724 Works

Watching Whiteness Work: The Racialization of Jewish Women in Iraq and Israel/Palestine

Chelsie May
“Watching Whiteness Work: The Racialization of Jewish Women in Iraq and Israel/Palestine,” intervenes in scholarship on Jewish belonging in Iraq, Iraqi Jewish belonging in Israel, and studies of race in the modern Middle East. It reveals that multiple conceptions of racialization existed in the worldview of Iraqi Jews which were then carried with them upon the community’s mass immigration to Israel in the early 1950s. Of the roughly 150,000 Jews residing in Iraq by the...

The Role of m6A mRNA Methylation in Oligodendrocyte Development, CNS Myelination, and Remyelination

Huan Xu
Oligodendrocytes are the myelin-forming cells in the central nervous system (CNS). Myelin is a multilayered membrane sheath structure that surrounds neuronal cell axons. Oligodendrocyte lineage cells and myelin are important for various CNS functions, such as electrical signal propagation and axonal metabolic support. Recent studies revealed oligodendrocyte lineage cells and myelin also play important roles in motor skill learning, memory and the aging process. Inherited and acquired myelination deficits such as leukodystrophies and multiple sclerosis...

Marx's Naturalism: A Study in Philosophical Methodology

Dustin Lawrence Dallman
The dissertation is a study of Karl Marx's reflections on philosophic method. In it, I argue that Marx’s early writings are best understood as contributions to a mid-19th-century effort, among German followers of Hegel, to develop a tenable naturalistic method for philosophy. Marx’s method undergoes a series of definite, well-reasoned changes during the period 1841-46, culminating in a methodological naturalism concerned to explain rival theories away as illusions given rise to by misleading appearances. I...

Do Belonging and Significance Matter In Life Outcomes?

Isard Dunietz
In recent years there has been an increased appreciation of the predictive power of non-cognitive skills to adult, life outcomes. While these non-cognitive skills include all sorts of personality traits, one aspect of human capital, Intrinsic Capital (IC), has been understudied. IC is the subjective sense of belonging and significance of individuals to their social environments. This thesis demonstrates that IC predicts important life outcomes measured decades later---and that IC matters much more than IQ...

Bureaucratic Behavior in the Political Economy of Trade

Minju Kim
Career bureaucrats forge foreign policy at domestic agencies and international economic organizations. They are neither elected nor appointed, yet they implement policies and mediate negotiations. This three-paper dissertation answers the questions of how the career incentives of bureaucrats affect their responsiveness to principals, and how the implementation of policies by bureaucrats, in turn, affects elections. The first paper examines how bureaucrats allocate trade assistance benefits to workers in response to conditional tenure, an employment institution...

Life History Evolution in Cyclical Environments

John Park
All environments in nature fluctuate, and a globally common mode of fluctuation is cyclical: daily, tidal, seasonal, and even decadal. Organisms must adapt the scheduling of their life cycles-or 'life-histories'-to fit the cycles of the physical environments in which they reside, as the right timing is crucial for their evolutionary fitness. At the seasonal timescale, the familiar timing of biological activity is called phenology, and shifts in phenology are now deemed as the most conspicuous...

Existential Pessimism and Aesthetic Experience: Mill, Schopenhauer, and Nietzsche on Life's Value

Joshua Isaac Fox
I examine how three major 19th-century philosophers – Mill, Schopenhauer, and Nietzsche – confronted the problem of pessimism: the worry that life might not be worth living. I demonstrate how all three took this problem to stem from concerns about the structure of human desires and interests, concerns Mill and Nietzsche both took specifically aesthetic value to play an essential role in answering. Taken together, these thinkers’ engagement with pessimism highlights two different aspects of...

Supersymmetry and Irrelevant Deformations

Christian Ferko
The T \bar{T} operator provides a universal irrelevant deformation of two-dimensional quantum field theories with remarkable properties, including connections to both string theory and holography beyond AdS spacetimes. In particular, it appears that a T \bar{T}- deformed theory is a kind of new structure, which is neither a local quantum field theory nor a full-fledged string theory, but which is nonetheless under some analytic control. On the other hand, supersymmetry is a beautiful extension of...

