6,153 Works

Isoform-and paralog-switching in IR-signaling: When diabetes opens the gates to cancer

© 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Insulin receptor (IR) and IR-related signaling defects have been shown to trigger insulin-resistance in insulin-dependent cells and ultimately to give rise to type 2 diabetes in mammalian organisms. IR expression is ubiquitous in mammalian tissues, and its over-expression is also a common finding in cancerous cells. This latter finding has been shown to associate with both a relative and absolute increase in IR isoform-A (IR-A) expression,...

A Hydrogel-Based Ultrasonic Backscattering Wireless Biochemical Sensing

© Copyright © 2020 Nam, Byun, Shim, Kim, Islam, Park, Kim and Song. Wireless monitoring of the physio-biochemical information is becoming increasingly important for healthcare. In this work, we present a proof-of-concept hydrogel-based wireless biochemical sensing scheme utilizing ultrasound. The sensing system utilizes silica-nanoparticle embedded hydrogel deposited on a thin glass substrate, which presents two prominent interfaces for ultrasonic backscattering (tissue/glass and hydrogel/glass). To overcome the effect of the varying acoustic properties of the intervening...

Cement Embolism Search Strategies

Contains the complete search strategies and the deduplicated database citations related to cement embolism.

Cosmogenic neutron production at Daya Bay

Neutrons produced by cosmic ray muons are an important background for underground experiments studying neutrino oscillations, neutrinoless double beta decay, dark matter, and other rare-event signals. A measurement of the neutron yield in the three different experimental halls of the Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment at varying depth is reported. The neutron yield in Daya Bay's liquid scintillator is measured to be $Y_n=(10.26\pm 0.86)\times 10^{-5}$, $(10.22\pm 0.87)\times 10^{-5}$, and $(17.03\pm 1.22)\times 10^{-5}~\mu^{-1}~$g$^{-1}~$cm$^2$ at depths of...

Progress in computing parton distribution functions from the quasi-PDF approach

© The Authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2018. We discuss the current developments by the European Twisted Mass Collaboration in extracting parton distribution functions from the quasi-PDF approach. We concentrate on the non-perturbative renormalization prescription recently developed by us, using the RI′ scheme. We show results for the renormalization functions of matrix elements needed for the computation of quasi-PDFs, including the conversion to the MS scheme, and for renormalized matrix elements. We discuss the systematic...

Structure-Aware Bayesian Compressive Sensing for Frequency-Hopping Spectrum Estimation with Missing Observations

© 1991-2012 IEEE. In this paper, we address the problem of spectrum estimation of multiple frequency-hopping (FH) signals in the presence of random missing observations. The signals are analyzed within the bilinear time-frequency (TF) representation framework, where a TF kernel is designed by exploiting the inherent FH signal structures. The designed kernel permits effective suppression of cross-terms and artifacts due to missing observations while preserving the FH signal autoterms. The kerneled results are represented in...

Observational study of coagulation activation in early breast cancer: Development of a prognostic model based on data from the real world setting

© 2018 The Author(s). Background: Cancer and coagulation activation are tightly related. The extent to which factors related to both these pathologic conditions concur to patient prognosis intensely animates the inherent research areas. The study herein presented aimed to the development of a tool for the assessment and stratification of risk of death and disease recurrence in early breast cancer. Methods: Between 2008 and 2010, two hundreds thirty-five (N: 235) patients diagnosed with stage I-IIA...

Active lifestyles in older adults: An integrated predictive model of physical activity and exercise

© Galli et al. Physical activity and exercise have been identified as behaviors to preserve physical and mental health in older adults. The aim of the present study was to test the Integrated Behavior Change model in exercise and physical activity behaviors. The study evaluated two different samples of older adults: the first engaged in exercise class, the second doing spontaneous physical activity. The key analyses relied on Variance-Based Structural Modeling, which were performed by...

