4,795 Works

Trait-based assembly across time and latitude in marine communities

One of the central questions of ecology aims to understand the mechanisms that maintain patterns of species coexistence. Community assembly, the process of structuring communities, occurs in ecological time, is influenced by biotic interactions at local scales, and is thought to help maintain diversity patterns. Species invasions, however, as a result of globalization and intense marine trade, are common in coastal ecosystems, and have the potential to change the outcome of biotic interactions and community...

Examining the College Choice of Black Students Enrolled at a Rural College

Mountain View College is a rural 2-year and 4-year degree granting school in the state of West Virginia that is plagued by declining enrollment, unstable financial assets, and minimum resources. In addition, the college exists in a community plagued by high rates of poverty and minimal racial diversity. Such traits mirror the challenges other rural colleges in the United States are currently encountering. Despite such challenges, the college continues to attract a steady number of...

WE ARE HERE: THE SOCIAL IMPACT OF DREXEL UNIVERSITY’S EXPANSION ON MANTUA AND POWELTON VILLAGE

Drexel University, a private university in Philadelphia, is expanding its campus to attract more students, faculty, and researchers. The current President, John Fry, envisions transforming West Philadelphia into an innovation district. The university is working with real estate developers on a $3.5 billion real estate project at Schuylkill Yards, in addition to mixed-use student housing and projects. The development goals of the university will impact the social conditions of the long-term residents of the two...

REFRAMING THE METROPOLITAN GROWTH PROPOSITION: PREDICTING METROPOLITAN GROWTH AND PROSPERITY THROUGH AN ECONOMIC INCLUSION SIMULATION

Abstract In terms of income, the cities of the United States now have the greatest income inequality than any other democratic nation in the developed world. However, if you assess the economy of the United States through the lens of traditional indicators—inflation, unemployment, increases/decreases of the Dow Jones average, and gross domestic product—the country in general, along with great cities of the country display optimistic economic growth (Pre-Covid-19). The disconnect between traditional notions of economic...

Human migration and the spread of malaria parasites to the New World

© 2018 The Author(s). We examined the mitogenomes of a large global collection of human malaria parasites to explore how and when Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax entered the Americas. We found evidence of a significant contribution of African and South Asian lineages to present-day New World malaria parasites with additional P. vivax lineages appearing to originate from Melanesia that were putatively carried by the Australasian peoples who contributed genes to Native Americans. Importantly, mitochondrial...

Origin of the size-dependence of the equilibrium van der Waals binding between nanostructures

© 2018 Author(s). Nanostructures can be bound together at equilibrium by the van der Waals (vdW) effect, a small but ubiquitous many-body attraction that presents challenges to density functional theory. How does the binding energy depend upon the size or number of atoms in one of a pair of identical nanostructures? To answer this question, we treat each nanostructure as a whole object, not as a collection of atoms. Our calculations start from an accurate...

Editorial: Obesity Science and Practice (Feb 2018)

Somatic evolutionary timings of driver mutations

© 2018 The Author(s). Background: A unified analysis of DNA sequences from hundreds of tumors concluded that the driver mutations primarily occur in the earliest stages of cancer formation, with relatively few driver mutation events detected in the late-arising subclones. However, emerging evidence from the sequencing of multiple tumors and tumor regions per individual suggests that late-arising subclones with additional driver mutations are underestimated in single-sample analyses. Methods: To test whether driver mutations generally map...

Comparative Genomics Reveals Accelerated Evolution in Conserved Pathways during the Diversification of Anole Lizards

© The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. Squamates include all lizards and snakes, and display some of the most diverse and extreme morphological adaptations among vertebrates. However, compared with birds and mammals, relatively few resources exist for comparative genomic analyses of squamates, hampering efforts to understand the molecular bases of phenotypic diversification in such a speciose clade. In particular, the ∼400 species of...

Electronic structure of negative charge transfer CaFeO3 across the metal-insulator transition

© 2018 American Physical Society. We investigated the metal-insulator transition for epitaxial thin films of the perovskite CaFeO3, a material with a significant oxygen ligand hole contribution to its electronic structure. We find that biaxial tensile and compressive strain suppress the metal-insulator transition temperature. By combining hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy, and density functional calculations, we resolve the element-specific changes to the electronic structure across the metal-insulator transition. We demonstrate that the...

Toward Improving Medication Adherence: The Suppression of Bitter Taste in Edible Taste Films

© 2018 Silvy Cherian et al. Bitter taste is aversive to humans, and many oral medications exhibit a bitter taste. Bitter taste can be suppressed by the use of inhibitors or by masking agents such as sucralose. Another approach is to encapsulate bitter tasting compounds in order to delay their release. This delayed release can permit the prior release of bitter masking agents. Suppression of bitter taste was accomplished by encapsulating a bitter taste stimulus...

Cluster randomized controlled trial of a mobile market intervention to increase fruit and vegetable intake among adults in lower-income communities in North Carolina

BACKGROUND: Poorer diets and subsequent higher rates of chronic disease among lower-income individuals may be partially attributed to reduced access to fresh fruits and vegetables (F&V) and other healthy foods. Mobile markets are an increasingly popular method for providing access to F&V in underserved communities, but evaluation efforts are limited. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of Veggie Van (VV), a mobile produce market, on F&V intake in lower-income communities using...

