3,866 Works

Kira Muratova: Epistemology of Self-Knowledge on the Cinema Screen

David Gomiero Molina
“Kira Muratova: Epistemology of Self-Knowledge on the Cinema Screen” engages in a philosophical reading of the cinematic opus of Romanian born Soviet/Ukrainian filmmaker Kira Muratova (née Korotkova, 1934-2018) focusing, in particular, on the way in which her characters shed light on the logic that underlies our failures to understand ourselves and others. After offering a panoramic view of deceit and self-deceit in disciplinary philosophy, the dissertation’s opening chapter argues that Muratova’s cinema can be thought...

Are (Nonprofit) Banks Special? The Economic Effects of Banking with Credit Unions

Andrés Shahidinejad
Nonprofit banks in the U.S. are primarily organized as credit unions (CUs) and have grown steadily over the last two decades, increasing their share of total lending to U.S. households. This paper studies the economic effects of banking with CUs using consumer credit report data merged to administrative data on originated mortgages and detailed data on the locations and balance sheets of CUs. To estimate causal effects, I construct a novel instrument for banking with...

The Origins of Regional Specialization

Joshua Morris-Levenson
Why do US states specialize in different sectors? We document that employment specialization is highly persistent, which suggests that specialization may deviate from natural advantage, and reallocation could increase aggregate output. We develop a quantitative spatial model in which workers move across state-by-sector labor markets in response to exogenous changes in local fundamentals and endogenous agglomeration, as well as mobility frictions and labor market-specific idiosyncratic skills. We quantify the model with historical Census microdata that...

Nanophotonic Engineering with Quantum Materials

Amy Butcher
Nanophotonic engineering offers powerful methods of tailoring light-matter interactions. By manipulating optical environments at the nanoscale, we can influence the rate, direction, and spectral distribution of optical emission. This thesis describes the foundations of nanophotonic engineering and discusses methods to tailor the optical response of solid-state quantum materials. We target color centers in diamond membranes and two-dimensional semiconductors, two classes of optical emitters that offer applications in quantum information processing, sensing, and integrated optoelectronics. Throughout...

The Beginning of the End of Matter: Three Moments in the History of an Idea, 1547-1713

Michail Vlasopoulos
The notion of matter had been invariably used in philosophical discussions from the High Middle Ages down to early modern times. In this long history of its usage, however, one cannot fail to notice a rather radical semantic shift. What was originally the relational notion of the Peripatetic ὕλη, or Thomist materialitas, which was reserved for the proximate substrate of enmattered phenomena [λόγοι ἔνυλοί], gave way to the absolute notion for the totality of the...

Contending with Crisis: Sacred Bodies and the Ottoman Quest for Order in the Long 17th Century (c. 1574-1720)

Rao Mohsin Ali Noor
This dissertation explores the transformation of early modern Ottoman religio-politicaland religio-social thought and practice between the late 16th and early 18th century. It shows how, in this pivotal period characterized by economic, political, ecological, and law and order crises in the Ottoman Empire, an increased preoccupation with mysticaloccult forms of embodied religion manifested itself at the level of the court in Istanbul, as well as at the level of broader Ottoman society in the Anatolian...

Optimal Labor Income Taxes, Incomplete Markets, and Labor Market Power

Negin Sadat Mousavi
What are the implications of imperfect competition in labor markets for optimal labor income taxes? I study this question in an Aiyagari (1994) incomplete-market economy with idiosyncratic risk, borrowing constraints, and the new feature that jobs are differentiated from workers' perspective and firms have wage-setting power. First, under a restricted class of tax policies, as in Heathcote et al. (2017), the government can choose taxes such that the allocation coincides with that implied by optimal...

Cerebellar Physiological Abnormalities in the 15q11-13 Duplication and CYFIP1 Overexpressing Murine Models of Autism Spectrum Disorder

Dana Simmons
Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) present a range of symptoms including abnormal social interactions, increased perseverative behaviors, and difficulty with communication. Despite the many studies on these classical symptoms, many patients also display underestimated motor symptoms. Motor symptoms such as impaired motor learning during eyeblink conditioning, as well as difficulty with eye movements and unstable gait or coordination, are strong evidence for cerebellar involvement in the pathology of ASD. Eyeblink conditioning is dependent on an intact,...