Hyperhomocysteinemia potentiates diabetes-impaired EDHF-induced vascular relaxation: Role of insufficient hydrogen sulfide

© 2018 The Authors Insufficient hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been implicated in Type 2 diabetic mellitus (T2DM) and hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy)-related cardiovascular complications. We investigated the role of H2S in T2DM and HHcy-induced endothelial dysfunction in small mesenteric artery (SMA) of db/db mice fed a high methionine (HM) diet. HM diet (8 weeks) induced HHcy in both T2DM db/db mice and non-diabetic db/+ mice (total plasma Hcy: 48.4 and 31.3 µM, respectively), and aggravated the impaired...

Social status modulating chronic stress: Social rank differentially influences how male and female mice respond to chronic stress.

Social rank differentially influences how male and female mice respond to chronic stress.

Type II secretion-dependent aminopeptidase lapa and acyltransferase plac are redundant for nutrient acquisition during Legionella pneumophila intracellular infection of amoebas

© 2018 White et al. Legionella pneumophila genes encoding LapA, LapB, and PlaC were identified as the most highly upregulated type II secretion (T2S) genes during infection of Acanthamoeba castellanii, although these genes had been considered dispensable on the basis of the behavior of mutants lacking either lapA and lapB or plaC. A plaC mutant showed even higher levels of lapA and lapB transcripts, and a lapA lapB mutant showed heightening of plaC mRNA levels,...

Exploring the phenotypic consequences of tissue specific gene expression variation inferred from GWAS summary statistics

© 2018 The Author(s). Scalable, integrative methods to understand mechanisms that link genetic variants with phenotypes are needed. Here we derive a mathematical expression to compute PrediXcan (a gene mapping approach) results using summary data (S-PrediXcan) and show its accuracy and general robustness to misspecified reference sets. We apply this framework to 44 GTEx tissues and 100+ phenotypes from GWAS and meta-analysis studies, creating a growing public catalog of associations that seeks to capture the...

Strange nucleon electromagnetic form factors from lattice QCD

© 2018 authors. Published by the American Physical Society. Published by the American Physical Society under the terms of the »https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/» Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license. Further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the published article's title, journal citation, and DOI. We evaluate the strange nucleon electromagnetic form factors using an ensemble of gauge configurations generated with two degenerate maximally twisted mass clover-improved fermions with mass tuned to approximately...

Systemic inflammatory status predict the outcome of k-RAS WT metastatic colorectal cancer patients receiving the thymidylate synthase poly-epitope-peptide anticancer vaccine

© Correale et al. TSPP is an anticancer poly-epitope peptide vaccine to thymidylate synthase, recently investigated in the multi-arm phase Ib TSPP/VAC1 trial. TSPP vaccination induced immune-biological effects and showed antitumor activity in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients and other malignancies. Progression-free and overall survival of 41 mCRC patients enrolled in the study correlated with baseline levels of CEA, immune-inflammatory markers (neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio, CRP, ESR, LDH, ENA), IL-4 and with post-treatment change in p-ANCA and...

Baseline neutrophilia, derived neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (dNLR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), and outcome in non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with Nivolumab or Docetaxel

© 2018 The Authors. Journal of Cellular Physiology Published by WileyPeriodicals, Inc. Nivolumab is a novel therapeutic option in NSCLC, associated with a significant survival gain compared with Docetaxel. However, predictive biomarkers are lacking. The presence of systemic inflammation has been correlated with poor outcome in many cancer types. We aimed to evaluate whether there is a correlation between some indicators of inflammation and response to Nivolumab or Docetaxel in pre-treated NSCLCs. Data of 62...

Analysis of a conditional gene trap reveals that tbx5a is required for heart regeneration in zebrafish

© 2018 Grajevskaja et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. The ability to conditionally inactivate genes is instrumental for fine genetic analysis of all biological processes, but is especially important for studies of biological events, such as regeneration, which occur late in ontogenesis or in adult...