Theoretical foundation of the reltime method for estimating divergence times from variable evolutionary rates

© The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. RelTime estimates divergence times by relaxing the assumption of a strict molecular clock in a phylogeny. It shows excellent performance in estimating divergence times for both simulated and empirical molecular sequence data sets in which evolutionary rates varied extensively throughout the tree. RelTime is computationally efficient and scales well with increasing size of data sets. Until...

Targeting intracellular B2 receptors using novel cell-penetrating antagonists to arrest growth and induce apoptosis in human triple-negative breast cancer

© Dubuc et al. G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are integral cell-surface proteins having a central role in tumor growth and metastasis. However, several GPCRs retain an atypical intracellular/nuclear location in various types of cancer. The pathological significance of this is currently unknown. Here we extend this observation by showing that the bradykinin B2R (BK-B2R) is nuclearly expressed in the human triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cell line MDA-MB-231 and in human clinical specimens of TNBC. We...

Microbial Oxidation of the Fusidic Acid Side Chain by Cunninghamella echinulata

© 2018 by the authors. Biotransformation of fusidic acid (1) was accomplished using a battery of microorganisms including Cunninghamella echinulata NRRL 1382, which converted fusidic acid (1) into three new metabolites 2–4 and the known metabolite 5. These metabolites were identified using 1D and 2D NMR and HRESI-FTMS data. Structural assignment of the compounds was supported via computation of 1H- and 13C-NMR chemical shifts. Compounds 2 and 3 were assigned as the 27-hydroxy and 26-hydroxy...

Growth and feeding of deep-sea coral Lophelia pertusa from the California margin under simulated ocean acidification conditions

Copyright 2018 Gómez et al. The global decrease in seawater pH known as ocean acidification has important ecological consequences and is an imminent threat for numerous marine organisms. Even though the deep sea is generally considered to be a stable environment, it can be dynamic and vulnerable to anthropogenic disturbances including increasing temperature, deoxygenation, ocean acidification and pollution. Lophelia pertusa is among the better-studied cold-water corals but was only recently documented along the US West...

Feasibility of muscle synergy outcomes in clinics, robotics, and sports: A systematic review

Copyright © 2018 Juri Taborri et al. In the last years, several studies have been focused on understanding how the central nervous system controls muscles to perform a specific motor task. Although it still remains an open question, muscle synergies have come to be an appealing theory to explain the modular organization of the central nervous system. Even though the neural encoding of muscle synergies remains controversial, a large number of papers demonstrated that muscle...

Evaluation of global HIV/SIV envelope gp120 RNA structure and evolution within and among infected hosts

Lentiviral RNA genomes contain structural elements that play critical roles in viral replication. Although structural features of 5'-untranslated regions have been well characterized, attempts to identify important structures in other genomic regions by Selective 2'-Hydroxyl Acylation analyzed by Primer Extension (SHAPE) have led to conflicting structural and mechanistic conclusions. Previous approaches accounted neither for sequence heterogeneity that is ubiquitous in viral populations, nor for selective constraints operating at the protein level. We developed an approach...

Critical data studies: An introduction

Critical Data Studies (CDS) explore the unique cultural, ethical, and critical challenges posed by Big Data. Rather than treat Big Data as only scientifically empirical and therefore largely neutral phenomena, CDS advocates the view that Big Data should be seen as always-already constituted within wider data assemblages. Assemblages is a concept that helps capture the multitude of ways that already-composed data structures inflect and interact with society, its organization and functioning, and the resulting impact...

Naming and Knowing Revisited: Eyetracking Correlates of Anomia in Progressive Aphasia

Progressive naming impairment (i.e., anomia) is a core diagnostic symptom of numerous pathologies that impact anterior and inferior portions of the temporal lobe. For patients who experience such regional temporal lobe degeneration, patterns of language loss often parallel the degradation of semantic memory, an etiology of naming impairment known as semantic anomia. Previous studies of semantic anomia have focused extensively on the output of naming attempts by contrasting errors, omissions, and distortions as a function...

Syllabus: Texts and Criticism, ENG 3069 (Spring 2019)

Texts and Criticism is designed to explore the basic types of literary criticism and the theories that guide each. All criticism relies on theories, each with its own special set of terms and concepts. Students will concentrate on learning those terms, so that they understand them and can identify them in existing critical writing. The course will view all methods of critical theory as equally valid, and look at why critics might choose one method...

Aggregation, Clickbait and Their Effect on Perceptions of Journalistic Credibility and Quality

Many journalists and industry observers lament that aggregating news underneath sensational headlines will erode credibility and turn off readers. While some scholarly work has studied journalists’ perspectives of this practice, little has been done to understand what audiences think of aggregation and clickbait. This study uses published original and aggregated news articles as stimuli in two online experiments to test readers’ perceptions of news aggregation and clickbait. Aggregation itself has little effect on perceptions of...

Twitter’s influence on news judgment: An experiment among journalists

The literature suggests that journalists give a substantial amount of attention to Twitter and use the platform widely, but the impact of that use on news judgment has not been assessed. We hypothesize that Twitter affects journalists’ news judgment, impacting coverage decisions. To test this, we conducted an online survey experiment on working US journalists (N = 212). We find that journalists who use Twitter less in their work discount news they see on the...

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