Essays on Incompleteness in Financial Markets and Contracts

Xun Xu
In Chapter 1 of my dissertation, I study how should the banking system be designed under a setting where markets and contracts are incomplete, to most efficiently create the private money in an economy (i.e., bank deposits), which need to be made both liquid and safe. I identify three market failures: an incentive problem, a commitment problem, and a coordination problem, as consequences of the combination of a safe asset creation constraint under liquidity risks...

Customer Retention under Imperfect Information

Yewon Kim
I study why many firms face low retention rates among new customers. In particular, I examine whether customer churn at the firm level after a single product experience is solely driven by heterogeneous preferences or is affected by incomplete information about the products. I use a long panel of individual-level ticket purchases from a major U.S. symphony center for which 60% of first-time customers do not return after a single visit. The data exhibit patterns...

A Vital Matter: Alchemy, Cornucopianism, and Agricultural Improvement in Seventeenth-Century England

Justin Robert Niermeier-Dohoney
This dissertation investigates the influence of vitalist matter theories and the practical, operational techniques of alchemy on agricultural improvement projects in seventeenth-century England. It argues that the historical territory of alchemy is much broader than many historians of this subject have conceded over the past generation. In fact, among a subset of utopian social reformers in mid-seventeenth-century England, alchemy was both an expansive worldview that explained physical change in the cosmos as well as a...

Viewing the World after Structural Film: Realist Impulses in Experimental Cinema

Dave C. Burnham
This dissertation argues for the importance of realist aesthetics to the theory and practice of experimental cinema. While experimental cinema has traditionally been conceived as cinema’s most modernist form due to its rejection of representation in favor of an emphasis of cinema’s material basis, I argue that this view has obscured key elements of experimental films and filmmakers, a problem that has only grown more pronounced with time. Drawing on Stanley Cavell’s theory of modernist...

Analytic and Machine Learning Methods for Controlling Nonlinearities in Particle Accelerators

Lipi Gupta
Particle accelerators are versatile machines which make both particle physics research and probing nature at microscopic scales possible. At advanced light source facilities, high energy charged particles are used to produce energetic photons. The light generated can resolve atomic structures at Angstrom length scales and observing processes occurring at femtosecond time scales. To achieve this, advancements in methods for designing and controlling nonlinear phenomena in the accelerator is crucial. In machines with periodic structures such...

The Roles of the Planar Cell Polarity Molecules Prickle1a and Prickle1b in Zebrafish Cranial Neural Crest

Kamil Ahsan
In this dissertation, I will discuss my investigation into the roles of two molecules, zebrafish Prickle1b and Prickle1a, part of a suite of proteins called Planar Cell Polarity (PCP) proteins, in the specific context of a multipotent stem cell population, the neural crest. Neural crest cells have been likened to metastatic cancer cells in how they invade regions of the developing embryo by traversing large distances and subsequently differentiating into many different cell types. PCP...

\"- long as Ages steal!\": Millennial Whiteness, (Counter) Occasional Poetics, and Antinomian Allegory, 1861-1876

James Bassett
This dissertation critically interrogates intersections of millennialist nationalism, whiteness, and American poetry between the Civil War’s commencement in 1861 and Reconstruction’s collapse following the U.S. presidential election in 1876. Invoking Emily Dickinson’s spectral trope of the “Ourself behind ourself”, I present a revisionist account of the reception history of Leaves of Grass wherein I argue the twentieth-century monumentalization of Whitman’s free verse as a radical prosodic break has simultaneously disseminated an account of American democracy...

Advocate's Forum, 2014

Digging Deeper: Exploring the Relationship of the Rooney Rule and Coaching Diversity in the NFL

Justin Chaljub
This paper analyzes the relationship between the Rooney Rule and coaching diversity in the National Football League (NFL). The Rooney Rule is a policy implemented in 2003 by the NFL to address long-standing concerns over minority representation among coaches. The Rooney Rule stipulates that for every head-coaching vacancy, at least one minority candidate must be interviewed for the position. In this paper, I provide input to the research question: To what extent has the Rooney...

