6,125 Works

The reliability and stability of an inferred phylogenetic tree from empirical data

© The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. The reliability of a phylogenetic tree obtained from empirical data is usually measured by the bootstrap probability (Pb) of interior branches of the tree. If the bootstrap probability is high for most branches, the tree is considered to be reliable. If some interior branches show relatively low bootstrap probabilities, we are not sure that the inferred...

Association between high school students' cigarette smoking, asthma and related beliefs: A population-based study

© 2016 The Author(s). Background: Smoking has a detrimental effect on the symptoms and severity of asthma, a common chronic disease among adolescents. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between asthma and smoking among high school students and assess provider-patient communication with asthmatic adolescents regarding smoking and adolescents' beliefs about the harms of smoking. Methods: In fall 2014, data from high school students, ages 14-18 years, completing the 2009-2010 Virginia Youth...

Electroexcitation of the Δ+(1232) at low momentum transfer

© 2016 The Authors We report on new measurements at the resonance at the low momentum transfer region, where the mesonic cloud dynamics is predicted to be dominant and rapidly changing, offering a test bed for chiral effective field theory calculations. The new data explore the dependence of the resonant quadrupole amplitudes and for the first time indicate that the Electric and the Coulomb quadrupole amplitudes converge as. The measurements of the Coulomb quadrupole amplitude...

MBE Emerging Classics 2021

Amalgam anosov representations

© 2017, Mathematical Sciences Publishers. All rights reserved. Let Γ be a one-ended, torsion-free hyperbolic group and let G be a semisimple Lie group with finite center. Using the canonical JSJ splitting due to Sela, we define amalgam Anosov representations of Γ into G and prove that they form a domain of discontinuity for the action of Out(Γ). In the appendix, we prove, using projective Anosov Schottky groups, that if the restriction of the representation...

Effect of low electric fields on alpha scintillation light yield in liquid argon

© 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd and Sissa Medialab srl. Measurements were made of scintillation light yield of alpha particles from the 222Rn decay chain within the DarkSide-50 liquid argon time projection chamber. The light yield was found to increase as the applied electric field increased, with alphas in a 200 V/cm electric field exhibiting a ∼2% increase in light yield compared to alphas in no field.

Minimum redundancy maximum relevance feature selection approach for temporal gene expression data

© 2017 The Author(s). Background: Feature selection, aiming to identify a subset of features among a possibly large set of features that are relevant for predicting a response, is an important preprocessing step in machine learning. In gene expression studies this is not a trivial task for several reasons, including potential temporal character of data. However, most feature selection approaches developed for microarray data cannot handle multivariate temporal data without previous data flattening, which results...

Force generation by membrane-associated myosin-I

Vertebrate myosin-IC (Myo1c) is a type-1 myosin that links cell membranes to the cytoskeleton via its actin-binding motor domain and its phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns(4,5)P 2)-binding tail domain. While it is known that Myo1c bound to PtdIns(4,5)P 2 in fluid-lipid bilayers can propel actin filaments in an unloaded motility assay, its ability to develop forces against external load on actin while bound to fluid bilayers has not been explored. Using optical tweezers, we measured the diffusion...

Proper definition and evolution of generalized transverse momentum dependent distributions

© 2016 The Author(s). We consider one of the most fundamental sets of hadronic matrix elements, namely the generalized transverse momentum dependent distributions (GTMDs), and argue that their existing definitions lack proper evolution properties. By exploiting the similarity of GTMDs with the much better understood transverse momentum distributions, we argue that the existing definitions of GTMDs have to include an additional dependence on soft gluon radiation in order to render them properly defined. With this,...

Insights into Population Health Management Through Disease Diagnoses Networks

The increasing availability of electronic health care records has provided remarkable progress in the field of population health. In particular the identification of disease risk factors has flourished under the surge of available data. Researchers can now access patient data across a broad range of demographics and geographic locations. Utilizing this Big healthcare data researchers have been able to empirically identify specific high-risk conditions found within differing populations. However to date the majority of studies...

Using stable isotopes to infer the impacts of habitat change on the diets and vertical stratification of frugivorous bats in Madagascar

© 2016 Reuter et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted se, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Human-modified habitats are expanding rapidly; many tropical countries have highly fragmented and degraded forests. Preserving biodiversity in these areas involves protecting species-like frugivorous bats-that are important to forest regeneration. Fruit bats provide critical ecosystem services including...

Structured feature selection using coordinate descent optimization

© 2016 Ghalwash et al. Background: Existing feature selection methods typically do not consider prior knowledge in the form of structural relationships among features. In this study, the features are structured based on prior knowledge into groups. The problem addressed in this article is how to select one representative feature from each group such that the selected features are jointly discriminating the classes. The problem is formulated as a binary constrained optimization and the combinatorial...

Juvenile Justice-Translational Research on Interventions for Adolescents in the Legal System (JJ-TRIALS): A cluster randomized trial targeting system-wide improvement in substance use services

© 2016 Knight et al. Background: The purpose of this paper is to describe the Juvenile Justice-Translational Research on Interventions for Adolescents in the Legal System (JJ-TRIALS) study, a cooperative implementation science initiative involving the National Institute on Drug Abuse, six research centers, a coordinating center, and Juvenile Justice Partners representing seven US states. While the pooling of resources across centers enables a robust implementation study design involving 36 juvenile justice agencies and their behavioral...

Occupational physical activity and body mass index: Results from the hispanic community health study / study of Latinos

© 2016 Singer et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Purpose: To examine the associations between overweight/obesity and occupation among Hispanics/Latinos, the largest minority population in the U.S. Methods: This study included 7,409 employed individuals in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL), a prospective...