Coordinated Respiratory and Brain Rhythms during Spatial Navigation and Learning

Andrew Sheriff
Rhythms are ubiquitous in nature. Brain rhythms coordinate large populations of neurons within and between different brain regions. The respiratory rhythm is an ongoing process controlled by brainstem networks. Olfaction depends on respiration at a fundamental level, as do the robust neural oscillations generated by the olfactory system that are important for perception and learning. More centrally, hippocampal circuits, which receive input from all sensory modalities and most directly from the olfactory system, are a...

Post-Translational Control of BNIP3 and Mitophagy by ULK1 Kinase

Logan Patrick Poole
BNIP3 is a mitochondrial cargo receptor that specifically targets mitochondria for degradation at the autolysosome through a specialized form of autophagy called mitophagy. BNIP3 is transcriptionally upregulated in response to a number of stressors, including hypoxia, where it functions to decrease mitochondrial mass, limit ROS, and promote the efficient use of limiting metabolites and oxygen. ULK1, the catalytic component of the autophagy initiation complex, is best known for its role in stimulating general autophagy, however...

In-between Empires: Steaming the Trans-Suez Highways of French Imperialism (1830-1930)

Charles Begue Fawell
This dissertation analyzes mobility and power in an age of expansionary imperialism and accelerated globalization. Based on archival research in France, the U.K., and Vietnam, "In-between Empires" reconstructs the social histories of steamship voyages along the Trans-Suez maritime highways connecting France to its Indo-Pacific empire. In so doing, the dissertation reinterprets the rise of steam-powered imperialism between the 1830s and the 1930s. Much historiography has assumed that steamships, port complexes, and maritime highways represented unproblematic...

Bayesian Variable Selection from Summary Data, with Application to Joint Fine-Mapping of Multiple Traits

Yuxin Zou
Bayesian methods provide attractive approaches to select relevant variables in multiple regression models, particularly in settings with very highly correlated variables. For example, they are popular in genetic fine-mapping problems, aiming to identify the genetic variants that causally affect some phenotypes of interest. However, Bayesian methods are limited by the computational speed and the interpretability of the posterior distribution. Wang et al. (2020) presented a simple and computationally scalable approach to variable selection, the “Sum...

The Mongol Empire: Fragmentation, Unity, and Continuity (1206–c.1300)

Rong Fan
Since Činggis Qan’s unification of various peoples on the Mongolian plateau in 1206, the Mongols quickly became a formidable force across Eurasia. After the death of Činggis Qan, the successors of the conqueror kept expanding their influence in China and Central and Western Asia. At the same time, the tensions among the Činggisid princes increased due to succession crises and competition over resources, until the Mongol Empire dissolved into several independent polities in the 1260s....

Risk Governance and Precarity in the Scheduling Process: Three Studies of the US Labor Market and Retail Sector

Peter J. Fugiel
This dissertation examines the origins, functions, and effects of precarious schedules—characterized by unpredictable timing or hours of work—in the US labor market. I focus on the retail sector, which has drawn scrutiny for unstable scheduling practices, such as on-call shifts and variable part-time hours, that compound more familiar problems of low wages and inadequate benefits for retail workers. My dissertation advances sociological understanding of this topic by theorizing schedules as risk governance arrangements, reconceptualizing precarity...

Essays in Trade and Political Economy

Takashi Onoda
1. I develop a two-city model to explain a new stylized fact: high-income cities specialize in income-elastic sectors. The model has heterogeneous income elasticities and mobile agents, and either heterogeneous fundamental productivities or heterogeneous amenities generate the specialization pattern through the home market effect. The model also implies that tradable sector shares affect income inequality across locations by driving the home market effect. I provide empirical evidence of this with U.S. CBSA-level data. Finally, I...

Experimental Studies of Nonlinear Integrable Optics

Nikita Kuklev
State-of-the-art accelerators at energy and intensity frontiers require increasingly bright and powerful particle beams. In conventional linear lattices, intense beams suffer from collective instabilities, resulting in beam losses and maximum beam intensity limits. This thesis presents experimental studies of a novel lattice design concept, the nonlinear integrable optics (NIO), aimed at enhancing beam stability limits with little to no beam dynamics degradation. Single-particle beam dynamics measurements of two NIO devices, the quasi-integrable octupole system and...