Vortex Flows on Surfaces and Their Anomalous Hydrodynamics

Aleksandr Bogatskii
Hydrodynamic flows with large numbers of vortices have been a staple of theoretical hydrodynamics since Onsager and Feynman. Treating such vortices as constituents of a new fluid of their own leads to an interesting anomalous hydrodynamics that exhibits curious phenomena such as odd viscosity. Starting with the incompressible Euler equation, we rigorously derive the entire coarse-grained hydrodynamics of the "vortex matter" consisting of many identical discrete point vortices on an arbitrary closed 2D surface. The...

Tradition, Transmission, Translation: Narrative Frames in Nineteenth-Century German Novellas

Maeve Catherine Hooper
Frames are everywhere. They are found in fields as diverse as sociology, computer science, cognitive psychology, and, of course, literary studies. Broadly defined as structures that support or enclose a system, concept, or object, frames are used to present and store information, organize knowledge, and contextualize social interactions. Frames, it seems, are fundamental to our very way of knowing and understanding the world. My primary goal in this dissertation is to advance our understanding of...

Control of Escape Behavior by Descending Neurons in Drosophila Melanogaster

Martin Peek
To avoid predation, nervous systems detect looming motion cues from a predator's approach to generate evasive responses . Looming-sensitive visual neurons and escape-evoking giant neurons have been identified in mobile species across the animal kingdom \cite{eaton1984}. In flies, escape is composed of a sequence of movements to initiate flight: freezing, postural adjustment, wing elevation and wing depression with leg extension. These sub-behaviors determine critical properties of the escape. Postural shifts determine escape direction \cite{card2008b}. The...

Sparsity

Micol Federica Tresoldi
Despite its generic title, this thesis is about a specific notion of sparsity, the one introduced by McCullagh and Polson (2018). In that paper, the intuitive idea that sparsity, in a statistical framework, refers to those ''phenomena that are mostly negligible or seldom appreciably large'', has, for the first time, been given a mathematical definition. In studying this definition of statistical sparsity as a limiting property of a sequence of probability distributions, research has proceeded...

Identification and Estimation of Dynamic Random Coefficient Models

Wooyong Lee
This paper studies dynamic panel data linear models that allow multiplicative and additive heterogeneity in a short panel context by allowing both the coefficients and intercept to be individual-specific. I show that the model is not point-identified and yet partially identified, and I characterize the sharp identified sets of the mean, variance, and distribution of the partial effect distribution. The characterization applies to both discrete and continuous data. A computationally feasible estimation and inference procedure...

Nonlinear and Two-Dimensional Spectroscopy

Andrei Tokmakoff
These notes are meant as an introduction to the key concepts, methods, and theory of nonlinear spectroscopy for people entering the field. The main topics are (1) the nonlinear polarization and nonlinear response functions, (2) diagrammatic perturbation theory, (3) third-order nonlinear spectroscopies, (4) characterization of fluctuations, and (5) two-dimensional spectroscopy.

XBART: A Scalable Stochastic Algorithm for Supervised Machine Learning with Additive Tree Ensembles

Jingyu He
This dissertation develops a novel stochastic tree ensemble method for nonlinear regression, which I refer to as XBART, short for Accelerated Bayesian Additive Regression Trees. By combining regularization and stochastic search strategies from Bayesian modeling with computationally efficient techniques from recursive partitioning approaches, the new method attains state-of-the-art performance: in many settings it is both faster and more accurate than the widely-used XGBoost algorithm. Via careful simulation studies, I demonstrate that our new approach provides...

Reading The Idea of History through The Principles of Art: Collingwood on Communication and Emotions

Parysa Clare Mostajir
While Collingwood’s Idea of History (IH) is an excellent resource for defending history’s autonomy, its invocation is not without problems. If history deals only in reflective thought, how can it encompass irrational action? How can history reconcile its subjective method of imagination with its claim to objectivity? The most successful solutions to these problems, such as those proposed by D’Oro and Mink, appeal to Collingwood’s greater philosophical system, but they typically attribute him a restrictive...

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