First-principles study of the binding energy between nanostructures and its scaling with system size

© 2018 American Physical Society. The equilibrium van der Waals binding energy is an important factor in the design of materials and devices. However, it presents great computational challenges for materials built up from nanostructures. Here we investigate the binding-energy scaling behavior from first-principles calculations. We show that the equilibrium binding energy per atom between identical nanostructures can scale up or down with nanostructure size, but can be parametrized for large N with an analytical...

Essential or Expendable Supports? Assessing the Relationship between School Climate and Student Outcomes

Sociologists of education argue that school organizational practices and climates influence students’ academic outcomes. The predominant measure of school climates are aggregated student and teacher survey reports, which are diffusing into official educational statistics. Unfortunately, most studies are unable to rigorously assess the causal effects of these measures of school organization. This study does so by examining the effects of school climate experienced in grades 4–8 by different cohorts of students in Chicago Public Schools...

MgB2 ultrathin films fabricated by hybrid physical chemical vapor deposition and ion milling

In this letter, we report on the structural and transport measurements of ultrathin MgB2 films grown by hybrid physical-chemical vapor deposition followed by low incident angle Ar ion milling. The ultrathin films as thin as 1.8 nm, or 6 unit cells, exhibit excellent superconducting properties such as high critical temperature (Tc) and high critical current density (Jc). The results show the great potential of these ultrathin films for superconducting devices and present a possibility to...

Restrictive state laws aimed at immigrants: Effects on enrollment in the food stamp program by U.S. citizen children in immigrant families

This paper examines whether a chilling effect of restrictive state laws aimed at immigrants creates a barrier to enrollment in the food stamp program (now called the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program or SNAP) for U.S. citizen children in low-income immigrant families. This analysis looks at 20 states in the continental United States from 2000 to 2008 that were either at or above the U.S. average for percentage of foreign-born population, or states that ranked in...

Reward and punishment sensitivity and disordered eating behaviors in men and women

Background: Reward and punishment sensitivities have been identified as potential contributors to binge eating and compensatory behaviors, though few studies have examined gender differences in these behaviors. Method: A college-aged sample (N = 1,022) completed both the Eating Disorders Diagnostic Scale (EDDS) and Sensitivity to Punishment/Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire (SPSRQ). Results: Rates of binge eating were similar in males and females. Among those reporting compensatory behaviors, women reported engaging in compensatory behaviors more frequently than...

Neural measures of anticipatory bodily attention in children: Relations with executive function

The ability to selectively direct attention to a certain location or modality is a key neurocognitive skill. One important facet of selective attention is anticipation, a foundational biological construct that bridges basic perceptual processes and higher-order cognition. The current study focuses on the neural correlates of bodily anticipation in 6- to 8-year-old children using a task involving tactile stimulation. Electroencephalographic (EEG) activity over sensorimotor cortex was measured after a visual cue directed children to monitor...

Krüppel-Like Factors: Crippling and Uncrippling Metabolic Pathways

Krüppel-like factors (KLFs) are deoxyribonucleic acid–binding transcriptional factors that regulate various pathways that control metabolism and other cellular mechanisms. Various KLF isoforms have been associated with cellular, organ, or systemic metabolism. Altered expression or activation of KLFs has been linked to metabolic abnormalities, such as obesity and diabetes, as well as with heart failure. This review article summarizes the metabolic functions of KLFs, as well as the networks of different KLF isoforms that jointly regulate...

Tonic Neuromuscular Processing Affects Postural Adaptation Differently in Aging and Parkinson's Disease

The combination of phasic and tonic neuromuscular processes are involved in the maintenance of normal upright posture. The latter is of particular importance in some pathologies, such as Parkinson's Disease (PD), which is known by one of its cardinal symptoms—tonic dysfunction (i.e., rigidity). Changes in tonic function may also occur during healthy aging. In this investigation, somatosensory input was manipulated by changing the support surface orientation for prolonged periods of quiet stance (QS). The aim...

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