under the Multi-Annual Programme 2015-2019 “The Polish and the EU agricultures 2020+. Challenges, chances, threats, proposals”. The publication is a collection of selected papers delivered at the 22th edition of the International Scientific Conference organized by the Institute of Agricultural and Food Economics - National Research Institute. The theme of the conference was "The Common Agricultural Policy of the European Union – the present and the future. The conference was placed...

### Changes in Commodity-Income Support Programs and Commodity Prices Have Caused Increased Variability in Support Payments

David Boussios, Erik O'Donoghue, David Boussios & Erik O'Donoghue
A recent ERS analysis estimated the potential range of the Government’s cost for the Agriculture Risk Coverage (ARC) and Price Loss Coverage (PLC) programs over the next 10 years for the three largest covered commodities—corn, soybeans, and wheat. Simulating program costs at both the county and national levels indicates program expenditures could vary widely due to uncertainty in commodity markets.

### U.S. Hired Farm Workforce Is Aging

Thomas Hertz & Thomas Hertz
In 2017, roughly 2 million people spent all or part of their year as agricultural wage and salary workers. Over the past decade, the average age of hired farm laborers has risen steadily, from age 35.8 years in 2006 to 38.8 years in 2017. This increase has been entirely driven by the aging of foreign-born farm laborers, who comprised between 54 and 58 percent of the workforce over this period. Their average age rose from...

### The Economic Feasibility of Adopting Plastic Biodegradable Mulches in Pumpkin Production

Margarita Velandia, Aaron Smith, Annette Wszelaki, Suzette Galinato, Margarita Velandia, Aaron Smith, Annette Wszelaki & Suzette Galinato

### Financial Vulnerability of Midwest Grain Farms: Implications of Price, Yield, and Cost Shocks

Sasha Li, Michael Boehlje, Sasha Li & Michael Boehlje
Recent years have witnessed increasing volatility in crop prices and yields, fertilizer prices, and farm asset values. In this study, the financial performance of illustrative Mid-west grain farms with different scales, tenure status, and capital structures was exam-ined under the shocks of volatile crop prices, yields, fertilizer prices, farmland value, and cash rent. Illustrative farms of 550, 1,200, and 2,500 acres were constructed reflecting the production activity for these farms with three different farmland ownership...

### Schoolchildren Consumed More Whole Grains Following Change in School Meal Standards

Joanne Guthrie, Biing-Hwan Lin, Travis A. Smith, Joanne Guthrie, Biing-Hwan Lin & Travis A. Smith
A study by ERS and University of Georgia researchers found that in 2013-14, the whole grain to total grain consumption ratio for the school foods children ate (USDA school meals and non-USDA snacks or meals obtained at school) was 21.5 percent—higher than the 17.2 percent ratio for home-prepared foods and the 2.6 percent ratio for foods from restaurants and fast food places.

### THE ROLE OF SMALL FARMS IN LOCAL FOOD SYSTEMS

KATARZYNA ŻMIJA, MARTA CZEKAJ, DARIUSZ ŻMIJA, KATARZYNA ŻMIJA, MARTA CZEKAJ & DARIUSZ ŻMIJA
The goal of this paper is to recognize the desired prospective role of small farms in local food systems as well as identify the directions of future-oriented activity for its implementation. The empirical data for the study was provided as a result of workshops hosted in the Rzeszowski subregion in 2019, attended by the stakeholders of the local food system. The methodology of the studies was based on the concept of foresight research, using the...

### Long-Term U.S. Agricultural Outlook Affected Broadly by Uncertainty of China’s Markets

Fred Gale, James Hansen, Fred Gale & James Hansen
Uncertainty about China’s influence on agricultural markets is an underlying theme in USDA Agricultural Projections to 2028. Tariffs, revised estimates of China’s corn supply, as well the outbreak of swine disease in China continue to be important factors in revising agricultural outlooks

### Number of Food-Insecure People in Selected Low- and Middle-Income Countries Projected To Fall 45 percent Over Next Decade

The share of food-insecure people in the 76 low- and middle-income countries is projected to fall from 19.3 percent in 2019 to 9.2 percent in 2029. The number of food-insecure people is projected to fall markedly, 45 percent, which is faster than the decline in the intensity of food insecurity, at the aggregate level. Related Topics: Global food security Alt Text:

### Beginning Farm Operators and Spouses More Likely To Work Off the Farm Than Established Counterparts

Nigel Key & Nigel Key
Beginning farms and ranches accounted for 17 percent of all U.S. operations between 2013 and 2017. About a third of beginning farms produced at least \$10,000 worth of output, compared with almost half of established farms. Because beginning farms tend to be smaller, they require less farm labor, earn less net farm income, and rely more on off-farm income. In 2017, 67 percent of beginning farm principal operators worked off the farm, compared with 45...