Norovirus infection and acquired immunity in 8 countries: Results from the MAL-ED study

© The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Background. Norovirus is an important cause of childhood diarrhea. We present data from a longitudinal, multicountry study describing norovirus epidemiology during the first 2 years of life. Methods. A birth cohort of 1457 children across 8 countries contributed 7077 diarrheal stools for norovirus testing. A subset of 199 children contributed additional asymptomatic samples (2307) and diarrheal stools (770), which...

Models for gene duplication when dosage balance works as a transition state to subsequent neo-or sub-functionalization

© 2016 Teufel et al. Background: Dosage balance has been described as an important process for the retention of duplicate genes after whole genome duplication events. However, dosage balance is only a temporary mechanism for duplicate gene retention, as it ceases to function following the stochastic loss of interacting partners, as dosage balance itself is lost with this event. With the prolonged period of retention, on the other hand, there is the potential for the...

Precision Electron-Beam Polarimetry at 1 GeV Using Diamond Microstrip Detectors

We report on the highest precision yet achieved in the measurement of the polarization of a low energy, $\mathcal{O}$(1 GeV), electron beam, accomplished using a new polarimeter based on electron-photon scattering, in Hall~C at Jefferson Lab. A number of technical innovations were necessary, including a novel method for precise control of the laser polarization in a cavity and a novel diamond micro-strip detector which was able to capture most of the spectrum of scattered electrons....

Evaluating the feasibility of a decision aid to promote shared decision making among young adults with first-episode psychosis: protocol for a pilot study

© 2021, The Author(s). Background: Young adults ages 18 to 25 with first episode psychosis (FEP) have an increased risk of discontinuation antipsychotic medications and psychiatric service disengagement that lead to symptom exacerbation and deterioration. We seek to (1) examine the feasibility, usability, and potential impact of a Shared Decision Making (SDM) Antipsychotic Medication Decision Aid (DA) on decision-making, adherence to the decision made, and service engagement among young adults with FEP and (2) understand...

Genomic timetree and historical biogeography of Caribbean island ameiva lizards (Pholidoscelis: Teiidae)

© 2017 The Authors. Ecology and Evolution published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. The phylogenetic relationships and biogeographic history of Caribbean island ameivas (Pholidoscelis) are not well-known because of incomplete sampling, conflicting datasets, and poor support for many clades. Here, we use phylogenomic and mitochondrial DNA datasets to reconstruct a well-supported phylogeny and assess historical colonization patterns in the group. We obtained sequence data from 316 nuclear loci and one mitochondrial marker for 16...

Maternal depression attenuates newborn vitamin D concentrations in winter-spring: a prospective population-based study

We aimed to investigate whether the newborns of mothers with maternal depression (MD) had lower vitamin D levels than newborns of non-MD (NMD) mothers and identify the potential mechanism underlying this association. Maternal depressive symptoms in late pregnancy and concentrations of cord blood 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) were measured in 1491 mother-infant pairs. Data on maternal sociodemographic characteristics, health status, lifestyle and birth outcomes were prospectively collected. For infants born in winter-spring, the infants of...

A National Study on the Effects of Concussion in Collegiate Athletes and US Military Service Academy Members: The NCAA–DoD Concussion Assessment, Research and Education (CARE) Consortium Structure and Methods

© 2017, The Author(s). Background: The natural history of mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) or concussion remains poorly defined and no objective biomarker of physiological recovery exists for clinical use. The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) and the US Department of Defense (DoD) established the Concussion Assessment, Research and Education (CARE) Consortium to study the natural history of clinical and neurobiological recovery after concussion in the service of improved injury prevention, safety and medical care...

The causal effect of student mobility on standardized test performance: A case study with possible implications for accountability mandates within the elementary and secondary education act

© 2016 Selya, Engel-Rebitzer, Dierker, Stephen, Rose, Coffman and Otis. This paper presents a limited case study examining the causal inference of student mobility on standardized test performance, within one middle-class high school in suburban Connecticut. Administrative data were used from a district public high school enrolling 319 10th graders in 2010. Propensity score methods were used to estimate the causal effect of student mobility on Math, Science, Reading, and Writing portions of the Connecticut...

Phylogeographic evidence for 2 genetically distinct zoonotic Plasmodium knowlesi Parasites, Malaysia

© 2016, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). All rights reserved. Infections of humans with the zoonotic simian malaria parasite Plasmodium knowlesi occur throughout Southeast Asia, although most cases have occurred in Malaysia, where P. knowlesi is now the dominant malaria species. This apparently skewed distribution prompted an investigation of the phylogeography of this parasite in 2 geographically separated regions of Malaysia, Peninsular Malaysia and Malaysian Borneo. We investigated samples collected from humans and...

Proteomics in alcohol research

The proteome is the complete set of proteins in an organism. It is considerably larger and more complex than the genome - the collection of genes that encodes these proteins. Proteomics deals with the qualitative and quantitative study of the proteome under physiological and pathological conditions (e.g., after exposure to alcohol, which causes major changes in numerous proteins of different cell types). To map large proteomes such as the human proteome, proteins from discrete tissues,...

The evolutionary position of nematodes

Background: The complete genomes of three animals have been sequenced by global research efforts: a nematode worm (Caenorhabditis elegans), an insect (Drosophila melanogaster), and a vertebrate (Homo sapiens). Remarkably, their relationships have yet to be clarified. The confusion concerns the enigmatic position of nematodes. Traditionally, nematodes have occupied a basal position, in part because they lack a true body cavity. However, the leading hypothesis now joins nematodes with arthropods in a molting clade, Ecdysozoa, based...

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