Every Changing Thing: Natural Continua in Aristotle's Physics VI

Arnold Robert Brooks
I show that in Physics 6, Aristotle presents a theory of the metaphysics of natural continua. I argue that this theory is a revision of an older view found in Physics 3-4 on which time and change are said to be continuous because magnitude is so, while in 6, Aristotle argues that changing bodies are the basis for the continuity of everything else. I discuss several longstanding problems in the interpretation of the Physics including:...

$T{\bar T}$ and Holography

Asrat Demise
In recent years, there have been two independent but related developments in the study of irrelevant deformations in two dimensional quantum field theories (QFTs). The first development is the deformation of a two dimensional QFT by the determinant of the energy momentum stress tensor, commonly referred to as $T{\bar T}$ deformation. The second development is in two dimensional holographic field theories which are dual to string theory in asymptotically Anti-de Sitter (AdS) spacetimes. In this...

tap

Theodore Stuart Moore
tap for percussion trio, tape, DMX lighting instruments, and video was commissioned by Line Upon Line Percussion Ensemble (Austin, TX) and is scored for three percussionists. Percussion 1 performs on tom, snare, splash cymbal, and G#6 crotale. Percussion 2 performs on tom, snare, splash cymbal, and a G6 crotale. Percussion 3 performs on a small cardboard box, wooden frog, guiro, two woodblocks, crotales F#6 and A6, and a bird whistle. The technology components of the...

From Collective Sovereignty to Autocracy: The Evolution of the Mongol Empire, 1227-1251

Michael J. Bechtel
When Činggis Qan died in 1227, the Mongol Empire was a confederation of steppe peoples engaged in conquests over other steppe societies as well as civilizations of Central Eurasia. By the time of the election of Činggis Qan’s grandson, Möngke, to the office of qa’an in 1251, the Mongol Empire had become a loosely allied group of states that recognized the qa’an as the head of an administration whose main duties were the collection and...

Architecting Quantum Computer Systems in the Presence of Noise

Yongshan Ding
Quantum computers may solve some problems far beyond the reach of classical digital computers. However, emerging quantum systems are typically noisy and difficult to control. These noises create significant difficulties for the practical usage of quantum systems, leaving a substantial gap between the requirements of quantum applications and the realities of noisy devices. Bridging this gap is crucial – the dissertation shows that the system software can adapt to the constraints of large applications and...

Sciences of São Paulo: Universal Health and Logistical Reason from a Brazilian Metropolis

John O'Donnell Mullee
This dissertation is an ethnography of the social as it is imagined, constructed and critiqued by public healthcare professionals in the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo (RMSP), Brazil. These professionals are the builders and operators of the world’s largest universal healthcare system, the Unified Health System, known by the acronym “SUS”. Set in the metropolitan context of RMSP, and the democratic context of post-1985 Brazil, this ethnography is a meditation on the reasoning practices through...

Pricing on Two-Sided Market of Ride-Sharing Platform

Chien-Yu Lai
Ride-sharing platforms match riders and drivers by setting two prices. One price is what riders pay, the other is what drivers receive. There is no bargaining process between riders and drivers and there is also no direct transaction between these two sides. Thus, we may think of this market as two-sided. We model equilibrium in this two-sided market by endogenizing the number of riders and drivers and the two prices. In this paper, we study...

Interplay of Structure, Mechanics, and Dynamics in Reconstituted Actin

Danielle Robin Scheff
Cells dynamically control their material properties through remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton, an assembly of cross-linked networks and bundles formed from the biopolymer actin. Actin thus serves as an ideal model system to study mechanical adaptation of the cytoskeleton towards understanding both the functioning of cells and inform the creation of novel materials. In this work, I reconstitute networks in vitro to investigate the interplay of three aspects of actin: structure, mechanical properties, and dynamics.First,...

Chekhov's Guns: Technology, Design, and Intention in Narrative Fiction

Jennifer Yida Pan
This dissertation intervenes both in studies of narrative fiction and science and technology studies (STS) by proposing a new mode of reading technological objects. It develops a design-oriented approach to reading technology in literary texts and practices a literary approach to reading technological objects in themselves. Current scholarship on technology, even within literary studies, is dominated by philosophical and sociological approaches, which tend to treat technological objects as ready-made. I argue that we must instead...

Registration Year

  • 2021
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    724

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  • Ghent University
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  • Paris 8 University
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