### Consumer Willingness to Pay for Tennessee Certified Beef

Andrew P. Griffith, Karen L. DeLong, Kimberly L. Jensen, Meagan G. Merritt, Andrew P. Griffith, Karen L. DeLong, Kimberly L. Jensen & Meagan G. Merritt
Tennessee cattle production is primarily composed of cow-calf producers and secondarily by stocker and backgrounding operations. Given the competitive advantage other regions in the nation have in grain-finishing cattle, most Tennessee feeder cattle are sent to feedlots in Midwestern and Western states to be finished and harvested. In 2016, Tennessee commercial cattle slaughter totaled 64,900 head, which represents 6.8 percent of the 950,000 head of cows and heifers calved in Tennessee during 2016 (USDA National...

### Changes in grain handling catchments in Australia: an historical perspective

Ross Kingwell & Ross Kingwell
This paper explores some of the important issues that inﬂuence the magnitude of receival site grain catchments in Australia. Changes in grain harvests, transport and grain handling technologies and costs; changes in farming systems, crop yields and harvesting capacity; investments in roads and on-farm storage and economies of size in grain receival infrastructure are shown in combination to aﬀect the size of grain catchments in major grain-growing regions of Australia over the last 30 years....

### Analysis of agricultural trade in China based on the theory of factor endowment

Nataliia Maslak, Zhang Lei, Lu Xu, Nataliia Maslak, Zhang Lei & Lu Xu
Purpose. The purpose of the paper is to present the results of the study of agricultural trade in China based on the theory of factor endowment and to develop a policy recommendation for the intensification of agricultural trade based on technological progress. Methodology / approach. This paper uses the methods of economic theory and comparative analysis to study the development of agricultural products trade in China; analysis the advantages of developing agricultural products trade in...

### Spatial price premium transmission for Meat Standards Australia-graded cattle: the vulnerability of price premiums to outside shocks

Luis Emilio Morales, Nam Hoang, Eric Stuen, Luis Emilio Morales, Nam Hoang & Eric Stuen
Studies of market integration show that price changes are transmitted spatially through arbitrage. Transmission across diﬀerentiated agricultural products is impor-tant to investigate, but it has not been explored given its complexities for assessment. Using data from Australian cattle markets, we examine the dynamics of Meat Standards Australia price premium transmission between states. An impulse response function analysis using Bayesian vector autoregression with sign restriction identiﬁ-cation shows that shocks to prices and price premiums are partially...

### Economic Impacts to Tennessee Soybean Producers and Regional Economies from China's 25 Percent Tariff on Soybeans

S. Aaron Smith, Jamey Menard, Burton C. English, S. Aaron Smith, Jamey Menard & Burton C. English
Agricultural producers face numerous production and price uncertainties. International trade disruptions can exacerbate issues for producers. In 2018, as a result of escalating trade tensions between the U.S. and China, both countries imposed tariffs on various imports. China’s tariffs have largely focused on U.S. agricultural commodities and products, specifically soybeans, creating an uncertain marketing environment that affects soybean producers’ income expectations for 2018. Due to tariffs on soybeans, the Trump administration announced payments to producers...

### Complement-substitution nexus in the Nigerian diet: policy gaps in nutrition

Purpose. This paper examined urban household food demand patterns in Southwest, Nigeria using complement-substitution relationship. Methodology / approach. Through a multistage sampling technique, the study used cross sectional data of 445 households from two states in Southwest Nigeria which are representative of areas with a rapid rate of urbanisation. Quadratic Almost Ideal Demand System (QUAIDS) modeling framework was used to estimate the demand system for seven food groups considered. Results. The potential nutrition benefits of...

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